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Indian Missile News And Discussion

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Indian Missile News And Discussion
[quote name='ankit-s' date='17 February 2010 - 01:12 PM' timestamp='1266392040' post='104288']

[size="6"]BrahMos hypersonic missile to touch Mach 5 to 7[/size]





"The hypersonic missile, which will be smaller than BrahMos-I, will definitely provide an advantage to the Indian armed forces in future warfare," Pillai said when asked about the need for the missile.[/u]

[/quote]



Smaller than Brahmos-1 because it will use lesser fuel to achieve same range but since scramjet generates far higher Isp than ramjet it needs less fuel to achieve same range ?



Can a scramjet variant of Brahmos II can do the same type of trajectory as ramjet Brahmos-1 ?
  Reply
[url="http://www.hindustantimes.com/News-Feed/newdelhi/Arihant-to-be-armed-with-ballistic-missiles/Article1-509620.aspx"]Arihant to be armed with ballistic missiles[/url]

Quote: [url="http://www.hindustantimes.com/Search/Rahul-Singh.aspx"]Rahul Singh[/url], Hindustan Times[email="rahul.singh@hindustantimes.com?Subject=Arihant%20to%20be%20armed%20with%20ballistic%20missiles"]

[/email]New Delhi, February 17, 2010 The man steering India’s highly classified nuclear-powered submarine programme has acknowledged for the first time that the warship will be armed with ballistic missiles.



Vice-Admiral D.P.S. Varma (retd), Director General, Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV) project, told HT at DEFEXPO-2010, “The K-15 submarine-launched ballistic missiles jolly well be there on INS Arihant when it is inducted into the Navy. The N-sub should hopefully be with the Navy by the end of 2011.”



The K-15 missile, a closely guarded DRDO secret, is capable of delivering a nuclear warhead up to 700 km. With 12 ballistic missiles in its arsenal, the Arihant will complete the sea-leg of India’s nuclear triad and give it enduring nuclear strike and counter-strike capabilities. India can carry out nuclear strikes with fighter planes and land-launched missiles.



Asked how work on Arihant was shaping up, Varma said, “We are on track. But the proof of the pudding lies in the eating. So we will know when the Navy inducts it.”



The usually tight-lipped Varma said India’s submarine fleet should have five to six nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines. He said plans were afoot to build two more nuclear-powered submarines to reinforce India’s strategic deterrent force at sea. He said, “We have to cross a certain milestone before going into specifics.”



Larsen & Toubro, which built the hull for Arihant, has fabricated the hulls for the new N-subs. The United States, Russia, the UK, France and China are the only countries that can deliver nuclear warheads from a submarine.



K-15 is Sagarika the twin sister of Shourya.



There is almost no new information that is not already covered in this [url="http://www.indiaresearch.org/Shourya_Missile.pdf"] IDR/IRF article on Shourya and Sagairka missile[/url] article that was published an year ago.
  Reply
K-15 is Sagarika the twin sister of Shourya.



There is almost no new information that is not already covered in this [url="http://www.indiaresearch.org/Shourya_Missile.pdf"] IDR/IRF article on Shourya and Sagairka missile[/url] article that was published an year ago.



I am putting here the text copy of this copyrighted article for easy reading (This posting does not abdicate my copyright on this article):





Quote:[center]Shourya/Sagarika Missile[/center]

[center]© Arun Vishwakarma[/center]

Introduction



Shourya[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn1"][1][/url] and Sagarika is a new common missile that can be launched from multiple platforms viz. ground, submarine and mobile launcher. Naval version is called Sagarika while the land based version is called Shourya. Indian doctrine of Minimum Credible Nuclear Deterrence envisages "No First Use" (NFU) policy and a triad of nuclear counterstrike capability. The land based Agni-2 missile range is limited to about 3,300 Km, and the longer range Agni-3 will enter service soon. The sea leg of the triad based on blue water naval assets dispersed across the world's oceans is most survivable thus a critical part of the triad. The ability to reach all corners of a potential challenger requires a range of 5,000 to 8,000 km. DRDO is developing sub surface launched long range Agni-3SL with heavy MIRV payload and ABM countermeasures. Indian nuclear powered ATV due for sea trial in 2009 will reportedly carry 12 launch tubes[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn2"][2][/url] of 2.4m diameter. Launch tubes can be flexibly configured to either carry a 2 meter diameter Agni-3SL or three wooden rounds[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn3"][3][/url] of 0.74m diameter K15-Sagarika missile. Shourya and Sagarika fills the short to medium range gap that is below Agni-III’s minimum range. At operational level these missiles provide for range of warheads necessary for graduated nuclear escalation as enunciated by Indian staff and military warfare collages[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn4"][4][/url].



[center][url="http://i26.photobucket.com/albums/c109/Arun_S/ShauryalinedrawingforIDRarticle2-1.jpg"][Image: th_ShauryalinedrawingforIDRarticle2-1.jpg][/url] Click for full image [/center]

[center]Figure 1: Shourya and its relative size[/center]

This multifunction missile made in large quantities would fulfill India's immediate requirements. The missile optimally matches latest types of strategic weapons tested at Pokhran-II in 1998. The missile will most likely take over the strategic weapons role of Prithvi and Agni-1 missiles, and make them unambiguously dedicated for conventional roles thus stabilizing nuclear deterrence. Shourya and its counterpart Sagarika has been tested 6 times[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn5"][5] till date. The missile is expected to enter service in 2010. Sagarika will be deployed on submarines and very likely on ‘Sukanya’ class naval vessels too.



[/url][center][url="http://i26.photobucket.com/albums/c109/Arun_S/CollageofShouryaslowsignaturelaunch.jpg"][Image: th_CollageofShouryaslowsignaturelaunch.jpg]Click for full image [/url][/center]

[center]Figure 2: Wooden round. Dense smoke from launch gas generator reduces Shourya’s launch signature [Photo courtesy: DRDO via Shiv Aroor][/center]

Description



Shourya is a compact, slender, two-stage, solid fuel missile designed as a wooden round. The missile development was initiated as project K15 and was first flight tested[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn6"][6][/url] on 27 October 2004 in the guise of solid fueled Prithvi-III[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn7"][7][/url]. It is stored, deployed and launched in a fiberglass composite canister, which is easy to handle, mobile and can be flexibly deployed on different types of surface and sub-surface platforms. Shourya and Sagarika share a common design. The missile is sealed and can be launched from a moving submarine at 50 meter depth. The 6.2 tonne Shourya is 10 meters long, and has two solid fuel stages of 0.74 meters diameter. The first stage booster is about two meters long and the second about six meters long. The missile supports a range of unitary warhead configurations, weighing 180 to 1,000 kg. High missile accuracy and ability to fly in a highly depressed trajectory well within atmosphere indicates it is a weapon of choice to interdict Command & Control (C&C) and preemptive tactics.



The sixth test flight on November 12[sup]th[/sup], 2008 was a depressed trajectory flight (at Mach 6 and 50km altitude) with continuous rolling to dissipate heat over a larger surface demonstrated mastery of difficult aspects of rocketry involving sustained hypersonic flight.



The wooden round design sealed in a fiber glass canister with the aero fins folded inside in a clean & controlled environment makes it maintenance free and tamper proof. The missile is launched by a hot gas generator developing 15-200 bar pressure using high burn rate HTBP based composite propellant. The thick dark gas cloud greatly reduces the thermal signature of the missile.



[center][Image: th_SagarikaAnnexe-VLS.jpg][/center]

[center]Figure 3: Shourya on Mobile launcher. [Photo: DRDO][/center]

[center] [/center]=====No inline image =====



[center]-Figure 4: Inside view of the ATV missile launch tube that hosts 3 Sagarika missile canisters. [Photo: DRDO][/center]

[center] [/center]

Once out of the launch tube the first stage booster motor ignites taking the missile to 5Km altitude when the main second stage motor takes over. The booster debris reaches a maximum altitude of 6 km, well below the horizon of radars beyond 330 km. The clean and small diameter missile presents a tiny RCS (radar cross-section). The second stage air fins provide necessary in-flight trajectory control. The main motor is typically expended at 33 km altitude well within the atmosphere; however the air fins remain effective beyond post boost phase. The air fins also allow the missile to fly in a depressed trajectory as well as cruise and glide in sustained hypersonic regime at 50 km altitude. The payload separation can be done much later after exploiting aerodynamics for trajectory modification during ascent or descent. The missile is resistant to ABM defense[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn8"][8][/url].



Re-entry Vehicle



Shourya Re-entry Vehicle (RV) supports wide range of weapons, with total payload mass ranging from 180 to 1,000 Kg. The missile range is a function of payload mass (see graph in Figure 7 below).



The November 2008 test unveiled the new generation RV that is designed and optimized for newer boosted fission and thermonuclear weapon (including those awaiting confirmatory test). The sharp nose high ‘βeta’ (Ballistic coefficient[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn9"][9][/url]) RV design employs 16 cm diameter blunt nose and half angle of 12° that is mounted on a payload adapter to interface with the 0.74m diameter mission control module atop the upper stage. The high ‘βeta’ RV in combination with an all carbon composite body enables higher re-entry speed even with a light weight payload[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn10"][10][/url].



[center][url="http://i26.photobucket.com/albums/c109/Arun_S/DRDOMissileLinedrawing-A3dimcorrect.jpg"][Image: th_DRDOMissileLinedrawing-A3dimcorrect.jpg][/url][/center]

[center]Figure 5: Re-entry vehicle options.[/center]

· Mk-4: For light weight 17Kt Fusion Boosted Fission (FBF) warhead[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn11"][11][/url]. Mass[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn12"][12][/url]: ~180 Kg[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn13"][13][/url].



· Mk-5: For 50Kt FBF or 200Kt Thermo Nuclear (TN) warhead[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn14"][14][/url]. Mass: ~340 Kg



· Mk-6: For 150Kt FBF warhead[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn15"][15][/url]. Mass: ~550 Kg.



[center]Table 1: Comparative destruction area[/center]

[center]
Code:
[i]Warhead Yield[/i][i] Destruction w.r.t 17Kt[/i]

50 Kt 2.0

150 Kt     4.2

200 Kt     4.9

[/center] [center]

[/center] The all carbon composite re-entry heat shield with multi-directional ablative carbon-carbon re-entry nose tip make it very light and tough[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn16"][16][/url]. This very light RV mass enables scalable payload and range tradeoff especially for lightweight warhead.



Propulsion



The Shourya has two solid fueled stages of 0.74m diameter. This diameter is compatible with a recently tested Indian sub-surface launch system that has a 2.4 meter diameter launch tube[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn17"][17][/url].



First Stage: The first stage solid fuel booster is approximately 2 meter long and weighs about 1,300 kg including 1,000 Kg high density fuel. The booster lifts the missile to an altitude of 5 km so that the second stage can operate more efficiently at low atmospheric pressure. It uses hot gas reaction control for initial control of yaw, pitch and roll before the air fins unfold and missile gains sufficient velocity for aerodynamic control surfaces.



[center]=====No inline image =====

[/center]

[center]Figure 6: Second stage motor [Photo: DRDO][/center]

Second Stage: This 6 meter long stage weighs about 3.6 tonne and generates 16 tonne thrust. Case-bonded HTPB-based composite propellant with low burn rate is ignited by a small pyrogen ignition motor. The case is made of 250 grade maraging steel to maximize fuel mass fraction that is critical for scalable payload versus range flexibility. Its nozzle is made of composite material with metallic backup and carbon phenolic liners. The interstage coupling uses a soft-stage separation mechanism and retro rockets for reliable and safe stage separation.

Code:
    Stage-1 Stage-2 RV

Gross Mass     1,300 kg     3,600 kg     70 kg

Fuel Mass     1,010 kg     2,950 kg     -

Empty Mass     290 kg     650 kg     -

Stage Fuel-Mass-Ratio     0.78 0.82     -

Thrust @ Vacuum     26,000 Kgf    21,000 Kgf

Thrust @ Sea Level 23,000 Kgf     -

(Burn Time)     (10 seconds) (~40 seconds)     NA



Specific-Impulse

ISP @ Vacuum     265 seconds    275 seconds

ISP @ Sea Level 230 seconds    250 seconds    Not Applicable

.    

Length     2.0 meters 6.0 meters     1.1 meters

Diameter 0.74 meters    0.74 meters    0.74 meters

.    

Propellant     Solid     Solid     NA

Chemical     HTPB/AP/Al     HTPB/AP/Al     NA

Case Material     Maraging Maraging Carbon Composite



Note: Some parameters are estimated based on available news reports, trade practice and known Indian capability.

[i][ii] Ibid

[iii] Estimated by using Ballistic Rocket Simulator (ROCKSIM)

[iv] Trade estimate

[v] Geometric resolution from photo evidence





Navigation & Accuracy



Shourya largely carries the proven avionics set of Agni-III however for more extensive aerodynamic maneuvering, it is augmented by new sensors and flight control system. Shourya will also benefit form Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS)[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_edn23"][23][/url] expected to be ready by 2012, to ensure guaranteed national access to precision navigation. These systems enable high accuracy required for precision strike.



Range versus Payload



Missile range & payload mass are inversely related. It is interesting to note that press reports Shourya’s range for 1,000 kg and 500 kg payload. The former corresponding to 1980 vintage 200Kt FBF warhead and the latter corresponding to 150Kt FBF that is yet to be field validated. The official reporting obfuscates missile’s much higher range corresponding to field tested 17Kt FBF warhead that is mainstay of Indian deterrence.



[Image: ShauryaIDRarticle-RangevspayloadDec.png]



[center]Figure 7: Range versus RV payload [/center]

Conclusion



Shourya class of missile is truly a multi-services missile that has desirable attributes of small size, mobility, stealth, rich set of warhead options, robustness and cost that could make it the most mass produced Indian missile. It complements the long range Agni class missiles to provide Indian military commanders global range necessary to secure Indian interests.





Sources & References



1. Nuclear Weapons & Indian Security, A Realist Foundation of Strategy- Bharat Karnad, Mcmillan India, ISBN 0333 938224

2. [url="http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/MISSILES/Images/Indian_Long_Range_StrategicMissiles_-Agni-III_r11.pdf"]Indian Long Range Strategic Missiles[/url] - Indian Defense Review Oct-Dec 2006 Vol 21(4), by Arun Vishwakarma.

3. Raj Chengappa, Weapons of Peace: The Secret Story of India's Quest to be a Nuclear Power (New Delhi: Harper Collins Publishers India, 2000, ISBN 81-7223-332-0).

4. Defence Research & Development Organization ([url="http://www.drdo.com/"]www.drdo.com[/url])

5. DRDO periodicals "Technology Focus" bi-weekly.

6. DRDO "Technology Focus" Oct-2001, ISSN: 0971-4413. [url="http://www.drdo.com/.../propulsion.htm"]http://www.drdo.com/.../propulsion.htm[/url]

7. Indian Defence Technology: Missile Systems (DRDO, Ministry of Defence, December 1998).

8. Evaluating India's land-based Missile Deterrent. Indian Defense Review Vol-19(4) Oct-Dec 2004, ISSN 0970-2512, Dr Sanjay Badri Maharaj, Arun Vishwakarma. Lancer Publishers & Distributors.

9. Indian’s Emerging Nuclear Posture, Ashley J Tellis, Oxford ISBN 0195659058.

10. Nuclear Threat Initiative ([url="http://www.nti.org/"]www.nti.org[/url])

11. [url="http://www.nbr.org/p...df/vol13no3.pdf"]http://www.nbr.org/p...df/vol13no3.pdf[/url]

VOLUME 13, NUMBER 3, JUNE 2002. “Ballistic Missiles and Missile Defense in Asia”

12. Nuclear Weapon Archive, 'India's Nuclear Weapons Program: Present Capabilities'

[url="http://nuclearweapon...diaArsenal.html"]http://nuclearweapon...diaArsenal.html[/url]





[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref1"][1][/url] Shourya is a Sanskrit word for Valor, and Sagarika is a Sanskrit word for “Oceanic”.

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref2"][2][/url] ‘The secret undersea weapon’, India Today, 01/17/ 2008, [url="http://indiatoday.di...=1&limitstart=1"]http://indiatoday.di...=1&limitstart=1[/url]

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref3"][3][/url] A “wooden round” missile is delivered to ships and submarines as an all-up-round (AUR), which includes the missile that flies the mission, the booster that starts its flight, and the container (canister for ships and capsule for submarines) that protects it during transportation, storage and stowage, and acts as a launch tube. Such ammunition has almost 100% reliability, very long shelf life, and requires no special storage, maintenance, or handling.

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref4"][4][/url] War clouds, nuclear overhang, The Pioneer, December 27, 2008. Op-Ed by Brig.(rtd)Gurmeet Kanwal, Centre for Land Warfare Studies, ,



“The nuclear tipping point in a conventional conflict is a matter of fine military judgment. A rational Pakistani approach would be to opt for a graduated response in case push comes to shove. Lt Gen Sardar F S Lodhi (Retd) has written about a demonstration warning shot followed by a low-yield nuclear explosion over Indian forces advancing inside Pakistani territory. If that fails to stop Indian offensive operations, Pakistan may choose to target a small border town in India. In the end India's conventional superiority would prevail and a future conflict in the plains may be expected to end on terms favorable to India”.



[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref5"][5][/url] ‘Sagarika’ missile test-fired successfully’, The Hindu 27/02/2008 [url="http://www.thehindu....22756120100.htm"]http://www.thehindu....22756120100.htm[/url]

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref6"][6][/url] Prithvi-III test-fired for first time: T.S. Subramanian, The Hindu, 28 October 2004, ([url="http://www.hindu.com...02807641300.htm"]http://www.hindu.com...02807641300.htm[/url]).

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref7"][7][/url] The author was the first to suggest Prithvi-III configuration as a 2 stage missile with 0.75meter diameter and 1000 km range, in the missile article hosted at [url="http://www.bharat-ra...ES/Prithvi.html"]http://www.bharat-ra...ES/Prithvi.html[/url]

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref8"][8][/url] “Shourya missile cannot be easily detected” The Hindu, 14/11/2008 [url="http://www.hindu.com...11462151500.htm"]http://www.hindu.com...11462151500.htm[/url]



[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref9"]3 The ballistic coefficient [/url][url="http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=beta"]β[/url] (‘[i]Beta’
) is a measurement of an object's ability to move through a fluid. It takes into account the effects of an object's [url="http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=density"]density[/url] and its skin [url="http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=friction"]friction[/url], and is expressed as: βeta = [url="http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=mass"][b]m[/url] * [url="http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=coefficient%20of%20drag"]C[sub]D[/sub][/url] / [url="http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=area"]A[/url] where [url="http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=mass"]m[/url]: mass, [url="http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=coefficient%20of%20drag"]C[sub]D[/sub][/url]: coefficient of drag, [url="http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=area"]A[/url]: area.[/b]



[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref10"]4This was an issue with the earlier RV Mk-2 design. The older Mk-2 with its blunt nose is an all range RV, however for lighter payload its β is relatively low, thus slowing down the RV at the tail end of its trajectory. [/url]



[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref10"] [/url][url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref10"] [/url][url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref10"] [/url][url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref11"][11][/url] The FBF primary stage of the 1998 Shakti-1 test.

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref12"][12][/url] Total mass including mass of RV.

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref13"][13][/url] DRDO scientists appreciated for successful launch of Agni-3, Indian Express, Friday April 13 2007 "Union Minister of State for Defence MM Pallam Raju has said “the strategic payload of the missile is between 100 kg to 250 kg, and it is a two-stage solid fuel combustion system type missile."[url="http://www.newindpre...A20070413023541"]http://www.newindpre...A20070413023541[/url]

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref14"][14][/url] The 1998 Shakti series of nuclear test in 1998 at Pokhran unambiguously demonstrated Indian mastery of Fusion Boosted Fission weapons. The Thermonuclear experiment (Shakti-I) based credible warhead requires confirmatory/proof test or credible Laser Ignition Facilities. While awaiting proof test Indian posture will likely field the TN warhead in compliment with missiles with FBF warheads.

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref15"][15][/url] Ibid

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref16"][16][/url] Ibid

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref17"][17][/url] Launching platforms for Project K-15. [url="http://www.drdo.com/...4/missile13.htm"]http://www.drdo.com/...4/missile13.htm[/url]

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref18"][18][/url] Trade estimate

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref19"][19][/url] Ibid

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref20"][20][/url] Estimated by using Ballistic Rocket Simulator (ROCKSIM)

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref21"][21][/url] Trade estimate

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref22"][22][/url] Geometric resolution from photo evidence

[url="http://www.india-forum.com/forums/index.php?#_ednref23"][sup][i][sup][23][/sup][/sup][/i][/url] Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System approved, 9/5/2006 [url="http://www.india-def...om/reports/1894"]http://www.india-def...om/reports/1894[/url]
[/i]



.
  Reply
deleted duplicate
  Reply
[quote name='Austin' date='18 February 2010 - 12:17 AM' timestamp='1266431988' post='104318']

Smaller than Brahmos-1 because it will use lesser fuel to achieve same range but since scramjet generates far higher Isp than ramjet it needs less fuel to achieve same range ?



Can a scramjet variant of Brahmos II can do the same type of trajectory as ramjet Brahmos-1 ?

[/quote]



There are many unknowns to fathom the envelop of Brahmos-II, only when there is clearer definition on those can one hazard guesstimate.



To begin with if the range of Hypersonic Brahmos-II is limited to 290 km, then hypersonic engine etc will not make sense (because hypersonic flight need to be at much higher cruise altitude for engine and range efficiency).

Now if the range is different, then small is relative term compared to other (non-Brahmos) missiles of similar capability (E.g. hypersonic Shourya)



IIRC DRDO hypersonic engine is based on Kerosene, so fuel ISP is no different from Brahmos-1 ram-jet, its the engine efficiency and cruising altitude that will determine ISP and range capability.
  Reply
In the above article pls specially note the following regarding the flight profile and propulsion:

Quote:The second stage air fins provide necessary in-flight trajectory control. The main motor is typically expended at 33 km altitude well within the atmosphere; however the air fins remain effective beyond post boost phase. The air fins also allow the missile to fly in a depressed trajectory as well as cruise and glide in sustained hypersonic regime at 50 km altitude. The payload separation can be done much later after exploiting aerodynamics for trajectory modification during ascent or descent. The missile is resistant to ABM defense[8].



I.e The RV separation can be done after exploiting kinetic energy of the second stage for the psudo-cruise (coast) phase.
  Reply
1. It looks like land based Shourya can cover more Chinese cities (If launched from Arunachal) than K15 SLBM (from ATV based near Andaman).



Land based Shourya can cover (Distance from Arunachal)



1. Lhasa (373 km)

2. Kunming (973 km)

3. Chengdu (1093 km)

4. Guiyang (1297 km)

5. Chongqing (1299 km)

6. Xining (1300 km)

7. Lanchow (1378 km)

8. Lanzhou (1384 km)

9. Nanning (1574 km)

10. Sian (1664 km)

11. Yinchuan (1720 km)

12. Haikou (1875 km)



K15 SLBM from Andaman



1. Kunming (1873 km)



2. Lhasa (2000 km)



and couple of more Chinese cities if ATV goes up north towards Chittagong.







2. India needs Agni III SLBM to target faraway and important cities like Beijing and Shanghai !!



Distance from Andaman



Beijing (3882 km)



Shanghai (3600 km)



Hong kong (2500 km)





Agni III SLBM with 3 stages range vs payload (taken from Arun's graph Published in way to a credible deterrent article)



3000 km @ 2500 kg



4000 km @ 1800 kg (10 x 180 kg FBF (17 kilotons) or 5 x 350 kg FBF (50 kilotons) or Mixture of FBF and TN warheads)



5000 km @ 1350 kg



6000 km @ 1100 kg





Will there be Agni V SLBM or a better variant of Agni III SLBM ?
  Reply
To me Brahmos II Size < Brahmos I size completely makes sense.

And the above statement suits with Pillai`s words couple of years back that Brahmos-II will use same launcher.



My take on Brahmos-II hypersonic short-legged cruise missile:



It uses a booster similar to B-I to kick it to high super sonic speeds where the scramjet starts functioning.Since the range is only few miles which is the other side of the pond,It dont need to carry much onboard LH2.A small LH2 tank and an empty tank to contain L)2/Gaseous O2 for further combustion.



When the solid fuelled booster expends the missile will reach near hypersonic regime or high super sonic phase and might have gathered ample O2 needed for further cruising.



If the B-II is moving at ~ 6 Mach i.e ~7350km/h <img src='http://www.india-forum.com/forums/public/style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/ohmy.gif' class='bbc_emoticon' alt=':o' /> and 290 km travelling will take?????????????? Geeeeezzzzz.....



The enemy will start browning his pants after hearing that B-II got inducted into forces <img src='http://www.india-forum.com/forums/public/style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/biggrin.gif' class='bbc_emoticon' alt='Big Grin' />
  Reply
[size="6"]Shaurya surfaces as India's underwater nuclear missile[/size]





The country’s top defence scientist has, for the first time, revealed

that India’s new Shaurya missile, which can carry a one-tonne nuclear

warhead over 750 kilometers, is specially designed to be fired from

Indian submarines and could form the crucial third leg of India’s

nuclear deterrent.





If launched from a submarine off the China coast, it could hit several

Chinese cities like Beijing, Nanjing and Shanghai.



Air and land-based nuclear weapons are delivered to their targets by

fighter aircraft and ballistic missiles, respectively. Since these can

be knocked out by an enemy first strike, the most reliable nuclear

deterrent has traditionally been underwater, missiles hidden in a

submarine.



V K Saraswat, the DRDO chief and Scientific Advisor to the Defence

Minister, revealed to Business Standard at the ongoing Defexpo 2010,

“We have designed the Shaurya so that it can be launched from under

water as easily as from land. The gas-filled canister that houses the

missile fits easily into a submarine. The underwater leg of the

nuclear triad needs to be totally reliable and needs a state-of-the-

art missile.”



India’s undersea deterrent had so far revolved around the K-15

ballistic missile, built with significant help from Russia. The K-15

was to equip the INS Arihant, India’s lone nuclear-powered submarine,

which is being constructed in Visakhapatnam. But now, after rigorous

underwater testing, the Shaurya could be the mainstay of Arihant’s

arsenal.





“The Shaurya was developed from ground up as a submarine-capable

missile,” confirms Dr Prahlada, the top DRDO scientist responsible for

liaising with the military. “Every piece of technology for fitting it

in a submarine is already in place.”




Shortly before the Defexpo 2010, Dr Saraswat had publicly stated that

India’s missile technology was ahead of China’s and Pakistan’s.

Now top DRDO scientists have revealed that the Shaurya is not a

ballistic missile, as it has been thought to be; it is actually a

hypersonic cruise missile, which never leaves the atmosphere.




A ballistic missile is like a stone being lobbed towards a target.

Rockets toss it upwards and towards the target; after the rocket burns

out, gravity pulls the missile warhead down towards the target.

Buffeted by wind and re-entry forces, accuracy is a problem; and,

since the ballistic missile’s path is predictable, shooting it down is

relatively easy.



The Shaurya has none of these issues. Its solid-fuel, two-stage rocket

accelerates the missile to six times the speed of sound before it

reaches an altitude of 40 kilometers (125,000 feet), after which it

levels out and cruises towards the target, powered by its onboard

fuel.



While ballistic missiles cannot correct their course midway, the

Shaurya is an intelligent missile. Onboard navigation computers kick

in near the target, guiding the missile to the target and eliminating

errors that inevitably creep in during its turbulent journey.

The Shaurya, say DRDO sources, will strike within 20-30 metres of its

target after travelling 750 kilometres.



Conventional cruise missiles, like the American Tomahawk and the Indo-

Russian Brahmos, offer similar accuracy. But their air-breathing

engines carry them along slowly, rendering them vulnerable to enemy

aircraft and missiles. The Shaurya’s solid-fuel, air-independent

engine propels it along at hypersonic speeds, leaving enemy fighters

and missiles far behind.



“I would say the Shaurya is a hybrid propulsion missile”, says Dr

Saraswat. “Like a ballistic missile, it is powered by solid fuel. And,

like a cruise missile, it can guide itself right up to the target.”

Making the Shaurya even more capable is its ability to manoeuvre,

following a twisting path to the target that makes it very difficult

to shoot it down. In contrast, a ballistic missile is predictable; its

trajectory gives away its target and its path to it.
  Reply
Ankit-s: As a courtesy to objective reporting so others can verify teh stated statement with original (and fair use copyright) all externally sourced news items should have the URL of the original article, or source clearly stated.

On your behalf here is url to the original news report:

[url="http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/shaurya-surfaces-as-india/s-underwater-nuclear-missile/385952/"]http://www.business-...missile/385952/[/url]



[quote name='ankit-s' date='18 February 2010 - 07:16 PM' timestamp='1266500303' post='104336']



India’s undersea deterrent had so far revolved around the K-15 ballistic missile, built with significant help from Russia. [color="#4b0082"]The K-15 was to equip the INS Arihant, India’s lone nuclear-powered submarine, which is being constructed in Visakhapatnam. But now, after rigorous underwater testing, the Shaurya could be the mainstay of Arihant’s arsenal.[/color] [/quote]



In the last few days, from teh press reports it appears that DRDO is now saying K-15 project was different from Sagarika/Shourya missile project. The only other possibility alternative to Ballistic Missile based Shourya/Sagarika would be the sub launched CM project that was reportedly a 1000 km range missile.



OTOH after the first public Shourya launch 1.5 year ago DRDO has reported it to be the K-15.
  Reply
[url="http://news.in.msn.com/international/article.aspx?cp-documentid=3635164"]Ocean's 5: An overview on underwater nuclear missiles[/url]





Quote:17/02/2010



Ever since the first submarine-launched missiles were fired by the Germans in World War-II, underwater missiles have remained weaopns of high strategic importance. Unlike thier aerial and terresterial counterparts, underwater nuclear missiles are not prone to the first strikes of the enemy, which makes them a tremendously potent proposition.



The era of the Cold War witnessed the Americans and Russians making enormous investments in nuclear science research. Significant breakthroughs were made in the field of underwater nuclear missiles during this time. Later, other superpowers and emerging superpowers followed suit and joined the race. [color="#800080"]Now, with the development of Shaurya, which can carry a one-tonne nuclear warhead over a distance of 750 kms, India too have made its own strong statement.[/color]



In this section, we take a look at the five of the best and the deadliest underwater nuclear missiles in the business.



The Trident Missile-USA



Trident II D-5 is the sixth generation member of the U.S. Navy's Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) program which started in 1956. A sophisticated submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) designed by Lockheed Martin Space Systems in the United States with multiple independently-targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) capability, the Trident is armed with nuclear warheads and is launched from nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs)



Trident I (designated C4) was deployed in 1979 . It was later phased out in the 1990s and the early 2000s. Trident II (D5) was first deployed in 1990, and was planned to be in service for the thirty-year-life of the submarines, until 2027. Trident missiles are also provided to the United Kingdom under the terms of the 1963 Polaris Sales Agreement. the agreement was modified in 1982 for Trident.



R-29RM Shtil-Russia



The R-29RM is a three-stage liquid-propellant missile carrying four or ten MIRV. Compared to the R-29R the missile has a larger launch weight (40.3 to 35.5 Tons) providing a heavier payload (2800 kg to 1650 kg) to a greater maximum range (8300 to 8000 km).



It is designed to be launched from the Russian Delta IV submarine, each of which is capable of carrying 16 missiles. It carries four 100kT warheads and has a range of about 8,500 kilometres. A derivative, the R-29RMU Sineva, entered service in 2007.



RSM-56 "Bulava", also known as Bulava-30, is expected to be in service in 2009. The missile has suffered repeated test failures, the latest being in December 2009.



M45-France



The M45 SLBM, the French Navy's submarine launched ballistic missile, is the fourth missile in the MSBS (Mer-Sol-Balistique-Strategique) family which comprises a number of submarine-launched, intermediate range missiles.



The M-4 missile entered service in 1985. The current MSBS force is based on nuclear-powered submarines SNLE (Sous-marines Nucleaire Lanceur d'Engins balistique), each able to carry 16 missiles. Presently, there are 16 (one boat load) M-4A missiles and 48 (three boat loads) M-4B missiles in service.



M51 SLBM is under development and is expected to enter service by 2010.



JL-2--China



The JL-2 is a Chinese second generation intercontinental-range submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). JL-2 has a two-stage, solid-liquid fuelled propulsion design. Though accurate specifications are unavialable, missile is considered to be able to deliver its payload(s) up to a range of 7,200 km, (4,500 miles) to 8,000 km (5,000 miles) and could carry either single or multiple warheads (conventional or nuclear).



The JL-2 missile is expected to provide China with its first credible sea-based nuclear deterrent. The expected operational range of the missile (up to 8,000 km or 5,000 miles) will allow it to reach Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, Russia, and India but not the continental United States from Chinese littoral waters (Bohai Sea or South China Sea).



Shaurya-India



India's undersea deterrent had so far revolved around the K-15 ballistic missile, built with significant help from Russia. The K-15 was to equip the INS Arihant, India's lone nuclear-powered submarine, which is being constructed in Visakhapatnam. But now, after rigorous underwater testing, the Shaurya is expected to be the mainstay of Arihant's arsenal. Shaurya can carry a one-tonne nuclear warhead over 750 kilometers, and is specially designed to be fired from Indian submarines. If launched from a submarine off the China coast, it could hit several Chinese cities like Beijing, Nanjing and Shanghai.



[color="#800080"]Before Shaurya entered the fray, India's underwater nuclear missile was Sagarika. Capable of a range of 700 kilometres, Sagarika formed part of the triad in India's nuclear deterrence, providing retaliatory nuclear strike capability.[/color]

IMHO its is obvious the writer doesn't know basics of Sagarika, for Sagarika is not history and it is yet to become part of Indian deterrence.
  Reply
Here is a french editorial:



[url="http://www.corlobe.tk/article18207.html"]L’Inde dévoile un missile nucléaire pour sous-marin d’un nouveau genre[/url]



Quote:Par [url="http://www.corlobe.tk/auteur1.html"]Rédacteur en chef[/url].



Publié le 17 février 2010, dernière mise à jour le 17 février 2010.



And here is the English translation





Quote:India unveils missile nuclear submarine of a new genus



By [url="http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=fr&tl=en&u=http://www.corlobe.tk/auteur1.html&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&twu=1&usg=ALkJrhjdc7taR-9R-d0uP-0piOmL2SOtlw"]Editor.[/url]

Published February 17 2010, last updated February 17, 2010. An Indian scientist has for the first time, revealed that the Indian Shaurya new missile that can carry a warhead of one ton to more than 750 km, is specially designed to be launched from submarines and could participate in the Indian nuclear deterrent.



Launched from a submarine off the Chinese coast, it could be several large Chinese cities like Beijing, Nanjing and Shanghai.



As nuclear weapons based on land or fighters can be destroyed by a preemptive strike, nuclear deterrence considered the most reliable has always been the submarine missiles hidden on board a submarine.



VK Saraswat, scientific adviser to India's Minister of Defense, revealed that "We designed the missile Shaurya so it can be launched from a submarine submerged, as easily as from land. The container full of gas that houses the missile can easily fit into a submarine. The underwater part of the deterrent must be completely reliable and requires a missile at the forefront of technology. "



Deterrence Underwater Indian was far centered around the ballistic missile K-15, built with significant support from Russia. The K-15 was equipped only SSBN Indian NSI Arihant, which is being completed at Visakhapatnam. But now, after rigorous testing, the Shaurya could become the main weapon in the arsenal of the Arihant.



"The Shaurya has been developed as a missile can be launched both from the Earth for a submarine," says Dr. Prahlada, the scientist responsible for liaison with the army. "All the elements needed to install on board a submarine is already in place."



Shortly before Defexpo 2010, Dr. Saraswat had publicly stated that the Indian missile technology was well ahead of that of China and Pakistan.



Now scientists reveal that the missile Shaurya is not a ballistic missile, as was previously thought, it is actually a hypersonic cruise missile, which never leaves the atmosphere.



A ballistic missile is like a stone thrown at a target. Rocket propelled him upward and toward the target after the rockets have exhausted their fuel, gravity draws the head of the missile down and toward the target. Affected by wind and forces of re-entry, accuracy is a problem. And as the ballistic missile trajectory is predictable, it is "relatively" easy kill.



The Shaurya has none of these drawbacks. Its 2-stage rocket with solid fuel and accelerates the missile up to 6 times the speed of sound before it reaches an altitude of 40 km. After that, it stabilizes and navigates to the target, driven by its internal fuel.



While ballistic missiles can not correct their trajectory, Shaurya is a smart missile. The navigation systems guide the missile to target and eliminate the errors that inevitably occur during its turbulent journey.



The Shaurya, sources say scientists, has an accuracy of 20 to 30 meters after traveling 750 km.



The conventional cruise missiles like the Tomahawk American and Indo-Russian Brahmos have similar accuracy. But their engines make the air move slowly, making them vulnerable to fighter planes and enemy missiles. The solid rocket motors, independent of the atmosphere of Shaurya propel at hypersonic speeds, leaving hunters and behind enemy missiles.



"I would say that the missile Shaurya is a hybrid," said Dr Saraswat. "As a ballistic missile, it is powered by solid fuel. And, like a cruise missile can be guided up to the target. "



What makes Shaurya even more powerful is its ability to maneuver along a path in a spin that makes it very difficult to kill. Instead, a ballistic missile is expected. Its trajectory shows the target and the road to get there.





Référence : Reference:

[url="http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=fr&tl=en&u=http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/shaurya-surfaces-as-india%255Cs-underwater-nuclear-missile/385952/&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&twu=1&usg=ALkJrhhqNy63Cchth1pwN8unaTmT_ltpAQ"]Business Standard (Inde)[/url] [url="http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=fr&tl=en&u=http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/shaurya-surfaces-as-india%255Cs-underwater-nuclear-missile/385952/&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&twu=1&usg=ALkJrhhqNy63Cchth1pwN8unaTmT_ltpAQ"]Business Standard (India)[/url]
  Reply
[quote name='samsam' date='17 February 2010 - 12:11 PM' timestamp='1266388396' post='104286']

arun sir can u pls explain the hyper sonic cruise in shourya missile, there is a lot of confusion about the shurya missile,



and also there is some confusion that K 15 missile and shourya are two different missiles

[/quote]



Development of astra (note its Sanskrit meaning) for Arihant has been a multi pronged effort. Power projection by Nuclear sub required both medium range missile and long range missiles.

Long range MIRV Agni variant for long range sets the 2.3 meter diameter tube constrain. The same tube lends flexibility to host 3 short range missiles (just like some other vessels that launch Tomahawk).



The medium range astra involves both sub-sonic cruise missile (la Nirbhay), and rocket propelled Shourya/Sagarika. Somewhere along the way Rocket fired program took a lead and Shourya has surfaced first. Its a matter of time a subsonic CM will also surface.



Till the dust settles one will not know for sure the original intent of project names like K-15 or Sagarika.



As for hyper sonic cruise in shourya missile, IMVHO people (including Col Shukla) are getting confused (or mis hearing) with high altitude hypersonic gliding of Shourya with hypersonic cruise. Saraswat referring to "hybrid propulsion" could be more like referring to hybrid trajectory using lift and propulsion of rocket and aerodynamics for hybrid ballistic - aero flight.



[url="http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/shaurya-surfaces-as-india%5Cs-underwater-nuclear-missile/385952/"]http://www.business-...missile/385952/[/url]

Quote:“I would say the Shaurya is a hybrid propulsion missile”, says Dr Saraswat. “Like a ballistic missile, it is powered by solid fuel. And, like a cruise missile, it can guide itself right up to the target.”

Use of the word "glide" instead of "guide" would have saved some angst. (u -> l)



I.e. it uses gravity to sustain hypersonic flight at high altitude, and after potential energy is expended it drops like a brick (steep angle) on target. A trick learned from Prithvi.
  Reply
Do note that after booster is expended the Shourya missile main stage retains tail fins for aerodynamic control during ascend as well as for gliding descend (using body lift), rolling (for uniform heat distribution)and maneuvering.
  Reply
From Ajai Shukla's blog:

[url="http://ajaishukla.blogspot.com/2010/02/shaurya-surfaces-as-indias-underwater.html"]http://ajaishukla.bl...underwater.html[/url]

Quote:Now top DRDO scientists have revealed that the Shaurya is not a ballistic missile, as it has been thought to be; it is actually a hypersonic cruise missile, which never leaves the atmosphere. A ballistic missile is like a stone being lobbed towards a target. Rockets toss it upwards and towards the target; after the rocket burns out, gravity pulls the missile warhead down towards the target. Buffeted by wind and re-entry forces, accuracy is a problem; and, since the ballistic missile’s path is predictable, shooting it down is relatively easy.



The Shaurya has none of these issues. Its solid-fuel, two-stage rocket accelerates the missile to six times the speed of sound before it reaches an altitude of 40 kilometers (125,000 feet), after which it levels out and cruises towards the target, powered by its on-board fuel. While ballistic missiles cannot correct their course midway, the Shaurya is an intelligent missile. Onboard navigation computers kick in near the target, guiding the missile to the target and eliminating errors that inevitably creep in during its turbulent journey.



I checked ROCKSIM, and it is feasible that the second stage is a long duration burning sustainer motor, in which case sustained hypersonic cruise using body lift is possible. The motor grain shape and insulation will be a major change from conventional design. That possibly explains the small booster stage (whose grain is very different from second stage), which take the craft to 5 km altitude, and speed when adequate body lift is available.



Sustainer motor configuration allows higher fuel density, and that possibly explains the heavy 6.5 tonne mass in that small missile volume.



Also the [url="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_zUe7sq7m3h0/S3tVTB05IeI/AAAAAAAAA6s/FqlGJIeRiFI/s1600-h/Shaurya+defexpo.JPG"]high resolution pic of its nose cone from Def Expo[/url](earlier RD Parade images were not as clear) indicate the nose is not blunt but shaped to be optimized for low hypersonic speed, giving credence to lower burn out speed of the rocket.
  Reply
With Shaurya, it makes more sense that the 2nd stage with the sustaining motor continues the hypersonic flight



while thats where things stand, in future can the RV have a scram jet engine and part of the payload weight is actually fuel for it?



Is there a possibility of Agni benefiting from this (new propellant grain type) in terms of augmenting its range further? or the lift power during boost phase is expensive versus the sustaining power needed using the wing surfaces at a high altitude with in the atmosphere?
  Reply
This whole Shourya saga is creating some confusion

what i understand reading all these articles is that

a ballistic missile leaves the atmosphere,re enters then descends towards the target

but

in case of Shourya it reaches 40-50km at Mach 6,then it does not leaves the atmosphere but moves or "cruises"

towards the target burning own fuel then it descends towards the target at hypersonic speed and it can do maneuvers in the descend phase and also correct it's trajectory by Ring laser gyroscope and terminal guidance unlike normal ballistic missile thus making it more accurate.

peoples am i correct

also the nose cone of Shourya in the November 12, 2008 test and the nose cone shown in the defexpo 2010 seems to be different can anyone tell about that.
  Reply
[quote name='vasu_ray' date='19 February 2010 - 12:13 PM' timestamp='1266561319' post='104364']

in future can the RV have a scram jet engine and part of the payload weight is actually fuel for it? [/quote]

No.



Quote:Is there a possibility of Agni benefiting from this (new propellant grain type) in terms of augmenting its range further? or the lift power during boost phase is expensive versus the sustaining power needed using the wing surfaces at a high altitude with in the atmosphere?

No.
  Reply
[quote name='laltaputu' date='19 February 2010 - 11:26 PM' timestamp='1266601686' post='104372']

This whole Shourya saga is creating some confusion

what i understand reading all these articles is that

a ballistic missile leaves the atmosphere,re enters then descends towards the target

but

in case of Shourya it reaches 40-50km at Mach 6,then it does not leaves the atmosphere but moves or "cruises"

towards the target burning own fuel then it descends towards the target at hypersonic speed and it can do maneuvers in the descend phase and also correct it's trajectory by Ring laser gyroscope and terminal guidance unlike normal ballistic missile thus making it more accurate.

peoples am i correct [/quote]



Well even Agni has guidance and correction package as it descends before or after it re-enters atmosphere.



What Shaurya does is unusual/tricky maneuver, in being able to sustain its relatively long flight below 100 km atmosphere enveloping earth surface. Prithvi did this all these years without leaving atmosphere, as its apogee was ~85 km, and its mid section wings and tail fins allowed it to maneuver as it came down, even fly horizontally at ~ 20 km altitude before diving steeply to hit target at high infliction angle.



From Ajai Shukla's interview of Saraswat, Shaurya also try to emulate a similar flight, instead of flying high to 80 km altitude it did a gradual climb to ~ 40 km and flew almost horizontally in that rarefied atmosphere, making use of the body lift, and losing potential energy to sustain hypersonic regime speed most of the way down.



With Shukla's article what is not clear yet is if Shourya is a classical BM and is also capable of performing aero-ballistic trajectory, or if Shourya is a a dedicated aero-ballistic missile incapable of classical BM flight ! And we will positively know which one of the two it, when burn duration of the second stage is known.



Quote:also the nose cone of Shourya in the November 12, 2008 test and the nose cone shown in the defexpo 2010 seems to be different can anyone tell about that.

That got me stumped too.



What is shown in DefExpo is the same article that rolled past Raj Path on 26 Jan, and that missile is simply a dummy model where the nose cone is cheaply rivited with a L plate the outer container can be clearly seen. {same as BrahMos demo missile in earlier Rd parade and Aero-India shows}. I had mentioned the RD parade nose shape issue with a distinguished India Forum member too.



Bottom line, we will know once we get more high res pics of future flight test, and confirmation of second stage burn time.
  Reply
wiki says there is a PSLV-3S for launching strategic payloads into LEO in the 500kg zone which probably means mil sats



1) changing the 1st stage solid booster to a composite motor what kind of improvement in throw weight is expected?



2) Launching it from a ship gives it better launch positioning?
  Reply


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