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Sanatana Dharma - Aka Hinduism (1st Bin)

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Sanatana Dharma - Aka Hinduism (1st Bin)
X-Posted from BRF

<!--QuoteBegin-"Sriram"+-->QUOTE("Sriram")<!--QuoteEBegin-->Please move/delete if irrelevant.

Buddha & Yagna - About (political) misrepresentation of Yagna-as-sacrifice from Sandeep's,article

<!--QuoteBegin--><div class='quotetop'>QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->It is now amply clear what “sacrifice” stands for. Yet the misrepresentation of Yagna-as-sacrifice persists for several reasons, chief of which is political. Buddha’s angst as we have seen, was directed towards the exploitative behaviour in the name of Yagna, and not against Yagna itself.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Tasyaivam Vidusho Yagnasyaatmaa, mentioned in the article, is normally the conclusion of (yajur) veda parayanam.
If interested:
Text
pls scroll to the end 10-80-1
Voice
ffwd to 3:48 - starts after pranavam, unfortunately cuts off towards the end<!--QuoteEnd--></div><!--QuoteEEnd-->
  Reply
<!--QuoteBegin-Ashok Kumar+Apr 14 2008, 10:23 PM-->QUOTE(Ashok Kumar @ Apr 14 2008, 10:23 PM)<!--QuoteEBegin-->"Vasudhaiva-kutumbakam" present in Hitopadesa is supposed to be borrowed from chAnakya.  although it is not part of chankya-niti as far as I could ascertain.
[right][snapback]80657[/snapback][/right]
<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Ashok Ji, good find. Yes, the much/oft-obused saying is not present in arthasAstram as far as I could confirm too.

While the seeds and sentiments of the saying might go back to the older grantha-s as pointed by you and summarized by Husky, the best bet about the exact subhAsitam remains that this was originally written by viSNusarman and was later incorporated into various works that borrow from panchatantra -- like hitopadesa and many variants of it including jaina ones; or a lesser possiblility that it predated him and originated from bhaR^tihari -- proving which also seems unlikely as the saying does not appear in any three of his nIti-s like you said... what about kAlidAsa?
  Reply
<b>Re: Vasudhaiva kutumbakam </b>

Attribution to chANakya of the subhAShita, will date it to few centuries BC at least. chANakya is supposed to have composed other works. chANakya-niti-darpaNa is the most commonly found nIti text.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->List of chANakya's works used by Ludwig Sternbach in his paper:
(Very few of the the following list are published, most are in manuscript form.)

1. Canakya's aphorisms
          Klatt, De trecentis Canakyae poetae Indici sententiis. (Halis Saxonum)
          Kressler, Stimmen indischer Lebensklugheit. (Frankfurt a/M., 1904)

2. Laghucanakya

3.  Canakya-niti-sastra

4. Canakya-raja-niti-sastra

5. Canakya-sloka
          Canakyam
          Canakyasatakam,
          Canakya-niti-vyavahara-sara-sangraha

6. Canakya-niti-sataka

7. Vrddha Canakya

8.  Rajaniti

9. Canakya-niti-darpana
<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

<b>Regarding kAlidAsa: </b>

The style and simple language used in this subhAShita seems very unlike kAlidAsa, who typically used more literary and harder sanskrit. But following the current dating of kAlidAsa in the gupta period will date it to few centuries AD.

<b>Regarding bhartR^ihari:</b>

Ludwig Sternbach attributes the following work to him:

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin--> Bhartrhari-viracita, <b><i>satakatrayadi</i>-subhasita-sangraha</b>. Ed. by D. D. Kosambi. Singhi Jaina Granthamala 23. (Bombay, 1948) <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
The above text's name contains "shataka-trayAdi" meaning including the three shataka-s. So perhaps it has more material than just the three commonly found shataka-s.
  Reply
Ashok Ji,

From the above list, I was able to verify the following for the presence/absence of the subhAshita in question.

1. chANakya-nIti-darpaNaM : negative
2. chANakya-nIti-sAstraM : negative
3. bhartR^hari's three nItI-s : negative
4. vR^ddha chANakya - half of it : negative

have no access to the rest of chANakya's works mentioned by you nor of bhartR^hari's sayings outside of nIti-trayI. Also please note that 1 and 2 above are the largest collections of chANakya besides artha-sAstra. Therefore if the subhAsita in question is absent in the 3 primary sources on chANakya, chances of it being available in any of the rest is very bleak. likewise is the case about bhartR^hari.

meanwhile,

viSNu-Sarma's panchatantra - positive
nArAyaNa paNDita's hitopadesa - positive

tone in both of the above is indeed as explicitly 'quoting' from an earlier source, in a sense of proving a point by authority of an established and well known nIti... therefore the question remains where from?
  Reply
Also, the paper(s) of Ludwik Sternbach - I dont have Jstor access. Will it be possible for you to share the pdf?
  Reply
Ludwik Sternbach's two papers:
Chanakya in Hitopadesa
The "vasudhavia kutumbakam" is found in the second part of the paper as shloka number 50.

Abbreviations for sources used are given in the beginning of part 1.

Specifically, he mentions that a manuscript of vrddha-canakya and another of chanakya-niti-shastra contain this shloka. He also mentions that the shloka is found in hitopadesha, vikrama-charita and in a slightly modified form in bhartR^ihari's subhAshita-saMgraha.

Sternbach has apparently tried to collect all sanskrit subhashita-s in a single book.
Maha-subhasita-samgraha

He seems pretty convinced about many of the subhashitas being originally from Chanakya.
The Subhāsita-samgraha-s as Treasuries of Cānakya's Sayings
  Reply
Thanks for the invaluable help Ashok Ji.
  Reply
You are welcome Bodhiji.

Even though Chanakya appears as the oldest reference for the vasudhaiva-kutumbakam shloka, but the difficulty of finding it in most published niti books of chanakya suggests that the source might even be older than chanakya.

Hitopadaesa and vikrama charita clearly seem to be quoting it, as if from an older source, as you also mention.

I guess the idea is what counts, and if present as a meme in the culture, would find recurrence in different places and different forms.. And oldest occurences are surely there in vedas, and in much detail in atharvavedIya prithivI-sUkta.
  Reply
Absolutely! You worded my exact thoughts. After reading these references, that is the conclusion I have reached so far too, that even if the exact quote is cited in - let us say - vR^ddha chANakya - that does not mean its origin was viSNugupta.

one, such collections were not made by viSNugupta himself, except for probably 3 known collections which he himself made containing "shaT-sahastraNi shlokaNi" 6000 shlokas on nIti (artha, daNDa, rAja related) he certainly was known to have composed. Therefore somebody much after him composed these collections, and we can not say if only from the origins with chANakya. And even in arthashAstra, he acknowledges the source to be the (oral traditions of) past masters and ancestors!

second, even in these chANakya-s we do know there are sayings that originated from sources like mahAbhArata and some upanisada-s. In fact in the papers you have provided, it recognizes a good chunk coming from other earlier sources.

So we do go back to square one....on tracing the origin of who first uttered the original verbiage of VK. Probably some upanisada. About the idea being present from very old times. Yes that is true. But I also have some different thoughts and shall come back with a detailed response later on. Again thanks for your inputs.
  Reply
Ok, here is an extremely close variant of the saying that is located in the mahopanishadaM

verses 70-73 of its sixth chapter read:

udAraH peshalAchAraH sarvAchArAnuvR^ttimAn
antaH-sa^Nga-parityAgI bahiH saMbhAravAniva
antarvairAgyamAdAya bahirAshonmukhehitaH
<b>ayaM bandhurayaM neti gaNanA laghuchetasAm
udAracharitAnAm tu vasudhaiva kuTumbakam</b>
bhAvAbhAva vinirmuktaM jarAmaraNavarjitaM
prashAnta kalanArabhyaM nIrAgaM padamAshR^aya
eSA bAmhI sthitiH svachchhA niSkAmA vigatAmayA
AdAya viharannevaM saMkaTeSu na muhyati

The sloka-s are describing the elevated brAmhI sthiti of AdhyAtmik realm. It says:

(That elevated one in brAmhI sthiti) is generous, always clean in behaviour, and in accordance to the established norms of conduct, free from all clingings in life. From inside, s/he renounces all, (although) outwardly (appars to) carry some objective (or other, like an ordinary life. However, unlike) the small hearted people (who discriminate between the others) saying 'This one is my brother; the other a stranger', these of the magnanimous hearts embrace the entire world as their own family. They gain liberation from all considerations of ordinary life, like old age and death, their mental fires (of klesha-s) become extinguished and in them no attachments finds any shelter. Such (Listen O best amongst the brAhmaNas! are those who acheive) the status of BrAmhI sthiti, the absolutely pure, that beyond all cravings and sufferings. Equipped with such attributes they freely roam (the earth), without knowing any calamity.

the mahopanisataM in pdf
  Reply
Bodhiji,

Great find!!

So, mahA-upaniShad could be the original source. So, the claim that "vasudhaiva kutumbakam" is found in vedas, is partly justifiable, since upanishads are part of shruti.

I wonder if it is same as the mahat-upaniShad listed under the 108 upanishads.

I am not sure whther Mahopanishad is associated with any AraNyakas. Presence in AraNyaka-s will really make the case for its ancient roots. Some upanishads also occur in brAhmaNa-s with names like upaniShad-brAhmaNa. Maha-nArAyaNa upanishad and taittirIya upanishad are part of TattirIya AraNyaka. Most of the upaniShads in 108 list are not associated with AraNyaka-s (or brAhmaNa-s) and are not considered ancient.
  Reply
Ashok Ji,

credit for the find is to google.

mahopaniShad is in the 108 list, and some are pointing that it is in the sAmaveda, some other sources say it is in atharvaveda. I have not verified yet.

some relevant references:
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin--><!--QuoteBegin--><div class='quotetop'>QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->
Dear Bhagavatas,
                I request someone to please clarify if Mahopanishad,
Narayana Upanishad and Mahanarayaniya Upanishad refer to three
independent upanishads or if some of the aforementioned are merely
multiple names for the same body of text. If these are distinct,
please indicate which of the four vedas to which each belongs. Thank
you.

adiyEn rAmAnuja dAsan,
Vedaraman Sriraman
<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->[ They are different texts. <b>Mahopanishad and the Mahanarayana are  quoted by Ramanuja</b>, and the Narayana Upanishad is not. The Mahanarayana
  Upnishad is also called the Yajniki Upanishad and properly placed
  is the concluding part of the Taittiriya Upanishad, and hence belongs
  to the Krishna Yajur Veda.  The Narayana Upanishad belongs to the
  Atharva Veda. I don't know offhand to what Veda the Mahopanishad
  belongs. -- Moderator ]<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

http://www.ramanuja.org/sv/bhakti/archiv.../0128.html
<!--QuoteEnd--></div><!--QuoteEEnd-->

So, this will place it pre-rAmAnuja at the least.

Even the bhAsya-s upon sri rAmanuja refer explicitly to mahopanishad:

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->SlOkam 25 :
***************
Yann-moola-kAraNam aBhudhyatha srushti vaakyai:
BrahmEthi vaa sadhithi vaa aathmagirA aTavaa tath
NaarAyaNasthvithi mahOpanishadh Braveethi
souBAlikee PrabrutaYOapi anujagmu: yEnAm

(Meaning) :MahOpanishad dealing with the creation of the universe
states that the ancient kaaraNam (reason) for Srushti  is described by
the  Vedic word , Sath or Brahman or Aathmaa . That aadhi kaaraNam
for the creation of this naama-roopa prapancham has been identified
further as none other than  Sriman NaarAyaNan .  SubhAlOpanishad
and other upanishads follow the path laid out by MahOpanishad .

Sri Vaikuntha Sthavam: This magnificent Sthavam of KurEsar has 100 slOkams and has the SaarArthams (essential menaings of Sri BhAshyam passages )
<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
  Reply
<b>Some Scientific Aspects of Yagna - Environmental Effects </b>

There are two basic energy systems in the physical world: heat and sound. In performing yagna, these two energies, namely, the heat from yagna’s fire and the sound of the chanting of the Gayatri and other Vedic Mantras, are blended together to achieve the desired physical, psychological and spiritual benefits.

The fumigation, vaporization and subtlisation of specific substances in the yagna-fire constitute a verifiable scientific method of sublimation of matter and expansion of its colloidal state, generates ions and energy with positive effects in the surrounding atmosphere through the specific sonic waves of the mantras.

<b>Fumigating Substances Used in Yagna: </b>

In order to get an idea of the various chemical changes that take place during the performance of yagna, it is essential to know the various substances used and offered in the yagna-fire. These can be broadly classified into two types: wood (samidhá), and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri)[1, 2].

Wood: Wood has to be dry and free from dust, insects and worms. Wood is cut into small pieces of varying sizes called samidhás depending upon the size of the altar or pit (kunda) in which the yagna is to be performed. Santalum Album (sandalwood), Aquilana Malaccensis and Valeriana Wallchii (borax wood or agar and tagar), Cedrys Libani (cedar or deodar), Mangifera Indica (mango), Butea Frondosa (flame of the forest or palásha), Aegle Marmelos (bengal quince or bilva), Ficus Religiosa (the holy fig or pipal), Ficus Bengalensis (banyan or bargad), Proposis Spicigera (sponge tree or Shami), Ficus Glomerata (wild fig or gular) are considered appropriate for this purpose.

The havisya or havan sámagri should be prepared with a proper combination of the following. Odoriferous Substances: These are usually saffron, musk, agar, tagar, sandalwood powder, cardamom, nutmeg, javitri and camphor; Substances with Healing properties: clarified butter (ghee), milk, fruits, lin seeds, and cereals like wheat, rice, barley, various millet, gram, peas, etc; Sweet Substances: sugar, dried dates, resin, honey, etc; Medicinal Herbs: These are used as per the specific requirements. Some commonly used herbs are Tinospora cordifolia (tinospora/guduchi or giloya), Bacopa Monieri (bacopa or bráhmi), Convolvulus Pluricaulis (shankh pushpi), Mesua Ferrea (cobra’s saffron or nágkesar), Glycyrrhiza Glabra Bois (liquoric root or mulhati), Red Sandalwood, Terminalia Bellirica (beddanut or bahedá), Dry Ginger, and Terminalia Chebula (chebulic myrobalans or harada). Different combinations of these and/or other special herbs are used for the treatment of specific diseases through yagna-therapy.

<b>Products of Combustion: </b>

The interpretation of the process of combustion in a yagna on a scientific basis is rather difficult due to the following reasons: (i) The properties of substances, which are used here vary; (ii) The conditions under which combustion takes place inside the yagna-fire are very sensitive to the shape of the kunda and the type, quantity and arrangement of wood etc; (iii) the variation in the temperature and thermodynamic effects is quite significant from the top to the bottom of the kunda and it also depends upon the shape and size of the latter. The products of combustion depend on the factors like –– (a) The nature of substances used and their proportions; (b) Temperature attained; © Controlled supply of air and (d) Interaction amongst the various products formed.

<b>Distillation of Wood: </b>

Besides the complete combustion of the cellulose material of wood, it is also subjected to distillation. This happens due to the way samidhás are arranged in the kunda (also called yagna kunda or havan kunda)2 and the levels of temperature and air supply which prevail in it.

<b>Vaporization of Odorous Substances:</b>

The temperature attained by the kunda varies between 250°C and 600°C, while in the actual flames it can rise as high as 1200°C to 1300°C. At their boiling points, the volatile constituents vaporize and their gaseous forms get diffused. Also, when cellulose and other carbohydrates undergo combustion, steam is formed in copious quantities by the combination of the hydrogen of the decomposed organic molecules with the oxygen. This is how the substances like thymol, eugenol, pinene, terpinol etc., are dispersed to in the surroundings and the aroma of a yagna can be smelt at a considerable distance.

In addition to steam, smoke is emitted in large quantities and solid particles existing in a decomposed state offer sufficient scope for its diffusion. Thus smoke also functions as a colloidal vehicle for the spreading of volatile aromatic substances. This process depends on the inside and surrounding temperature and on the direction of the wind.

<b>Combustion of Fatty Substances:</b>

The fatty substances used in yagna are mainly ghee and other fatty substances of vegetable origin. Ghee helps in rapid combustion of cellulose of wood and keeps the fire alight. All fatty substances used are combinations of fatty acids, which volatilize easily. The combustion of glycerol portion gives acetone bodies, pyruvic aldehyde and glyoxal etc. The hydrocarbons produced in the reactions again undergo slow combustion and as a result methyl and ethyl alcohols, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acids are formed.

<b>Photochemical Process:</b>

The vaporized products diffused in the atmosphere are also subjected to photochemical reactions in the sunlight. They undergo photochemical decomposition, oxidation and reduction reactions. To some extent even CO2 is also reduced to formaldehyde as follows:

CO2 + H2O + 112,000 cal = HCHO + O2

From an environmental angle, the reduction of CO2caused by yagna as explained above and the liberation of oxygen cannot be overemphasized. Similar kinds of other useful reactions take place in the presence of specific radiations from the sunrays. This may be perhaps the reason it has been recommended that yagna should be performed during sunlight.

<b>Inverted Pyramid Shaped Yagna Kunda: </b>

The word ‘pyramid’ means ‘the fire in the middle’. This meaning is closely associated with the inexplicable energies emanating from its center and shape. The pyramid shape is widely known to generate and store a special energy field, which possesses bacteriostatic properties. The inverted pyramid shape of the agni kunda allows controlled generation and multidirectional dissipation of energy. It acts as a generator of unusual energy fields and spreads them in its surrounding atmosphere. Apart from the pyramid shape, some other special symmetric geometrical designs are also used according to the kind of energy fields and the cosmic currents one wishes to generate by the yagna. Specific types of kundas are recommended for different kinds of yagnas. The shapes and properties of the common agnihotra pot and some yagna kundas are illustrated in reference no. 3 cited below.

<b>Chanting of Sanskrit Mantras: </b>

The power of sound vibrations has since long been acknowledged in the field of science. With substantial amplification these vibrations can penetrate the energy spheres at the subtle and cosmic levels. All the alphabets of the Sanskrit language are endowed with special impulsive phonetics, which send out harmonious wave patterns when pronounced.

With the advent of spectrographic techniques and instruments like the Multichannel Tonograph and Retrometer, it has now become possible to study the sound effects of mantras in relation to yagna. The patterns of chanting of the mantras are so designed that they latently contain the essence of the music or the quintessential sound of the torrent of life-sustaining energies emanating from the cosmic energy center of the corresponding mantras. (The cosmic energy center associated with the Gayatri Mantra is the Sun). The chanting of these mantras produces vibrations, which are soothing to human mind and all plant and animal life. These vibrations also help in spreading specific energy waves in the surrounding atmosphere while the oblations are offered[3-5].

<b>Purification of Environment by Yagna: </b>

The huge industrial complexes, rapid urbanization, deforestation, air and water pollution, ozone-depletion, radioactive wastes etc., have disturbed and destabilized the natural harmony of human, animal and plant life cycles. The ecological imbalance caused by these criminal acts of the so called ‘civilized man’ has resulted in a disastrous threat, not only to the human survival but, also to life as a whole on our planet.

Experimental studies show that the incidences of physical ailments, sickness and/or diseases become less in the houses where the yagna or agnihotra[3] is regularly performed because it creates a pure, hygienic, nutritional and healing atmosphere. It renews the brain cells, revitalizes the skin, purifies the blood and prevents growth of pathogenic bacteria. Agnihotra is basically a healing process. "Heal the atmosphere and the healed atmosphere will heal you", says Dr. Madhukar Gaikwad[6].

The medicinal fumes emanating from the process of agnihotra have been observed by researchers in the field of microbiology to be clearly bacteriostatic in nature, which eradicate bacteria and micro-organisms, the root causes of illness and diseases. This must be the reason why the incidence of physical ailments, sickness and diseases becomes less in the households where agnihotra is regularly performed.

Purification of environment through the constituent electrically charged particles of the substances fumigated in yagna is an obvious byproduct of this process. The observations of some distinguished scientists (as reported in the reference nos. [2-5]) are noteworthy in this regard. According to Dr. Hafkine, the smoke produced by burning the mixture of ghee and sugar kills the germs of certain diseases; inhaling it from some distance induces secretion from certain glands related to the windpipe that fill our heart and mind with relaxation. "Burning sugar and its smoke has a significant effect in purifying the atmosphere. It kills the germs of T.B., measles, smallpox and cow-pox" – remarks Prof. Tilward. A Russian Scientist named Dr. Shirowich mentions that – "if cow’s ghee is put into the fire, its smoke will lessen the effect of atomic radiation to a great extent". He also related this process to yagna.

Particularly effective results with respect to the elimination or reduction in radiation were achieved through yagna’s fire and ash. These observations are made by Dr. L. Matela Anatoninhowska of Poland after using P.S.I. techniques[2].

Even without going into detailed chemical bacteriology, it appears highly probable that performing yagna leads to the purification of air in view of the following (as reported in the reference nos. [2, 5]):

<b>Removal of Foul Odors: </b>

As already stated, under steam volatilization, the various volatile oils get diffused in the surrounding atmosphere along with steam and smoke. Since these oils have distinctly good smells, the foul odors are automatically neutralized. This aroma can be effortlessly smelt in the surroundings when yagna is performed. It is due to the diffusion of substanceslike thynol, eugenol, piene, terpinol and oils of sandalwood, camphor and clove.

<b>Removal of Bacteria: </b>

As stated under products of combustion, the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and decomposition of complex organic substances produce formaldehyde, which is a powerful antiseptic. It is also interesting to note that the germicidal action of formaldehyde is effective only in the presence of water vapor, which is also produced in large quantities in yagna. The use of formaldehyde sprays for disinfecting of walls, ceilings etc., is common and such an effect is automatically produced when yagna is performed. The oxidation of hydrocarbons produces formic acid and acetic acid, both of which are good disinfectants. Use of formic acid for preservation of fruits and that of acetic acid in preserving vinegar is a common practice.

The antiseptic and antibiotic effects of the smoke of yagna have also been examined by conducting laboratory experiments on rabbits and mice and it has been established that smoke emitted in yagna is a powerful antibiotic. Agnihotra ash is also found to purify and cleanse the water, making it fit for drinking[6].

<b>Removal of Insects: </b>

There are non-bacterial parasites like flies, ringworm, dice fleas etc., which are normally difficult to deal with since bacteriocides which can be used against them are also harmful to other living organisms. Such insects are generally immune to ordinary reagents. However they either get killed or are driven away when they come in contact with volatile oils like camphor, which are diffused in the environment during the performance of yagna.

<b>Effects on Plants and Vegetation: </b>

The disinfection of air is not only useful to animal life but it also helps plant life. The aromatic substances, which get diffused in the air through Agnihotra offer protection to plant life against harmful organisms. This ensures a healthy plant growth. Agnihotra’s atmosphere and ash can be used as adjuvants in the natural farming methods – also known as the agnihotra farming methods. It is a holistic concept of growing plants in pure and healthy atmosphere and balancing the ecological cycles by performing agnihotra (yagna) in the middle of the farm and using the yagna-ash as a fertilizer. Several experiments have been conducted in the East European countries on the use of yagna ash in soil treatment. These, too, have shown positive effects and potential applications in Agriculture[7].

<b>Role of CO2 Generated in Yagna: </b>

The wood and fossil burning in atmosphere is always controversial because of the generation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and a consequent increase in the ‘green house’ effect. On this basis it can be argued that yagna also produces CO and CO2. It should be noted here that the way in which the samidhás are burnt in yagna is a process of slow combustion. It is not comparable to the burning of coal in the factories or household fire or running of steam engines etc, where oxygen is sucked in large quantities and CO2 is emitted likewise. In the slow combustion process that takes place in yagna, a small quantity of O2 is utilized and CO2 is emitted in a quantity that poses no threat to the environment. In fact whatever CO2 is generatedis readily absorbed by the surrounding plant life and vegetation and thus the CO2 cycle is strengthened[5].

Another important fact to be noted is that CO2 produced in yagna is not free CO2. It is mixed with the vapors of other aromatic oils and antiseptic products. It acts as a vehicle in transporting such products to the surroundings.

The use of CO2 as a cerebral stimulant to assist patients suffering from lack of ventilation is a common practice in the medical field. Its use in controlling and curing many mental disorders is also known to medical science. Small amounts of CO2 inhaled by the persons performing yagna act as a stimulant for inhaling more and more aromatic fumes which helps in curing mental disorders.

<b>Results of Some Recent Experiments: </b>

A group of scientists led by Dr. Manoj Garg, Director, Environmental and Technical Consultants in association with the experts from the Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control Board had conducted experiments during the Ashwamedha Yagna at Gorakhpur, U.P. These experiments were set up at about 20 meters east of the Yagnashala. The samples of 100 ml each of water and air collected from the surroundings were analyzed, using high volume Envirotech APM-45 and other sensitive instruments for testing water and air pollution. A summary of their results as reported in Akhand Jyoti, Sept. ’97 p.22, (ref no. [1]), showed an average reduction by 75% in the level of Sulphur Dioxide and about 10% in Nitrus Oxide; and Over 70% reduction in bacteria in water samples in the surrounding area. Several medicinal minerals were present in the ash (bhasma) of yagna. The average level of carbon monoxide was found reduced from 117 p.p.m. to 0 in some of the experiments conducted on domestic yagnas at IIT Bombay (unpublished results); There are some more ongoing experiments on recording different gas levels and respirable particles are currently ongoing, being conducted by some visiting scientists at Brahm Varchas Research Center of Gayatri Teerth, Shantikunj, Hardwar.

Yagna, thus, appears to be a promising scientific, cost effective, eco-friendly method to counter the ever-increasing deadly pollution of the environment and purify and enrich the environment with healthy ingredients. May the environmental scientists and the experts of the Vedic Science of Yagna come together to enable its global expansion. The Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya at Shantikunj, Hardwar is venturing to be a pacesetter in this regard.

<b>REFERENCES: </b>

<i>1. Selected Articles from Akhand Jyoti (Aug. ‘84, July & Aug. ‘92, March ’93, Sept. ’97). Publisher, Akhand Jyoti Sansthan, Mathura.
2. Fumigating Substances used in Yagna –– article published in the proceedings of the Ashwamedha Yagna held in Montreal, Canada (26 to 28 July, 1996).
3. "The Integral Science of Yagna". Book Published in 1998 by Yug Nirman Yojna, Mathura.
4. Yagna’s Scientific Interpretation – article published in the proceedings of Ashwamedha Yagna held in Montreal, Canada (26 to 28 July, 1996).
5. "Does Yagna Add to the Prevalent Pollution?" –– article published in the proceedings of Ashwamedha Yagna held in Montreal, Canada (26 to 28 July, 1996).
6. "Agnihotra: The Message of Time" – Paper by Dr. Madhukar P. Gaikwad. (Presented in the National Symposium on Unification of Modern and Ancient Sciences, held in Andheri, Mumbai on April 30, 1995).
7. Personal Communication with Dr. Vasant Rao Paranjape (www.theromoline.com) </i>

Notes:

1. Sublimation (in chemistry): The process by which a solid is converted, on heating directly, into a gas, without going through a liquid state. Only a small number of solids sublime; e.g. carbon dioxide, CO2 and Iodine, I2. Some solids that do melt to form a liquid still evaporate quite rapidly if kept below their melting-points; e.g. Iodine and sulphur. This is also sublimation, and can be used as a method of purification.
2. Kunda (Agni-Kunda or yagna-kunda): The pit or small metallic vessel of a special design for yagnágni.
3. Agnihotra (Havans or homam): Small-scale yagna that could be performed every-day at home.




  Reply
Amma always beckons her children - the real Hindus - to come back. And of course they never resist:
http://www.haindavakeralam.com/HKPage.aspx...eID=6428&SKIN=B
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin--><b>Muslim family builds Hindu temple in TN village</b>
02/06/2008 01:23:25  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/...how/3090249.cms


KILLAI : Showcasing secular values in this remote village of Tamil Nadu, a devout Muslim couple have<b> built a temple for Hindu Goddess Mariamman in the backyard of their house and conduct regular poojas</b>, arousing interest and curiosity in this region, which remains a citadel of communal harmony.
(They are so <b>not</b> devout muslims.
See also end: the husband has stopped namaz and Friday mosque visits and the wife has Mariamman tattoed on her hand. Meanwhile they do regular poojas - to what islamics call an "idol". And what's more, they're worshipping a Goddess, for goodness' sake! Islam would call them kaffirs and kill them as soon as it would kill those of us who know of ourselves that we're only Hindu.)

<b>It all started with a dream that M Bashirbi (50) had in her sleep and her husband Mohammed Ali Jinnah (55) without any hesitation gave his full backing for building the small temple 10 years back in the backyard of their thatched house in this town, near Chidambaram, about 250 km south of Chennai.</b>

"We built the temple 10 years back after the Amman appeared in my wife's dream. When she told me about this, I immediately accepted. I did not consult anyone... for me all religions are the same," Jinnah, who runs a tea shop, said.

<b>Bashiribi raised money by selling her jewels and through other means to build the temple. "We went to Kumbakonam, known for idol making, to purchase the idols," she said.

Since then Bashiribi has been conducting poojas and even holding annual festivals when the utsav idol of the Goddess is taken around the town.</b>
(<i>Real</i> Hindus. Knows about Pooja and to get Amman mukham(s). And they even conduct utsavam. Wow)

The family doesn't find any contradictions in being Muslims and at the same time tending to a Hindu Goddess. Though <b>Jinnah has stopped offering namaz and visits to the mosque for Friday prayers</b>, his sons still offer namaz and attend Friday prayers.
(Obviously they're Hindus when they don't see any contradictions between islam and Hindu Dharma - only Hindus/other natural traditionalists have always viewed these things in this way. Whereas islamics have always found Hindu Dharma an unallowable impossibility and only their 'true faith' is allowed, same as with christianism.)

<b>Such has been Bashiribi's reverence to the Goddess, she even has the picture of the Mariamman tattooed on one of her hands.</b><!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->Why is it that jehovallah is forever invisible and unreachable.... That is not really a question, as the answer is more than merely obvious, in that it is <i>known</i>.

Allah: still at 0.
Amma: yet another appearance so that Hindus have lost count now. (Though she came in a dream this time, her effect on the couple is still the same as always: to bring peace, happiness and help them closer to Moksha such as via pooja. Compare that to the historically contested/non-existent Paul and his violent christianism and mohammed's terrorist islam, both of which brought death and destruction to countless others after their founders' delusions, rather than remaining private religions.)

Now if only Devi would appear to all the Abdul Kalams and their wives all over ancient India's boundaries, then we will have the Hindus back and only the real islamics will remain in islam. (In return islam can keep Testy Seetalwaddle.)
Amma gets the Hindus she wants back <!--emo&:clapping--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/clap.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='clap.gif' /><!--endemo--> Her benign influence is everywhere, Mother's love and affection is all-encompassing. Jagadamba.
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Bodhiji,

I couldn't locate the "Shri Rama Setu" thread, so am posting here.

May be you can cross post if not already posted there.

British governor wanted Ram Sethu declared national monument in 1914
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Lord Pentlen, who was the governor of the Madras presidency between 1912 and 1919, had written to the then Indian Viceroy Lord Hardinge in December 1914 to have an archaeological study conducted on the Ram Sethu - between Rameshwaram, in India, and Sri Lanka - to ascertain if it could be declared a national monument.

'I would earnestly request you to direct the Archaeological Survey of India to undertake an extensive and intensive survey of Rameshwaram and its beautiful environs, particularly with reference to historic and primordial Adam's Bridge, for declaring it as a national monument,' Lord Pentlen wrote to Lord Hardinge after touring Rameshwaram in 1914.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

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http://jyotishvidya.com/HTMLobj-5519/Rig_veda.zip

http://jyotishvidya.com/HTMLobj-5520/Sama_veda.zip

http://jyotishvidya.com/HTMLobj-5521/Yajur_veda.zip

http://jyotishvidya.com/HTMLobj-5522/Atharva_veda.zip

http://jyotishvidya.com/HTMLobj-5523/Fou...ishads.zip

http://jyotishvidya.com/HTMLobj-5524/brihat_Jataka.zip

http://jyotishvidya.com/HTMLobj-5525/BPHS.zip

http://jyotishvidya.com/books.htm

  Reply
<!--QuoteBegin-acharya+Jun 14 2008, 09:46 AM-->QUOTE(acharya @ Jun 14 2008, 09:46 AM)<!--QuoteEBegin-->http://jyotishvidya.com/books.htm
[right][snapback]82808[/snapback][/right]<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->Went to this last link on "books" above and was about to save the stuff from there when I glanced over the links on the left.
There was this:
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->"Biblical Astrology (Parampara)"
http://jyotishvidya.com/biblical.htm<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->Read that page.
- it contains a link to "Bede Griffiths - mystic" (he's one of the famous people who promoted the catholic-in-disguise-as-swamis for declared conversion purposes), and
- talks about how Karma is supposedly "sin" and
- yajna is equated to christ's so-called "sacrifice" and then
- equates Divine Mother Mahalakshmi with non-existent mary-mother-of-jeesus.

Christians never did know what Karma or Yajna (or Moksha, etcetera) meant.

Perhaps it is better explained by quoting that "biblical astrology" page's section titles, which include:
- "Yajna - sacrifice" followed by "Crucifiction - Sacrifice/Yajna for the Remission of Sins/Karma"
- "Divine Mother Mahalakshmi" followed by "Divine mother takes many forms" - a section on the non-existent maria
- "Christian meditation" = section on inculturation, stealing Dharmic science of meditation which is one of the forms of Yoga (in this case, mantra-based meditation is stolen)
And oh, here's the final joke:
- "Holy succession (Parampara)" - with a picture of an image of christ with a photo of that recent terrorist Pope whats-his-face superimposed with the words "Upon this Rock" (the biblical statement about peter and the founding of the vatican). => This is specifically [i]catholic[i] christian promotion, as NO OTHER christian sect recognises the claim of the church that it derives its powers/rights to lord it over from peter the non-existent apostle of non-existent jeebus. Another indicator that the site is promoting particularly catholic dawaganda is that hardly any other christian sect places any emphasis on maria.

The site is obviously catholic subversion, else why do they use the recently-developed catholic inculturation techiques and arguments that jeebus sacrificed himself for somebody's sins using the catholic twists to Dharmic words? Even Hindus who continue to believe "all religions are equal" would never write those things.


The question remaining is whether that site has tampered with the contents of those books of Hindu literature (in the zip files) to any gross or subtle extent. (You know, they way the catholic terrorists have tried to grab the Hindu shlokam "Om asato ma sadgamaya" and palm it off as talking about their non-existent jeebusjehovallah instead <!--emo&:blink:--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/blink.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='blink.gif' /><!--endemo--> The ever more convoluted desperations of christolying...)
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This should become a part of Hindu culture:

From today's DR show (NPR).
Thay were talking about Bhutan. Some Titus-worshipper calls in and says, "They do not allow you to erect a house of worship other than Hindu or Buddhist in Bhutan. What kind of democracy is Bhutan if there is no freedom of religion?"
Guest (Bhutanese) answers:"People are free to worship as they like in Bhutan. But we do not want any proselytizing. Telling people that my religion is better than yours. So we do not allow churches."

Bhutan, I love you!!

--Bhutan's king has made Bhutan a democracy over the years (himself). Bhutan prizes its way of life, and is very wary of maoists. They see the way the ecosystem has been laid waste in nepal thru tourism. So no mass tourism in Bhutan. Mostly pairs of tourists only, sometimes a party of 12. That is it. Mountains are off limits because they are sacred. They once started mountaineering. Then locals complained that tourists are walking all over their mountains. Bam! No more mountaineering. I love Bhutan.
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what is the difference between a vaitAla and a pishAcha? can any pretAtmA get transformed into these?
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<!--QuoteBegin-Bodhi+Jun 24 2008, 01:15 AM-->QUOTE(Bodhi @ Jun 24 2008, 01:15 AM)<!--QuoteEBegin-->what is the difference between a vaitAla and a pishAcha?  can any pretAtmA get transformed into these?
[right][snapback]83232[/snapback][/right]
<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
A "preta" is the form the jIva takes right after death. It is basically the person without his annamaya-kosha (physical body), but still quite close to the physical realm. The preta has the prANamaya kosha as well as the higher kosha-s. During the shrAdhha period, the preta needs to be satiated with the "piNDa-dAna", since in the new existence it lacks any means of supporting its prANamaya kosha and is generally bewildered. After the shrAddha period, the jIva moves away from the physical realm and moves into some vital worlds. Where it stays till the vital-sheath (prANamaya kosha) decays. The so called heaven/hell (svarga/naraka) are the vital-worlds where the jIva is stationed temporarily. Then it moves on to some mental-world, and stays till its mind-sheath (manomaya kosha) decays. Then it moves to the realm of rest between the births and rests there till the next birth.

The pishAcha-s are vampire like beings that have a prANamaya-kosha. They are primarily vital beings that latch onto humans to drain them of their vitality. Instead of merely latching onto a human, a pishAcha can also come to possess the human. The pishAcha-s are often portrayed as eternally hungry beings, who can't find their sustenance otherwise, and latch onto humans for replenishing their vitality (prANa).

A pishAcha doesn't necessarily have to be from a preta, but if the shrAddha-karma is not perfomed, or if the jIva has a strong attraction to physical world and can't move on, then a preta can become like a pishAcha. But such preta-s can always be released from their pishAcha like existence and made to move on. True blue pishAcha-s are on the other hand typal beings of the vital world, and they don't move-on.

The vetAla-s are also like pishAcha-s, i.e. vital beings, which can animate dead bodies. And they can also be preta-s who have become like pishAcha-s. Instead of latching on to or possessing living humans, vetAla-s try to reanimate freshly dead corpses. The vetAla-panchviMshatI" stories of king vikrama deal with such a vetAla that possess dead bodies.
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