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This Day In History
<b>3-June-1857</b>: Sitapur, UP. Two regiments of Oudh Infantry and the 41st Native Infantry revolted. They broke the garrison of British Officers commanded by George Jackson Christian and rendered the city untenable. Every british in town was rounded and killed instantly. Christian left post and fled, but was pursued and executed.


Same day, at Farrukhabad, roughly 100 KMs from Kanpur, and an important river dock on the banks of Ganga, 10th Native Infantry also revolted in collaboration with the irregular soldiers made up of local rural youth. In a couple of days 41st NI (from Sitapur) arrived in town and the whole city rose in revolt, flushing out every single european from this important station. (from logistic standpoint, since the traffic though Ganga river then fell into the hands of revolutionaries)

Some of the British officers commanded by ROBERT BENSLEY THORNHILL fled through the river in boats, but were followed and killed. Some reached Bithoor on the other side of Kanpur only to be captured by the forces of Nana Saheb.



In mid of all this activity, Jeewan Lal a heriditary kayastha diwan of Mughals who had switched loyalty to British, went secretly from Meerut to meet the Raja of Ballabgarh and on the same day - June 3, 1857, met with Maulvi Ahmad Ali, Mukhtar of the Raja. Maulavi assured him of the loyalty of the Raja whom the Brithsh had favoured with Jagir and honour. Here (and a couple of days later at the state Bharatpur by means of bribe and deceit) Jeewan Lal secured a foothold for british.
June 4, 1729 Kanhoji Angre died.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Kanhoji Angre or Conajee Angria or Sarkhel Angre (Sarkhel is a title meaning Admiral of the Fleet)(? – June 4, 1729) was the first notable chief of the Maratha Navy in 18th century India. He fought successfully all his life against the British, Dutch and Portuguese naval interests in the Indian Ocean during the eighteenth century

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Kanhoji Angre stands alone in the Indian list of early freedom fighters as the one person who stood undefeated and inflicted many casualties on colonial powers. However, the British and other shipping powers who were heckled by Angre claimed that he was a privateer, purposely forgetting that he was the appointed admiral of the Maratha Navy.

Kanhoji is also credited with the foresight that a Blue Water Navy's role is to keep the enemy engaged away from the shores of the land. At one time he was so successful that he even employed certain Europeans in his fleet, including making one Dutchman his Commodore. At the height of power, Kanhoji's commanded hundreds of warships and the British Navy could do little to combat the Maratha Navy.[3]

Kanhoji's harassment of British commercial interests (who hence called him a pirate) and the Battle of Swally led them to establish a small naval force that eventually became the modern Indian Navy.

Angre's tomb is situated at the city of Alibag, Maharashtra.

A statue of Angre stands tall in Naval Dockyard in Mumbai. The fort which overlooks the Naval Docks may not be there but the boundary wall is still intact and within it lays the Headquarters of Western Naval Command and is called INS Angre ( Indian Naval Station Angre).<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
6 June 1984 - The Indian Army entered the Golden Temple in Amritsar in an effort to flush out terrorists, following an order from Indira Gandhi. Official casualties are 576 combatants killed and 335 wounded; independent observers estimate that thousands of unarmed Sikh civilians are also killed in the crossfire. A total death count adds up to almost 2,000.
June 4, 1857: Sepoys revolted at Kanpur and Khairabad. Road between Lucknow and Calcutta was cut off.

British garrison at Kanpur takes defensive positions in the Entrenchment, besieged by forces under Nana Sahib.

A british view-point:
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->    … the siege of Cawnpore was not a protracted affair. It lasted
just over three weeks, but it took place in June when the Indian sun
is at its most merciless. The entrenchment had almost no shade and
contained only one serviceable well. This, the only source of water
was in an extremely exposed position, covered by enemy fire. Many men
died trying to get water. Inside the position were about a thousand
Britons, including 300 women and children. Ammunition, at least, was
plentiful but the food supply was dangerously small. The mutineers
never actually took the place by storm though they made a few
half-hearted attacks. They could, however, cover almost every inch of
the entrenchment with their muskets and kept up a constant stream of
fire into the British position. The British could get no rest and
their movement was severely restricted...


June 5, 1857: Meanwhile, the Indian soldiers of 12th Native Inf. revolted at the garrison of Jhansi. After shooting the british officers they occupied the Star Fort, where the garrison’s treasury and magazine were stored. The city’s European populace took refuge in the (other) fort under the direction of Captain Skene. On June 8, Skene led the British out of the fort, and dispite Rani Lakshami Bai's plea to the soldiers to provide a safe passage to the British, Indian soldiers did not heed. The british were chased and killed. On June 12, with Jhansi's victory being complete, the Indian troops began marching towards Delhi where other rebels were gathering. (Rani had no control over these rebel soldiers. She in next one month raised a local army for herself)

June 6, 1857: Sepoys rebel at Allahabad but could not get hold of the magazine which was needed to carry on the assualt. Sikh troops confronted rebels.

June 8, 1857: Sepoys rebel at Faizabad, killing every British in cantonment.

Within 1 month - from May 10 to June 10 - the entire Awadh, in fact whole of UP including Bundelkhand but excluding ruhella areas was freed up from british control. http://www.defencejournal.com/2000/feb/c...indian.htm
June 6, 1674
Shivaji Maharaji was crowned Chhatrapati
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Shivaji was formally crowned Chhatrapati ("Chhatrapati= Chief, head or King of Kshatriyas", representing the protection he bestowed on his people) on June 6, 1674 at the Raigad fort, and given the title Kshatriya Kulavantas Sinhasanadheeshwar Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Pandit Gaga Bhatt, a renowned Brahmin from Varanasi, officially presided over the ceremony declaring that Shivaji's lineage was bonafide and recognized Kshatriya.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Before British came to India, Indians used Saka calendar or some regional one. Can we refer to the date (or nakshatra and month that people used during that time) according to that calendar when we want to talk about historical Hindu personalities or events? It may be tough, but I think it is worth the effort.
June 8 1658 : Emperor Shah Jahan taken as a prisoner in the Agra Fort by his sixth son Awrangzib. He died in prison after 8 years of illness.

This followed a bloody and prolonged war of succession. Crown Prince Dara Shukoh's armies were defeated first at Dharmat near Ujjain (15th April 1568) and again led by Dara himself, at Samugarh on 29th May 1658. Finally Dara who had fled to Punjab was chained, brought to delhi, dishonoured and paraded in public, and executed. Other brother Shah Shuja, who was governing Bengal, fled to barma after being defeated, and he was killed there mysteriousely. The youngest Murad, who governed Gujarat, was fooled by Awrangzib by the promise of the throne. He was intoxicated, arrested, and killed. Many others were blinded, maimed or killed.

June 5 1659 : Alomost one year down, Muhiuddin Muhammad Awrangzib finally succeeded in usurping the throne of delhi. Coronates himself on this date as "Alamgir".

When all the above was happening in North, it were these years during which young Shivaji was swiftly consolidating the strength of his nascent empire, cunningly keeping Mughals in good humour. He had a direct line of communication opened with Awrangzib from the early days when he was only a prince. (and also with the other princes)
June 9, 1964
Shastri sworn in as PM

17 June 1858 Rani Janshi Laxmibai falls
<img src='http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/a8/Rani_of_jhansi.jpeg/180px-Rani_of_jhansi.jpeg' border='0' alt='user posted image' />
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->The Rani met her death on 17 June, during the battle for Gwalior. The Rani of Jhansi donned warrior's clothes and rode into battle to save Gwalior Fort, about 120 miles west of Lucknow in what is now the state of Madhya.............

Because of her unprecedented bravery, courage and wisdom and her progressive views on women's empowerment in 19th century India, and due to her sacrifices, she became an icon of Indian nationalist movement.

June 21, 1576
Battle at Haldighati
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->On June 21, 1576 (June 18 by other calculations), the two armies met at Haldighati, near the town of Gogunda in present-day Rajasthan. While accounts vary as to the exact strength of the two armies, all sources concur that the Mughal forces greatly outnumbered Pratap's men. The battle of Haldighati, a historic event in the annals of Rajputana, lasted only four hours. In this short period, Pratap's men essayed many brave exploits on the field. Folklore has it that Pratap personally attacked Man Singh: his horse Chetak placed its front feet on the trunk of Man Singh's elephant and Pratap threw his lance; Man Singh ducked, and the mahout was killed.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Some images of Haldighat online
June 21 1940 Keshava Baliram Hedgewar , the founder of RSS died.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) first met in 1925 in a small ground in Nagpur with 5-6 persons on Vijaya Dashami.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
23 June 1757 Battle of Plassey

June 23, 1980 Sanjay Gandhi died in an air crash

June 23, 1985 Air-India Flight 182 Kanisha Boeing 747 en-route from Montreal, Canada to India exploded as it entered Irish airspace at an altitude of 31,000 feet (9500 m). The plane crashed into the sea killing all 329 people on board, of whom 280 were Canadian citizens. Prior to 9/11 it was the worst airborne terrorist action.

added later:
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->In that fateful summer of 1953, Jammu became the epicentre of a full-blown agitation in collaboration with the Akali Dal, led by Master Tara Singh. Nehru had added some fuel to this fire by conceding a psychologically provocative demand in what has come to be known as the Delhi Agreement, signed in 1952, by which J&K was granted its own flag. The agitation had a powerful slogan: Ek Desh mein do Vidhaan, Ek Desh mein do Nishaan, Ek Desh mein do Pradhaan, nahin challengey nahin challengey. On May 8, 1953, Mookerjea tried to cross the Madhopur bridge on the Jammu border in order to lead the agitation in Jammu. Abdullah ordered his arrest. <b>On June 23, 1953, he died while still under detention in Abdullah's jail.</b><!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
June 23, 1980 - Died
Varahagiri Venkata Giri Fourth President of India ( August 10, 1894 - June 23, 1980)

<b>Syama Prasad Mookerjee </b>(or Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Bengali: শ্যামা প্রসাদ মুখার্জী) ([[July 6, 1901 - June 23, 1953) was a nationalist political leader of India, and is considered the godfather of modern Hindutva and Hindu Nationalism.

Mookerjee founded the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, the first Hindu nationalist political party of its kind, and was also the leader of the Hindu Mahasabha and closely associated with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.
June 30, 1917
Dadabhai Naoroji died
4 July 1897
Alluri Sita Ramaraju born.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Alluri Sita Rama Raju was one of Andhra Pradesh's early revolutionaries who successfully mobilized and led local tribals in an armed rebellion against British rule in India. He was deeply moved by the plight of the tribals, who’s rights were infringed upon by the British with the inaction of the Madras Forest Act of 1882. The Act placed restrictions on the free movement of tribals in the forest areas and prevented them from engaging in their traditional lifestyle of Podu (shifting) cultivation, and use of the forest for firewood and toddy.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

July 4, 1902Swami Vivekananada died

July 4th Bose's famous quote link
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Spoken as a part of a motivational speech for the Indian National Army at a rally of Indians in Burma on <b>July 4, 1944</b>, Bose's most famous quote was "Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom!" <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

Udham Singh executed
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->. On<b> 31 July 1940</b>, Udham Singh was hanged at Pentonville Prison.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Udham Singh mainly held Michael O'Dwyer responsible for what came to be known as the Amritsar Massacre. New research supporting this fact reveal the massacre to have occurred with the Governor's full connivance "to teach the Indians a lesson, to make a wide impression and to strike terror through-out Punjab".[10] The incident had greatly shaken young Udham Singh and proved a turning point in his life. After bathing in the holy sarovar (pool of nectar), Udham Singh took a silent vow and solemn pledge in front of the Golden Temple to wreak a vengeance on the perpetrators of the crime and to restore honour to what he saw as a humiliated nation..[11]<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
3 August 1886 - National Poet Maithili Sharan Gupt was born at Chirgaon UP.

A true inheritor of Bharatendu Harishchandra, he devoted his whole life to creating a mass of literature full of patriotic warmth. Every Hindi-knower remembers these immortal lines of his:

jo bhara nahee hai bhavon se
behtee jisme rasadhaar nahee
wah hridaya nahee hai prastar hai
jisame swadesh kaa pyaar nahee

{that which is not vibrant with emotions,
in which flow not the streams of nectar,
that heart is not a heart but a mere stone,
which is not filled with the love for one's country}

It is difficult to mention all of his contributions, but literature-wise he proved Bharatendu wrong that khadiboli (aka Hindi) was not suitable for poetry. He created so much of poetry in Khadiboli of the top rate quality, all dedicated to motherland before he died. His work also remains a milestone reflecting a true Hindu Revivalism in literature that began in 1920s. His work 'Hindu!' is worth reading by every Hindi knowing Hindu.

He died in 1965. His last lines were:

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->प्राण न पागल हो तुम यों, पृथ्वी पर वह प्रेम कहाँ..
मोहमयी छलना भर है, भटको न अहो अब और यहाँ..
ऊपर को निरखो अब तो बस मिलता है चिरमेल वहाँ..
स्वर्ग वहीं, अपवर्ग वहीं, सुखसर्ग वहीं, निजवर्ग जहाँ..

Hey Life!! Don't get crazy for this mortal world. You can't find true love here. This is a beautiful trap so stop wandering here. Look upward (towards heaven) dear. That's the only place where you can find long lasting relations. There's the swarga and apawarga, there's the source of ultimate pleasure where you have your own people.


7 August 1941 - Rabindranath Tagore died.
9 August 1942 - Quit India Movement started.

While almost every political party was united in the Quit India Movement, the communists supported the British and were against the movement as their then High Command Stalin had become a British ally by then.
<b>11 August 1908
Khudiram Bose hanged in Muzaffarpur Central Jail.</b>

It was his Martyrdom Centenary a couple of days back, while the ungrateful Nation and its government have forgotten this martyr and that day as usual.

Born on December 3 1889 at Medinapur West Bengal, he became a revolutionary at a young age of 16 when Bengal was divided up by British. He was only 19 year old when he became the first revolutionary to have thrown a bomb at british officers on April 30, 1908 along with his comrade Prafulla Chaki. (they missed the target and inadvertently killed three british women)

Both were given a chase and while Chaki committed suicide at Samastipur, Bose went on running and was captured at a small place near where modern PUSA university stands today. (I had the opportunity to visit this place once)

He was captured and given death. He was hung on this day in Muzaffarpur Jail with Vande Matram on his lips.
<b>August 16, 1946: </b>

"Direct Action" launched from the city of Kolkata by Muslim League led by Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Hussein Shahid Suhrawardy. A 23-point tactical manifesto was distributed to League activists. Some of the points read as: "Destroy Hindus and drive all Hindus out of India. All transport should be used for battle against Hindus. Hindu women and girls should be raped, kidnapped and converted into Muslims from October 18, 1946. Hindu culture should be destroyed." The Calcutta District Muslim League published on August 13, 1946 an elucidation, clarifying that 'Direct Action Day' was to be conducted in the name of jihad a la the Battle of Badr.
Aug 15th 1947
India declare independence <!--emo&:ind--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/india.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='india.gif' /><!--endemo-->
Aug 18: Subhash Chandra Bose missing
Aug 13: Bhikaji Cama died

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