• 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
Indian Space News and Discussion
[url="http://Isro Press Release "]Isro Press Release [/url]

5, 2010).

While the test was originally targeted for 200 seconds it was stopped at 150 seconds since a deviation in one of the parameters was observed. About 500 important parameters were monitored during the static test. The next static test for 200 seconds will be conducted after analysis of this data.

GSLV Mk III launch vehicle is being developed for launching 4 tonne class of satellites in Geo-synchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). Measuring 17 meters in length and 4 meters in diameter, L110 is an earth storable liquid propellant stage with propellant loading of 110 tonnes. L110 stage uses two high-pressure Vikas engines in a clustered configuration and draws its heritage from the second stage of PSLV and GSLV and strapons of GSLV.

While in PSLV and GSLV, the liquid stage with single engine configuration burns for 150 seconds, the GSLV-MkIII requires burning for 200 seconds in a twin engine configuration.
[size="6"]Nano satellite built by IIT Kanpur handed over to ISRO[/size]

KANPUR: A nano satellite "Jugnu" built by students and faculty of IIT Kanpur, was today handed over to the Indian Space Research Organisation.

The three kg satellite is one-foot long and 10 centimetre wide and will be launched by a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle from Sriharikota and take high resolution images.

IIT scientists said the satellite, which was handed over to the space agency at a function in the presence of President Pratibha Patil to celebrate its golden jubilee, is expected to last for about a year and will help combat drought.

As it was handed over, the President congratulated the students and the faculty for the accomplishment.

In 2008, IIT Kanpur and ISRO had signed an MoU under which the engineering institution was to build a nano satellite.

[url="http://www.telegraphindia.com/1100307/jsp/nation/story_12187878.jsp"]Isro rocket test fails: L110 Core Stage[/url]

Quote:OUR BUREAU[left]New Delhi, March 6: A static ground test of a core stage of a new-generation heavyweight rocket for the future, planned by the Indian Space Research Organisation, has failed, the space agency announced today. [/left]

[left]The liquid-fuelled core stage of the GSLV-Mk3 rocket was to fire for 200 seconds during the ground test at Isro’s Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre in Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu, but was stopped after 150 seconds, Isro sources said. [/left]

[left]India’s existing Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle rockets can ferry a 2,000kg- class satellite towards a geostationary orbit 37,000km above Earth. The GSLV-Mk3 is expected to carry a 4,000kg-class satellite towards a geostationary orbit. [/left]

[left]The GSLV-Mk3 can also carry a 10,000kg payload into a low-earth orbit — an altitude of about 200km — and is thus viewed as a crucial technology that Isro will need to develop in its bid to launch manned space capsules. [/left]

[left]“The ground test on Friday evening was stopped after engineers detected an unanticipated deviation in one of the parameters being observed during the firing,” an Isro official told The Telegraph. [/left]

[left]While the rocket fires in the static mode, engineers keep track of more than 500 parameters, such as temperatures at various points in the rocket, liquid flow rates and pressure levels, the official said. [/left]

[left]The next static ground test will be conducted after analysis of this data, Isro said. [/left]

[left]The liquid-fuelled stage has 110 tonnes of propellant and is similar to the liquid stages used in Isro’s existing GSLV rockets — only with a greater capacity. In the existing GSLV, it burns for 150 seconds; the GSLV-Mk3 will demand 200 seconds of firing. [/left]

[left]The test was aborted after some “[color="#0000ff"]minor leakage in the command system[/color]”, PTI reported, quoting Isro sources. [color="#0000ff"]It is a “very minor problem” in which a small leak in the command line was detected by a computer, which automatically stopped the test. “There is absolutely no problem with the engine,”[/color] a source said. [/left]

[left]Earlier this year, Isro had successfully conducted ground tests of solid strap-on stages of the rocket. [/left]


This L110 stage is one that for the first time uses clustered liquid fuel booster engine. This is part of the reson ground test firing of engine is done, and root cause analysis can eb easily done by stopping teh engine and digging out failure modes from that.

Here he is talking of hydraulics actuator system and leak in the hydraulic control loop lines. Hydraulics actuator is to flex the nozzle for thrust vector control

As always ISRO is quite though in its development and testing process.


Test-firing of GSLV core stage halted at 150 seconds[/url]

Quote:March 7, 2010

Updated: March 7, 2010 01:04 IST CHENNAI, March 7, 2010 The long-duration test-firing of the core stage of the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV- Mark III) (for about 200 seconds) at Mahendragiri near Nagercoil in Tamil Nadu was stopped on Friday evening after 150 seconds owing to a deviation in one of the parameters, said an official of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

The core stage, powered by 110 tonnes of liquid propellants, is called L-110.

The test took place at ISRO's Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC).

ISRO officials said the data from the test was being analysed to find out why the deviation occurred.

More than 500 parameters are analysed during the test. This liquid stage is 17 metres in length and four metres in diameter.

The GSLV-Mark III will have three stages. Two boosters, powered by solid propellants, form the first stage. The boosters hug the core/second liquid stage. Above this liquid stage is the cryogenic stage. The rocket, weighing 630 tonnes, stands 43.5 metres tall. It can put a satellite weighing four tonnes in a geo-synchronous transfer orbit with a perigee of about 200 km and an apogee of 36,000 km.

A GSLV-Mark III flight from Sriharikota is expected by 2011-end.

[url="http://indiatoday.intoday.in/site/Story/86982/India/Ground+test+of+liquid+core+stage+of+India%27s+biggest+rocket.html"]It's destination Mars for ISRO[/url]

Quote:Bangalore March 6, 2010

After the moon, it is destination Mars for the Indian space agency. Work on the next generation launch vehicle Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mark III, planned for a 2011 launch, took a big leap with the ground test of liquid core stage late on Friday.

Scientists conducted the static test or ground firing of its liquid core stage (L110) of GSLV Mk III launch vehicle for 150 seconds, monitoring about 500 parameters, at the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) test facility at Mahendragiri on March 5, 2010, evening. The next static test for 200 seconds will be conducted after analysis of this data.

[Image: 100306055529_ISRO.jpg]The next-gen rocket is world's third largest in fuel mass and length and its 200-ton 25-m long solid propellant rocket booster - next only to US and Europe space shuttles -- has been developed in house.

Indian Space Research Organization [ISRO] officials say the new 42m or 12-storey building high 6.3 ton rocket can put a four-ton satellite in orbit while also packing more transponders in one space flight. The GSLV Mk-III can also be used for the 2015 human spaceflight besides sending meaningful probes to Mars and other inter-planetary missions.

ISRO chairman K. Radhakrishnan told India Today that the agency, operating on a Rs 5,000-crore shoestring budget, has planned major milestones in the future. Last year, the agency was all over the moon with the successful Chandrayaan-1 moon mission and achieved a big high putting into orbit ten satellites on a single Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), becoming the first country to achieve the feat; while eight satellites were foreign two - Cartosat-2 and Indian Mini Satellite - were made in India.

Measuring 17 meters in length and 4 meters in diameter, L110 is an earth storable liquid propellant stage with a propellant loading of 110 tons. With GSLV Mk-III intended to launch heavy satellites into geostationary orbit India will also become less reliant on foreign rockets for heavy lifting. This rocket also comes at a time when the US had prevailed upon Russia, citing the Missile Technology Control Regime [MTCR], not to transfer to India the Russian made cryogenic engine that had powered GSLV-1 forcing Indian scientists to develop an indigenous one.

We are on for very exciting times indeed, said Radhakrishnan who took over from Madhavan Nair late last year. The sky is not the limit for the Indian space agency whose budget is less than a tenth of NASA.

[url="http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/5651673.cms?prtpage=1"]ISRO conducts GSLV Mk III launch test: TOI[/url]


Mar 6, 2010, 05.29pm IST <a href="http://netspiderads2.indiatimes.com/ads.dll/clickthrough?slotid=36459" target="_blank"><img src="http://netspiderads2.indiatimes.com/ads.dll/photoserv?slotid=36459" border="0" width="660" height="65" alt="Advertisement"></a> BANGALORE: Indian Space Research Organisation conducted the static test of its liquid core stage (L110) of GSLV Mk III launch vehicle for 150 seconds at its Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) test facility at Mahendragiri in Tamil Nadu.

While yesterday's test was originally targeted for 200 seconds, it was stopped at 150 seconds since a deviation in one of the parameters was observed, the space agency, which has its headquarters here, said in a statement.

"About 500 important parameters were monitored during the static test. The next static test for 200 seconds will be conducted after analysis of this data," it said.

GSLV Mk III launch vehicle is being developed for launching four tonne class of satellites in Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).

Measuring 17 metres in length and four metres in diameter, L110 is an earth storable liquid propellant stage with a propellant loading of 110 tonnes.

L110 stage uses two high-pressure Vikas engines in a clustered configuration and draws its heritage from the second stage of PSLV and GSLV and strap-ons of GSLV.

"[color="#4169e1"]While in PSLV and GSLV, the liquid stage with single engine configuration burns for 150 seconds, the GSLV-MkIII requires burning for 200 seconds in a twin engine configuration[/color]", it was noted.

[url="http://news.oneindia.in/2010/03/06/isroconducts-liquid-core-test-of-gslv-mk-iii-launchvehicle.html"]ISRO conducts liquid core test of GSLV-Mk III launch vehicle in Tamil Nadu[/url]

Quote:Saturday, March 6, 2010,11:25 [IST] Tirunelveli (Tamil Nadu), March 6 (ANI): The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) successfully conducted the static test of its L110 liquid core stage of the GSLV Mk III (Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle mark III) launch vehicle for 150 seconds here on Saturday.

The testing was done at the Liquid Propulsion System Centre's test facility at Mahendragiri of the Thirnelveli district in the state.

Though the test was originally targeted for 200 seconds, it was stopped at 150 seconds since a deviation in one of the parameters was observed.

Around 500 parameters have been tested so far and will be monitored till the next stage of testing.

"The GSLV Mk III is designed to take a four tonne Communication satellite into an orbit of 36,000 km by 200 km. This is going to enhance our ability to put such satellites. Currently its about 2.2 tonne, that's almost doubling the capability," said K Radhakrishnan, ISRO chairman.

"And again we will conduct a test on this for 200 seconds and more. This is part of the development. More than 500 parameters are being monitored like pressure, temperature and floor rate. All these are going to be analysed in the coming days and we expect that this would be used in development and realization of the liquid stage for the GSLV Mk III," Radhakrishnan added.

Earlier, the first stage of solid motor testing of the cryogenic engine was successfully tested at Sriharikota in southern Andhra Pradesh for 14 seconds. [color="#800080"]{Arun_S" This is wrong; this was C25 Cryo stage that was tested for 14 seconds. The original Utube news report also states it was teh cryo stage}[/color]

The GSLV Mk III launch vehicle is being developed for launching the 4 tonne class of satellites in Geo-synchronous Transfer Orbit. Measuring 17 metres in length and 4 metres in diameter, L110 is an earth storable liquid propellant stage with a propellant loading of 110 tonnes.

L110 stage uses two high-pressure Vikas engines in a clustered configuration and draws its heritage from the second stage of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) and strap-ons of GSLV.

Flight-testing of GSLV Mk III will be done at Sriharikota Space Station in 2012. By Jaikumar (ANI)
[size="6"]ISRO may launch forestry satellite by 2013[/size]

[Image: 2010030864101601.jpg]

Major initiative:Union Minister of State for Environment and Forests

Jairam Ramesh watches a presentation at the National Atmospheric Research

Laboratory in Gadanki near Tirupati on Sunday. He is flanked by Planning

Commission member K. Kasturi Rangan and ISRO chairman K. Radhakrishnan.

TIRUPATI: Union Minister of State for Environment and Forests, Jairam Ramesh, has announced that the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will launch a dedicated forestry satellite in all likelihood by 2013.

With the biennial exercise in vogue, the facility will help to continuously monitor the forest cover, health and diversity.

Similarly, efforts are on to launch an indigenous satellite for monitoring greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions, which will place India in a select league.

India, one of the largest carbon sinks in the globe, had added three million hectares to its forest cover between 1997 and 2007, when Brazil lost 25 million hectares, according to satellite imagery.

http://www.hindu.com/2010/03/08/stories/...101600.htm .
[size="6"]ISRO puts off Israeli payload’s launch[/size]

In a blow to the Indian and Israeli researchers, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has decided to leave out TAUVEX (Tel Aviv University Ultra Violet Experiment), an Israeli payload, during the launch of its experimental communication satellite GSAT-4.

“We were very disappointed to learn that we were to be removed from the spacecraft. We have worked for this for a long time and were excited by the prospect of getting excellent science. We are now waiting for ISRO to tell us when the next launch opportunity will be”, Jayant Murthy, professor at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics here and the Indian principal investigator of TAUVEX, told The Tribune in an email.

Responding to this reporter’s query, Noah Brosch, Tel Aviv University’s Wise Observatory director, who is the Israeli principal investigator of TAUVEX, said, “I have been made aware of the satellite problems, and knew that the panel on which TAUVEX was mounted had been taken off to allow work to proceed on some components (unrelated to TAUVEX) that needed replacing.

If GSAT-4 will launch without TAUVEX this would be very disappointing indeed. We went through a considerable amount of work and expense to fit TAUVEX to this satellite, and were looking forward to some excellent and unique science that only TAUVEX could have provided”.

Brosch added that if GSAT-4 was launched without TAUVEX, he would “expect that ISRO would come back to me with an explanation”.

An MoU for including the TAUVEX on GSAT-4 was signed on December 25, 2003, by G Madhavan Nair, the then ISRO chairman, and Aby Har-Even, director-general, Israel Space Agency (ISA) at ISRO headquarters here. The MoU followed the cooperative agreement signed between ISRO and ISA in October 2002.

Data from the telescope (TAUVEX) was supposed to help in solving astrophysical questions related to star formation, history of galaxies, physics of giant black holes, etc. It could also help in guiding other space telescopes towards selected interesting objects in the sky.

K Radhakrishnan, ISRO chairman, did not respond to an email sent by this reporter regarding leaving out of TAUVEX during the proposed launch of the GSAT-4 satellite.

S Satish, director, publicity and public relations, ISRO, claimed that no final decision had been taken with regard to dropping TAUVEX from the launch. “Our Indian payloads will come first”, he said.

Knowledgeable sources said the ISRO wanted to keep the satellite light and this had prompted it to leave out TAUVEX from the launch. The issue, however, raises a question mark on the efficacy of the GSLV launcher, powered by the first indigenous cryogenic engine, which is slated to put the satellite in the orbit. GSAT-4 is slated for launch sometime this year.

I think that GSLV Mark-3 will become fully operational around 2014-15. Any idea what would be the weight of INSAT series by that time, as I understand that the weight of these satellites is also increasing over time
[quote name='Raj Malhotra' date='09 March 2010 - 07:11 PM' timestamp='1268141639' post='104995']

I think that GSLV Mark-3 will become fully operational around 2014-15. Any idea what would be the weight of INSAT series by that time, as I understand that the weight of these satellites is also increasing over time


I reckon it would be air borne before that, INSAT weight would not be a problem because the last heaviest INSAT was 2 plus tons and GSLV-3 (has enough room) can handle 4 tons of cargo.
[quote name='Raj Malhotra' date='09 March 2010 - 07:11 PM' timestamp='1268141639' post='104995']

I think that GSLV Mark-3 will become fully operational around 2014-15. Any idea what would be the weight of INSAT series by that time, as I understand that the weight of these satellites is also increasing over time


INSAT's are being launched in 2 configurations. The 2K bus is for 2-2.5 tonne weight and is designed taking into account GSLV-1/2 launcher payload limited to 2.5 tonne. OTOH INSATs launched by European Ariane launch vehicle are in 3.3 tonne category using 3K bus.

Larger overall weight allows increased fraction of mass of communication & solar panel payload that earns revenue, compared to non-dead weight of vehicle frame and station keeping hardware and fuel. Thus vehicle mass permitting one tries to push as high a satellite as possible. Increased satellite mass also makes it costly, and any failure there off becomes a insurance nightmare. Thus heavier payloads also carry redundant hardware for station keeping. It is a optimization abttle to extract the maximum performance for a given cost and risk rate.

One could easily argue that both 2K and 3K bus are near optimum for their category and 3K is slightly more cost effective than 2k. That cost effectiveness difference is not big to burn a hole in the pocket.

Bottom line teh GSLV Mk-III with 4 tonne payload will increase INSAT cost effectiveness further and competitive compared to other space launchers. Pls note that ISRO's launcher cost (including organizational overhead) is far lower than Ariane, thus overall cost-value proposition of a 6 tonne satellite launched by Ariane and a 4 tonne satellite launched by GSLV-MkIII, the latter will still be more cost effective. So it is not a payload mass game only.
See ISRO deal with GLONASS

[url="http://www.hindustantimes.com/India-Russia-sign-two-nuclear-pacts-boost-ties/H1-Article1-518303.aspx"]India, Russia sign nuclear pacts, Gorshkov deal[/url]

Quote:Indo-Asian News ServiceNew Delhi, March 12, 2010India and Russia on Friday invigorated their time-tested ties by signing a slew of pacts, including two nuclear accords, and sealed the price of refitted Soviet-era aircraft carrier Admiral Gorshkov, ending a minor irritant in their bilateral ties.

Ending years of stagnation in their economic ties, the two sides decided to take their ties beyond defence purchases by signing pacts on oil exploration, trade in diamonds and import of fertilizers.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh held talks for around two hours with Russian Premier Vladimir Putin, who is on a 22-hour visit to India, to accelerate their cooperation across a range of areas spanning civil nuclear energy, space, high-technology to defence, hydrocarbons, trade and telecommunications.

"I convey to Prime Minister Putin that relations with Russia are a key pillar of our foreign policy and [size="4"]we regard Russia as a [color="#0000ff"]trusted and reliable strategic partner[/color][/size]," Manmohan Singh said at a joint press conference with Putin.

Besides reviewing bilateral ties, the two sides also discussed a cluster of regional and global issues, including counter-terrorism, the situation in Afghanistan and Pakistan, the upcoming Nuclear Summit in Washington, and the international financial crisis.

The two sides inked five agreements in the presence of the two leaders. Several other agreements were inked on the sidelines of the talks.

The signing of the umbrella nuclear pact, initialled during Manmohan Singh's trip to Moscow in December last year, and another one laying out a roadmap for the serial construction of Russian design reactors are set to open more avenues of nuclear cooperation between the two countries.

A separate commercial contract between India's public sector nuclear monopoly NPCIL and Russia's Atomstroy Export was also signed for building two more civil nuclear reactors of 1,000 MW each at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu.

Russia is already building two reactors at this site. India has allocated another site for Russian nuclear reactors at Haripur in West Bengal. "This is one of our major, far-reaching, promising areas of interaction," Putin said while talking with Indian businessman in Mumbai, Bangalore and New Delhi through video-conferencing.

Cooperation with India in nuclear energy will include not only building reactors and supply of the fuel, [color="#0000ff"]but also waste disposal[/color], he said.

Marking a new high in their high-tech cooperation, the [color="#0000ff"]Indian Space Research Organisation and the Russian space agency inked a pact on civilian application of the Russia Glonass (the Global Navigation Satellite System),[/color] the Russian equivalent of the US Global Positioning System.

The sealing of the long-delayed renegotiated deal for Admiral Gorshkov, renamed by India as INS Vikramaditya, fixing the price at $2.35 billion has removed an irritant in bilateral ties that had tended to cloud the decades-long defence ties between the two countries. Fourteen supplementary agreements were signed for finalisation of cost and other technical aspects of the carrier.

Despite new players like France, Israel and the US supplying military hardware, Russia continues to account for 60 to 70 percent of total Indian defence purchase, making it the largest supplier of military hardware to India.

The two sides also inked a deal for development of multi-role transport aircraft.

The big breakthrough, however, came in a slew of steps aimed at scaling up their current $7.5 billion bilateral trade to $20 billion by 2015. The economic ties have not matched the level of political trust and strategic partnership the two countries have enjoyed since the Soviet era due to a host of issues.

The two sides have identified IT and telecommunications as focus areas fOr future economic cooperation, Manmohan Singh said.

Besides two pacts on import of potash and mineral fertilizers, Russian state diamond monopoly AlRosa and Diamond India Ltd signed three more pacts. Two more pacts were signed between private diamond trading companies.

Russian state monopoly Gazprom also inked a pact with India's ONGC on oil exploration in Russia.

"There is the political will on both sides, but we need support from the captains of industry," Putin said. "We should think about the future," Putin said, adding that commercial ties must expand into areas such as energy, banking and IT.
[url="http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/5727842.cms"]India to launch rocket with own engine technology in a month, including plasma engine on GSAT-4[/url]

Quote:26 Mar 2010, 1643 hrs IST, PTI

BANGALORE: India is set to launch in a month its powerful rocket with the homemade cryogenic engine to propel a satellite into a geosynchronous

orbit and become only the sixth nation to develop this complex engine.

The much awaited launch has been billed as a landmark event for the country's space programme after its maiden unmanned moon mission Chandrayaan-I in 2008.

India had been using Russia-made cryogenic engines so far for satellite launchings. A cryogenic engine will be used for the first time in the rocket's upper stage.

Indian Space Research Organisation(ISRO) is getting ready for the launch of the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) from the spaceport of Sriharikota expected on April 15, an ISRO source said. A geo-stationary orbit is about 36,000 km above the earth.

"The launch is likely to be on April 15 or before April 20. Preparations are underway", the source said, adding "The exact date of the launch will be finalised at the mission readiness review in Sriharikota on Sunday".

With the launch, India would join a select club of five nations--U.S., Russia, China, Japan and Israel--that had mastered the complex cryogenic technology. The mission would make New Delhi totally self-reliant in all aspects of launch vehicle technology 15 years after work was started on developing the cryogenic technology.

It would be the first time that ISRO would launch a GSLV with indigenous cryogenic engine, a programme that was taken up in 1996 following the technology denial regime in the 1990s. The US had then forced Russia to stop giving India the technology.

ISRO's previous GSLV flights carried Russian cryogenic engines procured earlier. Next month's GSLV would carry GSAT-4, a 2,200 kg technology demonstrator satellite.

Also for the first time, ISRO would test the electric propulsion technology -- plasma thrusters -- that Indian space scientists developed, in GSAT-4, in addition to chemical propulsion that it had been using.

According to ISRO officials, the electric propulsion technology is expected to boost the life of geostationary satellites by upto five years.

"This is a concept we are going to prove in this (GSAT-4). Once proven, it can be adopted as standard for future geostationary orbits", an ISRO official said.

Technological challenges faced during the development of indigenous cryogenic engine and stage include those relating to new materials, composite thermal insulation, new fabrication techniques, handling of cryogenic fluids at cryogenic temperatures, realisation of facilities for assembly, integration and testing, and associated safety systems, ISRO officials said.
[url="http://www.isro.org/rep2010/Index.htm"]ISRO 2009-10 Annual Report[/url]


Quote:Forthcoming Satellites


GSAT-4, envisaged as a technology demonstrator, carries a communication payload consisting of a multi-beam Ka-band bent pipe, regenerative transponder and a navigation payload in C, L1 and L5 bands.

[Image: GSAT-4-Catvac.jpg] [center]GSAT-4 ready to enter CATVAC[/center] GSAT-4 having propulsion system with four stationary plasma thrusters, Bus Management Unit (BMU), miniaturised dynamically tuned gyros, 36 AH Lithium ion battery, 70 V bus for Ka band TWTAs, on-board structural dynamic vibration beam accelerometer, are some of the new technologies developed for the mission. The satellite weighs around 2200 kg and has a payload power of 1600W. GSAT-4 will be positioned at 82 deg East longitude.

The satellite integration and test activities are in advanced stage. Spacecraft closed mode IST has been completed. The thermovacuum tests have been completed successfully and the Spacecraft Dynamic and CATF tests are in progress. The spacecraft is almost ready for shipment to SDSC SHAR.

[Image: Gsat4-electric.jpg] [center]GSAT-4 plasma thruster mounted on satellite structure[/center] AVANTI HYLAS

Hylas is being developed and built for Avanti Screenmedia, UK jointly with EADS-Astrium under a contract through ANTRIX. EADS Astrium is the prime contractor in charge of overall programme management and will build the communications payload. ANTRIX, ISRO will build the satellite bus, based on the flight proven I-2K model with a lift off mass of around 2550 kg and payload power of 2000 W, integrate and test the satellite. ISRO will also be in charge of Launch and Early Orbit operations. Hylas is designed for an operational lifetime of 15 years and exploits generic, flexible payload equipment.

Avanti Hylas payloads are:

  • Ku-Band transponders covering entire Western Europe through 15m deployable reflector
  • Ka-band transponders providing eight spot beams through 2.6m x 1.6m
During the year, the satellite bus elements were realised. Integration Readiness Review was completed with the participation of M/s. Astrium. All bus elements except BMU and Inertial Systems have been integrated with the spacecraft. Disassembled mode IST is in progress. The satellite will be ready for shipment by mid 2010.

[Image: Hylas.jpg] [center]Hylas Spacecraft during integration[/center] GSAT-5 PRIME

GSAT-5P is being planned as replacement for INSAT-3E and will carry 24 Normal C Band and 12 Extended C Band transponders with India Coverage. The spacecraft will be positioned at 55 deg East longitude with a mission life of 12 years.

The spacecraft weighs 2330 kg and payload power requirement is 1700W. Spacecraft configuration and equipment panel layouts are finalised. Payload subsystems and other subsystem packages are under advanced stage of realisation.

in uplink and downlink over Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe as well as zonal coverage with a minimum of 35 dBW EIRP.

The spacecraft has a mission life of 12 years. The spacecraft weighs 2330 kg and has a power generation capability of 2000W. The layouts for all equipment panels are finalised. Fabrication of bus system elements have been initiated.


The primary goal of GSAT-6/INSAT-4E, which is a Multimedia broadcast satellite, is to cater to the consumer requirements of providing entertainment and information services to vehicles through Digital Multimedia consoles and to the Multimedia mobile Phones. The satellite carries a 5 spot beam BSS and 5 spot beam MSS. It will be positioned at 83 deg East longitude with a mission life of 12 years.

The satellite configuration is based on I-2K bus system with a liftoff mass of 2200 kg and payload power of 2300W. Power system is configured with a single bus providing 70V regulated bus for the TWTAs and 42 V regulated bus for the mainframe systems and other payload elements. Multi-junction solar cells for power generation and Lithium-Ion batteries for power storage have been used.

An indigenously developed Unfurlable Antenna(UFA) which provides five beams to cover the entire Indian land mass is the new element in the satellite. The scaled down model (2m dia) of the UFA with the same design and fabrication features has been developed to evaluate its RF performance. Fabrication of all platform systems hardware is in progress and payload subsystem elements are available. The launch is planned on-board GSLV during 2010.


GSAT-7 is a multi-band satellite carrying payloads in UHF, S-band, C-band and Ku-band. It is planned to be launched during 2011 onboard GSLV and positioned at 74 deg East. The satellite weighs 2330 kg with a payload power of 2000W and mission life of 9 years. Structural configuration of the satellite has been finalised and the layout work is completed, detailed design of UHF antenna mechanism is in progress and antenna shock analysis completed. The platform systems are under fabrication and payload subsystem procurement is in progress.


GSAT-8/INSAT-4G is a Ku-band satellite carrying 18 Ku band transponders. It will also carry a GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) payload. The satellite is planned to be launched during 2010 with a mission life of 12 years and positioned at 55 deg E longitude. This I-3K satellite with a lift-off mass of 3150 kg and a payload power of 5300W will be launched on board ARIANE-5. Fabrication of bus systems is in an advanced stage.


GSAT-12 is being realised as replacement INSAT-3B. Realisation of various sub systems is progressing satisfactorily. The satellite will carry 12 Extended C-band transponders and will be positioned at 83 deg East longitude with a mission life of 7 years. The bus system is based on I-1K platform with ASIC based BMU and 64 Ah Li-ion batteries. The satellite weighs 1375 kg with a payload power of 550W.

During the current year, the Configuration Design Review was completed and all layouts and interfaces were finalised. Payload realisation is in progress. Fabrication of bus systems is in progress and launch is planned onboard PSLV during 2010.


GSAT-9 will carry 6 C band and 24 Ku band transponders with India coverage beam. The satellite is planned to be launched during 2011-12 with a mission life of 12 years and positioned at 48 deg E longitude. This I-2K satellite has a liftoff mass of 2330 kg and payload power of 2300W.


GSAT-I0 will carry 12 Normal C-band, 12 Extended C-band and 12 Ku-band transponders. It will also carry GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) payload. The satellite is planned to be launched during 2011 with a mission life of 15 years and positioned at 83 deg East longitude. This I-3K satellite with liftoff mass of 3435 kg and payload power of 4500 W will be launched on board ARIANE-5.

Configuration of both platform systems and payload has been finalised and procurement action for long lead items has been initiated. Fabrication of platform systems is already initiated.


INSAT-3D, a meteorological satellite, carries a 6-Channel VHRR and a 19 channel Sounder. VHRR provides information in the visible (0.6) and near infrared (1.6) with 1 km resolution; MWIR (3.9) with 4 km resolution; Water Vapour (6.7) with 8km resolution; and IR 10.8 and IR 12.0 with 4 km resolution. INSAT-3D Sounder has 18 infrared channels and a visible channel to help cloud detection during daytime.

Many geophysical parameters such as the Outgoing. Long wave Radiation (OLR), Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE), Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Snow cover, Snow depth, Cloud Motion Vector, Water Vapor Wind (WVW), Upper Troposheric Humidity, Temperature, Humidity profile and Total Ozone, aerosols, etc., are expected to provide operational inputs for weather forecasting applications. The satellite has many new technology elements like star sensor, micro stepping Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) to reduce spacecraft disturbances and Bus Management Unit (BMU) for control and Telemetry /Telecommand function. It also incorporates new features of bi-annual rotation and image and mirror motion compensation for improved performance of the meteorological payloads.

The spacecraft weighs 2050 kg with power generation capability of 1200W. The subsystem fabrication is in advanced stage of realisation. FM Sounder payload testing is completed and FM Imager payload system level optimisation is in progress. Mainframe elements, structure along with north and south equipment panels are available. Many of the bus-system elements are in advanced stage of realisation and the launch is planned on-board GSLV in 2010-11.



The Indian Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) is called GAGAN. The Technology Demonstration Phase (TDS) of GAGAN was successfully completed in August 2007. As apart of the TDS, eight Indian Reference Stations (INRESs) have been installed at eight Indian airports. They are linked to the Master Control Center (MCC) located at Kundanhalli near Bangalore. From MCC, the Indian Land Uplink Station (INLUS) transmits correction signals to the space segment having GAGAN navigation payload which translates these signals to the GPS LT bands for reception by a GPS SBAS receiver. In June 2009, the operational phase (FOP) of GAGAN was initiated. The GAGAN system is expected to be ready for testing in about 18 months.

The first GAGAN navigation payload has been fabricated and it is proposed to be flown on GSAT-4 which will be launched in 2010. Two more GAGAN payloads will be subsequently flown, one each on two geostationary satellites, GSAT-8 and GSAT-10. Preparation of sites for INRES installation and third INREE chain on TDS system is in progress.


IRNSS constellation consists of seven satellites. Three satellites will be placed in Geostationary orbit (GEO) at 34°E, 83°E & 131.5°E and two satellites each will be placed in the Geosynchronous orbit (GSO) with equatorial crossing at 55°E and 111.5°E with an inclination of 29° to the equator. Two spare satellites are also planned to be realised. IRNSS will have two types of signals, in L5 and S-Band. IRNSS provides two basic services a Standard Positioning Service (SPS) for common civilian users and a Restricted Service (RS) for special authorised users.

IRNSS Signal and Data structure have been prepared and reviewed. The signal and data structure has been prepared after extensive study by groups at the work centers.

[center]Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS)[/center] [center] [/center]

The civil construction work for the Navigation Control Centre at Bangalore and the Satellite Control Facility at Hassan is in progress. The navigation software for IRNSS is being indigenously developed at ISRO Satellite Centre. As a part of this activity, many modules have been developed and testing is in progress. Coverage Studies, Error Analysis, Up linking scheme for Navigation Parameters and Time Synchronisation have been carried out. Navigation Payload configuration is frozen and Preliminary Design Review (PDR) has been completed. The realisation of the Payload Engineering Model is progressing satisfactorily.

The spacecraft configuration has been finalised and the satellites of the constellation are being configured identically and each spacecraft weighs 1380 kg. Fabrication of six structural cylinders is completed. Most of the standard hardware is productionised. The spacecraft is basically configured with I-1K Bus to be compatible with launch onboard PSLV. After detailed analysis, it was found that it would be possible to launch two numbers of inclined orbit satellites in one flight of GSLV.

CARTOSAT-2, the twelfth in the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite series, is an advanced remote sensing satellite capable of providing scene-specific spot imagery. CARTOSAT-2, launched on January 10, 2007 by PSLV-C7, carries a single panchromatic camera onboard capable of providing better than 1-meter spatial resolution imagery, with a swath of 9.6 km. The satellite has high agility with capability of steering along and across the track up to + 450 to facilitate imaging of any area more frequently. It was placed in a sun synchronous polar orbit of a nominal altitude of 630 km with a re-visit of 4-5 days and can be brought to a special orbit of 560 km with revisit periods of 4 days and 1 day respectively.

Cartosat-2 satellite has been functioning well, providing operational services to the user community. The data from the satellite is being used for cartographic applications at the cadastral level, urban and rural infrastructure development and management, as well as applications in Land Information System (LIS).

[Image: Phased-Array.jpg] [center]Phased Array Antenna of Cartosat-2

developed at ISAC

Forthcoming Satellites


The Cartosat-2B satellite, a follow on of Cartosat-2A, weighing around 690 kg, is configured to provide multi-scene imaging capability during a pass. The advanced remote sensing satellite will be carrying onboard a single panchromatic camera providing scene specific spot imageries for cartographic and a host of other civilian applications. The satellite is highly agile having a capability of steering along and across the track up to ± 450. It will be placed in a sun synchronous polar orbit of a nominal altitude of 630 km with a re-visit period of 4-5 days. There is a provision to bring the satellite to a special orbit of 560 km with a revisit period of 1 day. The panchromatic camera is designed to provide better than 1 m spatial resolution imageries with a swath of 9.6 km. The satellite is designed for an operational life of 5 years. The spacecraft is under integration and will be launched by PSLV in the first quarter of 2010.


Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-1) mission will have a C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) payload, operating in a multi-polarisation and multi-resolution mode. SAR, being an active sensor, operating in the microwave range of electromagnetic spectrum, provides target parameters such as dielectric constant, roughness, and geometry, and has the unique capability for day-night imaging, and imaging in all weather conditions including fog and haze and also provides information on soil moisture. The SAR payload is based on an active phased array technology using Transmit / Receive (TR) modules, which would provide necessary electronic agility for achieving the multi-mode capability, providing spatial resolutions of 1 m to 50 m, and 10 to 240 km swath modes to cater to different applications. The Local Time of RISAT is 06:00 hours at the descending node.

The development of complex technologies pertaining to phased array antenna of 6 m x 2 m size hosting 20736 radiative elements, 288 TR module pairs feeding the radiative elements, a number of power converters supplying power to all these elements, signal distribution and calibration network, range and azimuth compression and data compression as well as handling very high average DC power of 4.7 KW during payload operations etc., form part of the overall mission, hitherto not attempted in IRS satellites. Ground data processing systems with large computational requirements is under development. The satellite weighing around 1850 kg is in the final stages of development for launch by PSLV-XL during third quarter of 2010 into a 536 km orbit with 25 days repetitivity with an added advantage of 12 days inner cycle for CRS mode.


Resourcesat-2 is a follow on mission to Resourcesat-1 to provide data continuity. Compared to Resourcesat-1, LISS-4 multispectral swath has been enhanced from 23 km to 70 km based on user needs. Suitable changes including miniaturisation in payload electronics have been incorporated in Resourcesat-2. Resourcesat-2 is slated for launch during 2010.


(Megha means cloud in Sanskrit and Tropiques means tropics in French) is aimed at understanding the life cycle of convective systems and to understand their role in the associated energy and moisture budget of the atmosphere in the tropical regions. ISRO and French National Space Centre (CNES) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in 2004-05 to proceed with the development and implementation of Megha-Tropiques. The satellite will carry the following scientific instruments:

  • Microwave Analysis and Detection of Rain and Atmospheric Structures (MADRAS), an Imaging Radiometer to be developed jointly by CNES and ISRO
  • SAPHIR, a six channel Humidity Sounder
  • SCARAB, a four channel Scanner for Radiation Budget Measurement
  • GPS-ROS - GPS Radio Occultation System to provide vertical profiles of temperature and humidity of the earth's atmosphere
ISRO is building the Megha-Tropiques spacecraft using IRS platform and launch it using PSLV into 867 km orbit at an inclination of 20 degrees with respect to the equatorial plane. ISRO will also control the satellite in orbit and also receive, process and distribute the scientific data obtained from the satellite. All flight structure elements have been tested and assembled. Mainframe subsystems are in final stages of realisation. The electronic hardware for MADRAS payload is delivered for assembly. Testing of SCARAB and SAPHIR payloads is completed. The launch of Megha-Tropiques is planned during the fourth quarter of 2010.


The Satellite for ARGOS and ALTIKA (SARAL) is a joint ISRO - CNES mission, and will be launched by PSLV into a sun-synchronous, 6 am - 6 pm orbit at an altitude of around 800 km. The Ka band altimeter, ALTIKA, provided by CNES operates at 35.75 GHz. A dual frequency total power type microwave radiometer (23.8 and 37 GHz) is embedded in the altimeter to correct tropospheric effects on the altimeter measurement. Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) on board enable precise determination of the orbit. A Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA) helps to calibrate the precise orbit determination system and the altimeter system several times throughout the mission.

SARAL / ARGOS Data Collection System (DCS) represents a joint contribution of ISRO and CNES to the development and operational implementation of the global ARGOS Data Collection System. The main objective is to receive data from Data Collection Platforms and transmit these to the ARGOS Ground Segment, for subsequent transmission to the ARGOS Data Processing and Distribution Centre in Toulouse, France. In addition, ARGOS Payload allows the transmission of short messages directly to Data Collection Platforms equipped with a receiver.

SARAL payload will be accommodated in the mini-satellite bus ranging between 400-450 kg class, named as SSB-1 (Small Satellite Bus). SARAL will provide Data Products to the operational and research user communities, in support of Marine meteorology and sea state forecasting; Operational oceanography; Seasonal forecasting; Climate monitoring; and Ocean, Earth system and climate research. Preliminary Design Review has been completed. SARAL simulator has been delivered to CNES. Spacecraft Mainframe systems are under fabrication and payload delivery is expected in May 2010. The satellite launch is planned during 2011.

Ground Segment

ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) with its headquarters at Bangalore is providing TTC and mission control support to launch vehicle missions and near earth orbiting satellites through an integrated network of ground stations at Bangalore, Lucknow, Sriharikota, Port Blair, Thiruvananthapuram Mauritius, Tromso and Svalbard (Norway) & Troll (Antartica) and Biak (Indonesia), has a multimission Spacecraft Control Centre at Bangalore.

ISTRAC provides:

  • Telemetry Tracking and Command (TTC) support to ISRO launch vehicle missions from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR from lift-off till satellite injection, down range tracking support for satellite injection monitoring and Preliminary Orbit Determination (POD)
  • TTC support including house-keeping data acquisition throughout the mission life for low earth orbiting satellites and their health monitoring and control operations
  • Scientific payload data reception and processing for payload scientists ISTRAC also provides TTC support to international space agencies under commercial agreements through ANTRIX Corporation. ISTRAC has also established the SPACENET, connecting various ISRO Centres.
During the year, ISTRAC provided the launch, preliminary orbit determination and on-orbit support for the launch of RISAT-2 and OCEANSAT-2 satellites. It continued to track, monitor and control TES, Oceansat-1, Resourcesat-1, CARTOSAT-1, CARTOSAT-2, CARTOSAT-2A, IMS-1, RISAT-2 and OCEANSAT-2. Remote sensing payload operations were carried out during the year on IRS-1C and IRS-1D over Indian stations at Shadnagar, and also over 15 Foreign Data Reception Stations (FDRS). About 350 to 400 payload operations are carried out per month for each satellite. Payload operations of OCEANSAT-1 were carried out over Indian station. IRS-P3 payload was operated about 250 times per month over Shadnagar in India and Neustralitz (Germany), Wallops (USA) and Maspolamas (Spain). TES Payload (PAN) operations are regularly carried out over India. [/center]

and some more.

Quote: Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV)

ISRO's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), in its first operational flight (GSLV-F01), launched 1950 kg EDUSAT, India's first exclusive satellite for educational services, from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, SHAR, Sriharikota on September 20, 2004.

GSLV was declared operational after both its developmental test flights conducted in April 2001 and May 2003 were successful.

For the 49 metre tall, 414 tonne, GSLV first stage, GS1, comprises a core motor with 139 tonne of solid propellant and four strap-ons each with 40 tonne of hypergolic liquid propellants (UH25 and N204). The second stage has 39 tonne of the same hypergolic liquid propellants. The third stage (GS3) is a cryogenic stage with 12.5 tonne of Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2). The Composite Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) GSLV payload fairing is 4 m in diameter and is 8 m long.

All the GSLV Missions flown so far utilised cryogenic stage (CS) procured from Russia. The GSLV-D3 is the third developmental Mission of GSLV. The main significance of this mission is the usage of the indigenously developed Cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS) in place of bought out Cryogenic Stage (CS) from Russia.

[Image: PAM-G-Hot-test.jpg] [center]PAM-G stage undergoing hot test


GSLV-Mk III is envisaged to launch a four tonne satellite into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. GSLV-Mk III is a three-stage vehicle with a 110 tonne core liquid propellant stage (L-110) and a strap-on stage with two solid propellant motors, each with 200 tonne propellant (S-200). The upper stage will be cryogenic with a propellant loading of 25 tonne (C-25). GSLV- Mk III will have a lift-off weight of about 629 tonne and will be 42.4 m tall. The payload fairing will have a diameter of 5 metre and a payload volume of 100 cubic metre.

[Image: L110-Dev-stage.jpg] [center]L110 development stage[/center]

GSLV MkIII programme is presently in the hardware testing and qualification stage. The project has entered the phase of stage level tests for propulsion modules with the successful static test of S200 on January 24, 2010.

[Image: CE20.jpg]
[center]CE20 Integrated Turbopump Hot Test in progress[/center] L110 development stage functional integration has been completed. Structural test facility for propellant tanks commissioned at SDSC, SHAR. Preparation and assembly of L110 stage for long duration hot test is progressing well at LPSC, Mahendragiri.

Indigenously developed turbo pump system of CE20 engine was successfully tested in integrated pressure fed mode for 60 seconds. First launch of GSLV Mk III is expected during 2011-12.

Space capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-2)

SRE-2 is proposed to be launched onboard PSLV-C19 in of 2010 - 11. The main objective of this mission is to realise a fully recoverable capsule and provide a platform to conduct microgravity experiments.

SRE-2 carries six new payloads - Advanced Isothermal Heating Furnace (IHF) to study the effect of microgravity on liquid phase sintering of powder metallurgy products and processing Carbon nanotube, CCMB Bioreactor to study the effect of microgravity on gene expression of E-coli bacteria, Langmuir Probe for Electron density measurement, Dosimeter for orbital radiation measurement, JAXA payload for Cyanobacteria growth and Biopa payload to study growth and gene expression of seeds.

SRE-2 capsule has four major hardware: Aero Thermostructure (ATS), Spacecraft platform, deceleration and floatation system and six new payloads. New systems developed for SRE 2 include Carbon-Carbon Nose Cone, and indigenous Beacons.

Semi Cryogenic Engine Development (SCED)

Semi-Cryogenic Engine development envisages the development of a high thrust engine producing 2000 kN (Vacuum) thrust with Liquid Oxygen and kerosene propellant combination for the Common Liquid Core in Unified Launch Vehicle (ULV). As part of semi-cryo engine development pre-project activities, five designs of single element pre-burner injector were realised and tested. Semi-cryo Project Report was prepared and clearance obtained. Conceptual design of the semi cryo engine has been completed.

Advanced Technology Vehicles

Research and development activities in semi-cryogenic propulsion stages, air breathing propulsion and re-usable launch vehicle technology are also being pursued vigorously by the department in an effort towards reducing the cost of access to space.

Air Breathing Rocket Systems use atmospheric oxygen from the surroundings and burn it with the stored on-board fuel for producing the forward thrust in contrast to the conventional chemical rocket systems, which carry both the Oxygen and fuel on board. As a result, air-breathing systems become much lighter and more efficient leading to reduced overall costs.

Air Breathing Propulsion, along with Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology will lower cost of space access drastically. Scramjet engine with supersonic combustion is identified as the most critical element in Air Breathing propulsion technology.

As the Air-Breathing Systems have the capacity to operate only during the atmospheric phase of flight, they always have to be adopted along with conventional chemical rockets for meeting the final orbital velocity requirements. Air-Breathing engines like the turbojet engines used in aircraft have limitations of operating only upto a maximum of Mach number 3. To travel from Mach number 3 to 6, a RAMJET is used. Beyond Mach number 6, SCRAMJET propulsion is the only viable option.

The development of a SCRAMJET System is complex and it involves a number of technological challenges, especially those related to the mixing of very high speed air (velocity around 1.5 km/s) with fuel, achieving stable ignition and flame holding in addition to ensuring efficient combustion within the practical length of combustor. Supersonic combustion was successfully achieved in ground testing.

During the year, hypersonic air intake models were studied in wind tunnels simulating high flight velocities and supersonic combustor configuration was firmed up for first Scramjet flight. Full engine simulation with combustion was also carried out.

Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV)

The two stage vehicle with RH560 M motor for first stage (Booster Stage), RH560M motor for the second stage (sustainer stage) with all associated structural systems and payload is having a total length of 10.3 meters with a take-off mass of 3 tonnes.

The first flight aims at vehicle characterisation and performance evaluation. Booster and sustainer motors, structures, separation and destruct system were realised during the year.

Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstrator

As a first step towards realising a Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) fully re-usable launch vehicle, a series of technology demonstration missions have been conceived. For this purpose, a Winged Reusable Launch Vehicle technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) has been configured.

The RLV-TD will act as a flying test bed to evaluate various technologies, viz., hypersonic flight, autonomous landing, powered cruise flight and hypersonic flight using air breathing propulsion. First in the series of demonstration trials is the hypersonic flight experiment (HEX).

[Image: rlv-TD.jpg] [center]An artist’s view of RLV-TD[/center] During the year, aerodynamic characterisation of technology demonstration vehicle was completed at NAL, VSSC and IITK. Trajectory design and Closed Loop Guidance algorithm from lift off to touch down was also completed. Besides, aerodynamic characterisation of ascent and descent configuration, lift off aerodynamic studies at IIT Kanpur and control surface deflection studies at hypersonic Mach numbers by in-house wind tunnel tests were completed.

Engineering model of Airframe and simulation models of avionics packages were realised. HS9 motor static test completed.

Advanced R&D Projects

Aerodynamic characterisation of advanced space transportation system needs higher capacity facilities. Towards this, 1m diameter hypersonic wind tunnel and 1 m diameter shock tunnel are in advanced stage of realisation. During the year, vacuum system for Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Project facility was commissioned. Besides, a Higher capacity shaker system is being indigenously realised for environmental vibration testing of future launch vehicle subsystems. And, to simulate the plasma environment faced by reentry modules like SRE-II and HSP Crew module, current 1 MW Plasma tunnel is being enhanced to 6 MW Plasma Tunnel.

Launch infrastructure

SDSC SHAR supported two launches of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C12 on April 20, 2009 for RISAT-2 and ANUSAT and PSLV-C14 on September 23, 2009 for launching Oceansat - 2.

[Image: S200-test.jpg] [center]S200 at its test facility[/center] Fluid mockup trials on Indigenous CUS were completed using filling software developed in house.

State of the art S-200 Solid Propellant Plant (SPP) with built in automation and safety features has been commissioned successfully at SDSC SHAR. This includes full commissioning of facilities for Hardware Insulation and Lining, Raw Material Preparation, Premix, Mixing and Bowl cleaning, Casting, Curing and Post Curing like Propellant Machining, Inhibition and Tilting and NDT. Static Test of S200 motor, the third largest in the worls was conducted successfully on January 24, 2010. Vehicle Assembly and Test Facilities (VATF), Range Instrumentation and Computer Systems (RICS) and Propellant Servicing Facilities (PSF) required for GSLV-Mk III project are nearing completion.

Quote:[Image: AVN_RLV_84874f.jpg]

India developing winged reusable rocket : ISRO


India’s space scientists have already configured a winged Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD). This is a first step towards realising a Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) fully re-reusable launch vehicle, according to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

Meanwhile, for the Chandrayaan-2 mission, expected by 2012-13, ISRO has received 36 Indian payload proposals for orbiter and lander/rover.

“With this, Megha-Tropiques will be one of the eight satellites contributing to the global scientific community to study and understand the dynamics of climate system,” it said.

Data from the recently-launched Oceansat-2, which carried an atmospheric sounder ‘ROSA’ from Italy apart from main payloads -- ocean colour monitor and scatterometer -- is highly sought after by international scientific community.
Date:30/03/2010 URL: GAGAN : [size="4"][color="blue"][url="%20http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2010/03/30/stories/2010033051171800.htm"]Space-based navigation to take off in April[/url][/color][/size]

Quote:Madhumathi D.S.

Bangalore, March 29

Civil aviation in the country looks set to take the first step towards modern space-based navigation when GSAT-4, the country's first satellite carrying a navigational payload, is flagged off in mid-April.

The navigational payload is only a part of the satellite and is part of the Rs 776-crore GAGAN programme initiated by the Airports Authority of India and the Indian Space Research Organisation at least five years ago.

An ISRO official said GAGAN (GPS-Aided Geo Augmented Navigational system) would herald the country's move towards seamless modern air traffic management.

Higher reliability

Although this was an augmentation of the US-owned GPS, “We do not have the space segment now. This may eventually do away with terrestrial navigational aids. It will offer higher reliability and enhanced positional accuracy, besides many improvements” to flights, the official told Business Line.

A technology demonstration phase of the project conducted by ISRO and AAI across the country a few years ago proved that GAGAN could indicate aircraft routes and landing points far more precisely than ground based navigation to pilots. Switching into different countries would be smoother.

GPS augmentation

Only the US, Europe and Japan are implementing a GPS augmentation as mandated by the International Civil Aviation Organisation.

GSAT-4, the satellite that carries the GAGAN payload, is due to be launched on April 15, a PTI report said.

However, these improvements in air cannot be expected immediately, the official said. At least one or two more satellites will be needed to fully realise its benefits. The next follow-on satellite carrying the GAGAN payload – the GSAT-8 – is due later.

The GAGAN project was approved in 2008 after a technology demonstration phase. The satellite made in Bangalore has been moved to Sriharikota for pre-launch testing and preparations.

The ground equipment for the GAGAN system, sourced from Raytheon, US, formed a major component of the cost of the project.

Meanwhile, ISRO is working on a GPS-independent Indian regional navigation system of seven satellites.

Dated but important:


S P A C E I N D I A [center]World-Class Solid Propellant Plant Commissioned at Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR[/center] The Solid Propellant Plant (SPP) at Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, set up for manufacturing S200 solid boosters of GSLV Mk-III, was commissioned on December 18, 2008 with the successful casting of Head-End Segment (HES). Subsequently, in February 2009, the Nozzle-End-Segment (NES) and in April 2009 the Middle Segment (MS) were also processed. Thus, processing of all the three segments for the first static test of S200 booster has been completed. The S200 booster segments with 3.2 m dia. stand as the second largest of their kind in the world.

Some of the solid propellant plants in the world had faced teething problems and some of the large size segments were rejected due to processing glitches.

Thus, processing of such large solid propellant booster segments without any hitch in the maiden attempt itself is a commendable achievement by the SPP team. This testifies to the professional maturity of the team in planning, establishing and operationalising the plant.

All the three segments are now undergoing various post-cure operations like propellant trimming, inhibition and non-destructive testing (NDT). Preliminary NDT of HES and NES shows that the segments are in good condition. Evaluation of mechanical, interface and ballistic properties of HES and NES has been completed and results are well within the specifications. Viscosity values of final mix slurry were made available on-line throughout the programme. Information pertaining to the overall programme, including the total number of final mix batches processed, total number of batches made at each station, unloading time of each batch at respective stations, etc., was also displayed in-situ in the mixing control room.

[Image: Chapter1-pic2.jpg] Propellant Slurry being transferred to master hopper

SPP and its constituent facilities

SPP has 53 buildings spread over 6 Sq Km area, interconnected with roads of 18 Km length. All the non-scritical operations and plant maintenance are taken care by operation and maintenance contractor, M/s Premier Explosives Limited. Automation and remote operation with built-in safety features in most of the facilities enable processing of large quantity of propellant (around 100 tons) within 24 Hrs. The annual capacity of the plant is to produce 900 ton of solid propellant required for 12 segments (delivery of four S200 boosters). Of the three segments of S200, the middle segment carries maximum propellant (about 98 tons).

The major constituent facilities of SPP are:
  • Hardware Insulation and Lining
  • Raw Materials Storage and Preparation
  • Propellant Mixing Stations and Pre-mix storage
  • Casting and Curing.
  • Bowl Cleaning and Bowl Preparation
  • Propellant Machining
  • Segment Inhibition and Tilting
  • Non-destructive Testing
  • Integrated Sample Processing
  • Analytical and Physical Testing Lab
  • Segment Storage Magazine
  • Material Handling and Maintenance
  • Electrical Sub-stations and Standby DG Stations
  • Fire Fighting and Protection System
[Image: Chapter1-pic3.jpg]Middle segment being loaded on to the transporter

[Image: Chapter1-pic4.jpg]Middle segment being tranported to Curing Facility

State-of-the-art facilities

Though the propellant processing technology adapted at SPROB (which produces S139 boosters for PSLV and GSLV) and SPP is more or less same, the quantity of propellant produced and the size of segments handled in SPP are three times more than that processed by SPROB. As large quantities of raw materials are to be handled for processing propellant for S200 segments, a need was felt to adopt bulk packing for storage and handling of major raw materials. Ammonium Perchlorate constituting 68% of solid propellant is being received from APEP, Aluva (VSSC) in flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBC) of 1000 kg capacity as against the old practice of 40 kg drums to minimise the number of containers handled during storage and processing. Liquid ingredients, namely, HTPB resin and plasticizer DOA, are received and stored in large sized tankers of 12 ton/8 ton capacity. Required quantity of these ingredients are transferred and weighed into bins using pneumatically operated double diaphragm pumps in closed loop batch weighing system.

SPP has five mixing stations. Of them, four will be in operation during final mixing. The fifth station will be contingent hot standby to meet the requirement of uninterrupted casting 100 tons of propellant within 24 hours. The casting facility is designed for continuous casting with two transfer cars to receive the bowls, tilt and transfer the propellant slurry into the master hopper which feeds the slurry to segment hardware. All operations in mixing and casting facilities are fully automated using the state-of-the-art PLC systems to avoid manual errors in operation. Integrated Sample Processing Facility (ISPF) carries out propellant mixing, casting, decoring, end trimming and inhibition of Agni motors for ballistic evaluation and cartons for the evaluation of mechanical/physical/interface properties. Radiographic inspection of segments takes place in horizontal attitude along the segment length using PLC programmable floor based LINAC handling system and film positioning system, without any manual intervention.

SPP has set-up a centralised data acquisition and control system in major operational areas, namely, raw material preparation, propellant mixing and propellant casting. Import systems like AP grinder, vertical mixer, Vertical Turning Mill (VTM) and linear accelerator are indigenised.

Built-in Safety

This plant is equipped with a modern fire fighting system comprising of four pumps of 410 cubic metres per hour capacity each, 2460 cubic meters of water storage, 17 km length of outdoor piping (80 NB to 600 NB) spread over the entire plant and fitted with 154 hydrant points. Eleven deluge systems and four sprinkler systems are provided in areas where propellant is processed.

With the twin objective of meeting the stringent safety requirements and reducing the manpower, the following 'process automations' are introduced in the plant:

  • Blasting, degreasing and resin lining of S200 hardware
  • Raw material feeding, bowl lid lifting and slurry spill collection in propellant mixing
  • Slurry feeding, continuous casting, segment handling with (grab) tackle, bowl cleaning
  • Agni motor decoring and Agni/carton trimming

All the facilities of SPP have undergone rigorous test and evaluation (T&E) process by expert committees proving their intended performance. These facilities were evaluated by three levels of safety committees.

Successful commissioning of this world-class solid propellant plant and successful realisation of all the three segments for S200 booster are the significant milestones in the progress of 'SHAR Facilities for GSLV Mk-III' (SFG) project.

Forum Jump:

Users browsing this thread: 1 Guest(s)