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This Day In History
<b>7 November 1888:</b>

Born, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, Physicist, and the first ever non-white to have won a Nobel in Sciences. Born in Tiruchirapalli, brought up in Vishakhapatnam, he began his career as an accountant in Indian Finance Department in Kolkata. Destiny took a turn when he accidentally noticed a signboard of Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), and he started conducting his researches after office hours. His interest in physics continued and he joined a fellowship in Physics Dept. of Calcutta University in 1917. It is from here that he finally announced on February 28, 1928, the path breaking Raman Effect, the discovery of molecular scattering of light, which won him a Nobel Award in 1930. 1934 onwards he served the newly founded IISc Bangalore as its director for 12 years before retiring.

During the Hitlers period, he was communicating with several contemporary Jewish scientists and intellectuals of Europe inviting them passionately to come to India, offering them positions and fellowships in IISc, Calcutta University and BHU. His agenda was to bring the following stalvarts to India: Max Born, Schrödinger (Pioneer in Quantum Mechanics, of Schrödinger equation fame), Hevesy (of radioactivity), VM Goldschmidt (Father of Solid State Chemistry), Ewald (Pioneer in Optics, Crystallography), Huhn (eary biochemist). He personally persuaded them and arranged for their travel to india, had some of them visit Bangalore and Calcutta to see for themselves the local environment by creating for them visiting chairs in the Indian universities. His plans could not materialize due to the cunning of British and mAyA of the US of America.

He was a Hindu to the very core, and a straunch nationalist. His scientist temparament was also attracted towards many of our cultural aspects too. His lecture in London just before the Nobel prize acceptance, on the scientific basis of the structure of Indic languages is interesting. He also did profound research on the accoustics of Indian Classical Music. His interesting research paper on this subject: The acoustical knowledge of the ancient Hindus, Sir Asutosh Mookerjee Silver Jubilee 1922, University Press Calcutta.

(28 Feb, date when he announced his Raman Effect, is celebrated as Science Day in India)
<b>November 11 1675</b>

The 9th Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur brutally executed by Awrangzib, for refusing to convert to Islam along with his disciples Matidas, Satidas and Dayaldas. Guru was arrested at Sirhind in Punjab in July that year, and led to Delhi in an iron cage to ceremoniously exhibit him as a prisoner to humiliate his followers. In Delhi, Guru and his three comrades were offered to chose between Islam and death by torture. When they refused, Matidas was tied and cut into two with a hacksaw, Dayaldas was boiled to death in a cauldron of hot water, and Satidas was roasted alive with cotton wrapped around his body -- in front of Guru to put pressure on him to convert. A royal announcement was made through the city of Delhi, that the Peer of Hindus is publicly converting to Islam on November 11th. Finally, when Guru still refused to convert, he was publically beheaded near the city Kotwali in Chandani Chowk, where now the famous Sheeshganj Gurudwara stands.

<b>November 13, 1962</b>

Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha unanimously adopted the following resolution:

This House notes with deep regret that in spite of the uniform gestures of goodwill and friendship by India towards the People's Government of China, ..., China has betrayed this goodwill and friendship and the principles of Panchsheel which had been agreed to between the two countries and has committed aggression and initiated a massive invasion of India by her armed forces. <b>With hope and faith, this House affirms the firm resolve of the Indian people to drive out the aggressor from the sacred soil of India, however long and hard the struggle may be.</b>
<b>November 13, 1917:</b>

Born, Gajanan Madhav Muktibodh, an important milestone in development of modern Hindi literature. Although of Marathi mother-tongue, he devoted his talent in Hindi poetry, criticism, literary-activism, and was a very important activist for modernization. He was heavily influenced by Marxism, and is considered the heir of Suryakant Tripathi Nirala, the founder of progressivism in Hindi literature. He is best known for his long poems brahma-rakshasa, Chand ka Muh Teda hai (The Moon Has a Crooked Face), Andhere Mein (In the Dark) and Bhuri Bhuri Khaaki Dhuul (The Brown Dry Dust). Sharadchandra Madhav Muktibodh (1921-1985) a famous Marathi poet, novelist, and Marxist critic, was the younger brother of GM Muktibodh.

<b>November 14, 1889:</b>

Born, Jawaharlal Nehru, the eldest child of Swarup Rani and famous barrister Motilal Nehru, a wealthy family of Kashmiri Saraswat Brahmins settled in Prayag.
Far More important:

<b>November 14, 1962:</b>

The epic battle of Walong in Arunachal Pradesh began today, when 6th battalion of the KUMAON Regiment launched the attack on Chinese defence, the ONLY unit of the Indian army to do so. And they did this under the command of Lt Col CN Madiah, with limited resources without any tangible artillery or air fire support, but unlimited ferocity and aggression.

The enemy had occupied Yellow and Green Pimples and other dominating heights to outflank 11 Infantry Brigade's defences at Walong, an isolated area from road communication that was then only air maintained. The Paltan was ordered to counter attack and clear the Chinese from these features.

The fierce attack that began during the night, continued the whole day against very heavy Chinese resistance. Once the ammunition was exhausted, hand to hand battle ensued with both sides suffering heavy casualties. To reclaim the lost ground, the Chinese counter-attacked with greater ferocity at Tri junction on night 14/15 Nov. They pressed their attack with human wave after wave coming onto the tenacious hold of the gallant KUMAONIS who pushed back the Chinese during the day and 'ding dong' battle raged throughout the night.

The brave KUMAONI bulls led by their gallant young officers like Major Prem Nath Bhatia, the Hero of Walong, remained struck to their ground till 'the last man, last round'. The unrelenting enemy suffered very heavy losses at the hands of gritty KUMAONIS but eventually the enemy succeeded as there were no able bodied KUMAONIS left to defend. Whether it was Major Prem Bhatia, the Adjutant, firing the Light machine Gun or Capt Mathur, 2 Lt AS Khatri, late Lt Bikram Singh killed in the action, Capt BC Chopra, the RMO, late Naik Bahadur Singh and score of unsung heroes of 6 KUMAON who fought like wounded 'Man Eaters' of KUMAON till there was an 'eerie silence'. On a final muster, the causalities of 6 KUMAON were placed at 404 men. The War Memorial built at Walong in AP to honour the fallen comrades of this battle carries the following inscription:


<img src='http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/Galleries/2916-1/PNBhatia01.jpg' border='0' alt='user posted image' />
<b>Vir Chakra Major Prem Nath Bhatia - Hero of Walong</b>

<b>November 17, 1857</b>

<b>Second failed attempt on relief of Lucknow:</b> Awadh is still controlled by revolutionaries, and about 3000 british and their native supporters are locked up for many months now in the fortified Lucknow Residency, this comprising all the european population in Awadh. The Residency has been under seige of rebels, although beseiged force has been able to keep a capture at bay. A second attempt is made this day by British force from Kanpur to free up this beseiged european force. But as soon as this British column crosses Gomati into Awadh, Tatya Tope making good the opportunity, crosses Ganga from Kalpi with his advance guard of 6000 and takes control of Kanpur town on November 19. British force is now sandwiched between Awadh rebels on the side of Gomati in East, and Tatya's force on the Ganga side on west. And Thakurs, the Zamindars of this belt between Gomati and Ganga, harass them day and night by shooting at them at random. They desperately seek reinforcement from Allahabad, which is not coming forth. Therefore the operation abandoned in infancy, and heavy losses suffered in the process by British. Now what? Urgently fight back against Tatya's force and regain foothold in Kanpur lest he gets more troops from Peshwa's force in Bithur. (But the balance will change when fresh Sikh regiment would arrive.)

<b>November 17, 1928:</b>

Died, Lala Lajpat Rai, Punjab Keshari, the Lion of Punjab, and "Lal" of the famous "Lal-Bal-Pal" Hawk-trio of nationalists inside Congress.

A strong believer in leading by example, he himself was leading a procession tgether with Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, the founder of Banaras Hindu University, to demonstrate against the Simon Commission. He was made a specific target of a brutal lathi charge in which he was injured badly. A meeting was held the same evening, where even though badly injured, he spoke with such vigour that his words, <b>"Every blow aimed at me is a nail in the coffin of British imperialism"</b>, became historic. Though he recovered from the fever and pain within three days his health had received a permanent setback and on November 17, 1928, he succumbed to the fatal injuries. His death led to great disturbances in the country and it inspired national struggle for freedom. Lajpat Rai was one of the most important nationalist leaders from the Punjab, where he is remembered reverently by Hindu nationalists today. He was a key mentor of nationalists like Bhagat Singh and Chandrasekhar Azad. Together with BG Tilak and BC Pal he is remembered as key pillar of Hardliners in Congress. He was a product of Arya Samaj movement, and his prophetic words were that Islam could never be reconciled with Indian Nationalism, no matter what congress did. Of course, Gandhi busy in supporting Khilafat, did not pay heed.

<img src='http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/59/Lala_lajpat_Rai.jpg' border='0' alt='user posted image' />
<b>November 18, 1962</b>

<span style='color:red'>Chushul - The Last Stand</span>

In Leh region, the C company of the 13th Kumaon Battalion, under Major Shaitan Singh Bhati (Param Vir Chakra, Posthumous) held off a fierce Chinese attack on November 18, 1962, at the Rezang La heights that they held. Massively outnumbered and outgunned, the defenders died almost to the last man, and expended their last round. Of the 118 men at Rezang La 109 men laid down their lives, 5 were captured by Chinese and only 4 men returned back alive. But most importantly, they succeeded in blunting the Chinese assault, killing as many as a thousand Chinese in the process at Rezang La and at nearby Gurung Hill. Thereafter, the Chinese did not push further towards the Chushul plain. It was a critical checkpoint on a potential Chinese advance on Leh.

The Battle of Chushul by L.N. Subramanian - Bharat Rakshak

The story of 13th Kumaon is the kind of thing that would make the patriotic Indian stand tall with tears in his eyes. Yet, we do not stand in silence for a moment in memory of Major Shaitan Singh Bhati and his gallant men. No poet eulogizes them as Tennyson did the Light Brigade. There is only a small memorial at the site, which says:

<span style='font-size:14pt;line-height:100%'>How can a Man die
Better than facing Fearful Odds,
For the Ashes of His Fathers
and the Temples of His Gods,
To the sacred memory
of the Heroes of Rezang La,
114 Martyrs of 13 Kumaon
who fought to the Last Man, Last Round
Against Hordes of Chinese on 18 November 1962

Built by All Ranks 13th Battalion, The Kumaon Regiment.</span>

<img src='http://www.indianarmy.gov.in/PVC/arimage/Maj%20Saitan%20Singh.jpg' border='0' alt='user posted image' />

<span style='color:red'>Param Veer Chakra Major Shaitan Singh Bhati</span>


Major Shaitan singh
13 KUMAON (IC 7990)

Major Shaitan singh was commanding a company of an infantry battalion deployed at Rezang La in the Chusul sector at a height of about 17,000 feet. The locality was isolated from the main defended sector and consisted of five platoon-defended position. On 18 November 1962, the Chinese forces subjected the company position to heavy artillery, mortar and small arms fire and attacked it in overwhelming strength in several successive waves. Against heavy odds, our troops beat back successive waves of enemy attack. During the action, Major Shaitan singh dominated the scene of operations and moved at great personal risk from one platoon post to another sustaining the morale of his hard-pressed platoon posts. While doing so he was seriously wounded but continued to encourage and lead his men, who, following his brave example fought gallantly and inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy. For every man lost to us, the enemy lost four or five. When major Shaitan Singh fell disabled by wounds in his arms and abdomen, his men tried to evacuate him but they came under heavy machine-gun fire. Major Shaitan Singh then ordered his men to leave him to his fate in order to save their lives. Major Shaitan Singh’s supreme courage, leadership and exemplary devotion to duty inspired his company to fight almost to the last man.

Major Shiatan Singh Bhati - Indian Army Website

Rajeev Srinivasan wrote in 2002: Why is there nothing written about them along the lines of what Tennyson did, as in these excerpts from his stirring poem:

Half a league half a league
Half a league onward...
Into the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred...

Not tho' the soldier knew
Some one had blunder'd;
Theirs not to make reply,
Theirs not to reason why,
Theirs but to do & die...

Cannon to right of them,
Cannon to left of them,
Cannon in front of them
Volley'd and thunder'd;...

When can their glory fade?
O the wild charge they made!
All the world wonder'd.
Honour the charge they made!
Honour the Light Brigade...

Rajeev Srinivasan on Rediff

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi born on 19 November 1917.
<b>20 November 1665</b>: Maratha-Mughal Invasion of Bijapur

Shivaji begins invasion of Bijapur from the fort of Purandar in collaboration with elderly Mughal general Jai Singh as per the agreement reached in the Maratha-Mughal treaty of Purandar inked a few weeks earlier.

The Maratha contingent, 9000 strong, marching under Shivaji himself and Netaji Palkar, who was regarded as a second Shivaji by both his followers and opponents, formed the left centre of Jai Singh's configuration. During the first month of the campaign, the march was an uninterrupted triumph. From Purandar to Mangalbirah (Mangalvedhe), a fort 52 miles north of Bijapur, the invaders advanced without meeting with any opposition; the Bijapuri forts on the way were either evacuated in terror or surrendered at call to Shiva's troops, who were followed by a larger Mughal army behind them under Jai Singh. Phaltan, about forty miles south-east of Purandar, was entered on 7th December; Thathora, 14 miles south-west of Phaltan, on the 8th ; Khawan about a week later; and Mangalbirah itself on the 18th. (Shivaji received on the occasion a letter of praise, a robe of honour, and a jewelled dagger from Jai Singh, sent by Awrangzib). The invaders marched on until December 24th, when they came into touch with the enemy for the first time, the opposition being led by the famous Bijapuri generals Sharza Khan and Khawas Khan and their Maratha auxiliaries under Jadu Rao Ghorpare of Kalian and Vyankoji, the half-brother of Shivaji.
<b>18 November 1852:</b>

Locomotive Falkland, named after the British Governor of Bombay, hauled some coaches on a trial run from Bori Bandar to Thane (35 KMs). This probably was the first "real" train to run in India, not counting the industrial usage of Steam Railways done a year back in Roorkee for hauling construction material for Ganga Canal works.

<b>23 November 1937:</b>

Acharya Jagadish Chandra Basu Died at Giridih in Bengal, at the age of 87.

<img src='http://www.areplantsconscious.com/JC_Bose.gif' border='0' alt='user posted image' />

The giant pioneer needs no introduction, yet here it is for the sake of easy access. He was a great innovator and multi-faceted scientist, grand father of new scientific age in India. He was a physicist, biologist, botanist, archaeologist, the first ever Indian to get a US patent (due to peer pressure), and a marvelous fiction writer. His pioneering legacy remains the "discovery" of plant physiology, and a crescograph to measure the plant response to various stimuli. He is popularly known to scientifically prove the Hindu idea that plants are 'alive'.

The apparatus used by Acharya Basu:
<img src='http://www.areplantsconscious.com/boseapparatus.jpg' border='0' alt='user posted image' />

He also invented radio signal detecter and declared it public a full year before Marconi, although he never cared to patent this. He was a firm advocate of what you would today call an 'open-code' regime as he expressed openly on many occasions. He wanted to uphold the tradition of Indian knowledge creation without lust or greed of fame and money, and did not beleive in patenting innovations (whether it was good or bad is up for debate).

The other most important contribution of his was a stimulation of many young Indians, back in the days of British Colonial times, to think independently and turn to fundamental research in sciences. Two of his most notable students Sir Meghnad Saha and Sir Satyendra Nath Basu, carried on his legacy.

Seated in center with his band of young protegees:
<img src='http://www.areplantsconscious.com/bose_with_students.gif' border='0' alt='user posted image' />

A great resource on his life and works: http://www.areplantsconscious.com/


<October 31 seems to be a busy day... updated 58 with>

<b>October 31, 1883</b>

Died, Swami Dayananda Saraswati at Ajmer, Rajasthan at an age of 59. His open opposition to orthodoxy and his message of 'Back to the Veda' cost him his life, when he was poisoned while a guest of the Maharaja of Jodhpur. On his deathbed, he forgave his poisoner, the Maharaja's cook, and actually gave him money from his pocket to flee the king's wrath. Unable to recover, he finally died at Ajmer on the evening of Diwali day, October 31, 1883.
updated 62, Martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur
<b>27 November 1907</b> : Born, Harivansh Rai Srivastava "Bachchan" at Patti village in Pratapgarh district of U.P. near Allahabad. He went on to becme a distinguished poet of ChAyAvAda literary movement in Hindi.

<b>30 November 1858</b>: Born, Jagadish Chandra Basu at Mymensingh in Bengal (now in Bangladesh).
<b>December 3, 1971:</b>

The India-Pakistan war of 1971 began on the evening of this Sunday, when Pakistani Air Force launched air strikes on eight airfields in India including Agra, under an operation codenamed Changez Khan.

Swiftly and strongly reacting within thirty minutes, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a war on Pakistan, and within a couple of hours Indian Air Force was flying sorties after sorties deep inside Western Pakistan so much that IAF flew not less than 4,000 sorties within two weeks. Same day, the Indian Army crossed the East Pakistan borders. In coordinated move, the Indian Navy pressed its Operation Trishul, and assaulted Karachi port, resulting in the destruction of not only the port's operating ability but also Pakistani destroyer ships, and then quickly moved on Eastern waters when news of US Fleet's inward movement arrived. Within 2 weeks, Fld Msl. Sam Manekshaw was setting deadline for Pakistan to surrender.

But let this also be remembered, that unlike present day leadership of India, the success at that time was mainly due to tremendous courage and single-minded mission of the Indian leadership at that time - polical, diplomatic and military. Indira Gandhi, the 'woman with balls', displayed what India can acheive if it puts its will into efforts. The military success was only the last fillip of a long and single-minded effort of Indian leadership:

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->On 27 March 1971, the Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, expressed full support of her government to the struggle for independence by the people of East Pakistan. In the early autumn of 1971, Indira Gandhi launched a diplomatic offensive with a tour of Europe. She was successful in getting both the United Kingdom and France to break with the United States to block any pro-Pakistan directives in the United Nations security council. Gandhi's greatest coup was on 9 August when she signed a twenty-year treaty of friendship and co-operation with the Soviet Union, greatly shocking the United States, and decreasing the possibility that the People's Republic of China would become involved in the conflict.

December 6, 1992
Shaurya Divas
Babri Masjid Demolition
Date: Dec 10, 2008


A forgotten national leader!
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->By: B.R.Haran

Today is the <b>131st birth anniversary of Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari, affectionately called as Rajaji. </b>He as a lawyer, writer and an intellectual and he was one of the great freedom fighters. He was the first and the last 'Indian' Governor General of Independent India. Later on he became the Chief Minister of Madras State between 1952 and 1954 and was awarded the most coveted 'Bharat Ratna' in the year 1954. Earlier before independence he served as the Chief Minister of Madras Province between 1937 and 1940.

Rajaji promulgated the 'Temple Entry Authorisation and Indemnity Act' in 1939 and facilitated the 'Dalits' to enter and worship inside the Temples. Vaidyanatha Iyer has also contributed for this noble cause. Rajaji had also introduced Prohibition policy and to compensate the revenue loss, he also introduced the 'sales tax' system. Later on, when he became the Chief Minister of Madras State, he introduced 'Vocational Courses' in schools in the afternoon periods with a motive of sustaining the 'traditional professions' . Unfortunately, this long-term beneficial policy was dubbed as 'casteist' by the casteist leaders of the Dravidian parties, eventually leading to Rajaji's resignation.

As a Member of Parliament, Rajaji was dead against the formation of 'states' along linguistic lines, but unfortunately he couldn't stop it. Though he got an opportunity to become the first President of Independent India, he magnanimously withdrew from the contest, as he didn't want the nation to witness an ugly factional fight within the Congress. As a Home Minister in Nehru's cabinet, Rajaji along with Patel, warned Nehru about the Machiavellian agenda of China.

As a great writer, he translated Ramayana and Mahabaratha in to Tamil and English from Sanskrit. He had also translated the Upanishads and Adi Sankara's Bajagovindham and Thiruvalluvar' s Thirukkural in English. He has also written many short stories and novels. As a staunch Hindu he wrote the book 'Hinduism-Doctrine and Way of Life', which won accolades from world over. He has also composed kirtanas for the world of Carnatic Music.


The Dravidian parties, which captured power on the plank of atheism and anti-Brahminism have been slowly and steadily attempting to removed him from the public's memory. Till the recent past the Dravidian governments used to observe his birth and death anniversaries, at least as 'formalities' , but today even that formality has not been observed. It is not a surprise that the Dravi-dian parties, which have made 'icons' of undeserving personalities, have not bothered to commemorate the birth anniversary of a 'Brahmin' and a true 'nationalist' .

Incidentally, or rather deliberately, the Chief Minister has stated just yesterday that he was not against Brahmins and listed a few Brahmin scholars, whom his government had felicitated. He has also audaciously said that he always had the quality of forgiving and forgetting anything, which is 'evil', as if the Brahmin community is evil! In a brazen tone, he has said that his government has given financial assistances to the families of those Brahmin scholars after their death. One wonders if he has done that on the basis of their contribution to the society or on the basis of their caste identity. His statement has clearly exposed the casteist mentality of the Dravidian parties and the leaders.

It is an irony that the Chief Minister, who has been a hardcore adversary of Brahmins and who has been criticising and abusing them till the day before yesterday, has made a u-turn yesterday and said that he was never against Brahmins! Apart from his claims of giving paltry 'financial' assistances to Brahmin scholars, can he show a single good thing, which he has done for the Brahmin community in the capacity of Chief Minister during his five terms? When he can introduce the '1 kg rice-1 Rupee' scheme on Anna's birth anniversary, why couldn't he introduce 'prohibition' on Rajaji's birth anniversary? If not prohibition, why not a few 'vocational' courses in schools?

Similar to the Dravidian parties, the Congress party has also not bothered to celebrate Rajaji's birth anniversary. The days are not far off for this 'one-family' party to forget Gandhi too! If the present day political parties prefer to ignore the leaders of the past, then it will not demean those great leaders, but it means that these parties are only insulting themselves!<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
<b>December 10, 1870</b>:

Born, Sir Jadunath Sarkar, at Karchamaria village in Natore (now in Bangladesh).

He began his career with teaching English literature, but later found his true talent with his alternative career - writing History. He came to limelight with his very celebrated 'India of Aurangzib', which he published in 1901. Throughout the rest of his career he specialized in writing the historical narrative of India during Muslim period especially Mughals. He wrote dozens of books and hundreds of research papers bringing to light such aspects which were until then hidden from the scholarship.

While he is best known for "A History of Aurangzib", which he published in 5 volumes (1912-24), he reached the peak of his fame during his stint at Banaras Hindu University when he published his magnum opus "Shivaji and his Times" (1919-22).

His greatness was his original research, coupled with his captivating style of narration and command on English language. If he was fascinated by any historical person, it was Shivaji, whom he declared 'the Last Great Genius that Hindu Has So Far Produced'. In fact his fascination with Shivaji can be gauged from that fact that the only work he chose to write in his mother tongue Bengali, is "Shivaji", which was to be his last work. He also wrote on the history of Bengal, as well as on thehistory of Nath and Naga Sannyasins.

An anecdote I have heard from his descendants and releatives is that when his father died, Jadunath was neck deep in his project on Shivaji's life. During the last rites of his father, he suddenly remembered something, excused himself and began taking notes on his notebook.
<b>8 December 1971:</b>

The Indian Navy repeated the attack on Karachi. The Pakistani Naval base was attacked at around 2345 Hours and vast damage inflicted on both shore as well as ships in the vicinity.

The first component of Indian Navy force consisted of two fast frigates INS Trishul and INS Talwar along with the OSA Missile boat, INS Vinash tasked with attacking Karachi. The second detachment of IN consisted of the Flag Ship of the Western fleet, Cruiser INS Mysore and the Hunt class destroyer INS Ranjit and the frigate INS Betwa. This fleet was simultaneously dispatched to shell the port of Gwadar.

Approaching Karachi, INS Talwar under Cdr S S Kumar engaged a mechanised ship "Dhow" of the Pakistani Navy and sunk it with gunfire. Then the ships proceeded towards Karachi Harbour. There was no further challenge from the Pakistani Navy as they got busy to hurriedly withdraw to the relative safety of the Karachi harbour. Cdr K M V Nair, CO of INS Trishul in coordination with Missile boat captain Lt Cdr Jerath, immediately launched a series of Styx missiles. This bombarding sunk an American ship Venus Challenger, and a British ship Hamrattan along with killing British and American crew.

Meanwhile the second task force heading for Gwadar encountered a Pakistani Merchant ship off the coast of Makran. Almost immediately, INS Mysore (under Cdr Russi Gandhi) fired some shots across the Merchant Ship's bow, which then flew a white flag to signal surrender. The Merchant ship turned out to be a Pakistani ship Madhumati which was then taken charge of and bought back to the Bombay port. Link

<b>9 December 1971:</b>, US President Nixon authorized US Navy to send the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise into the Bay of Bengal to threaten India.

<b>10 December 1971:</b>
An anecdote reported by Major General K K Tewari (retd), Chief Signal Officer, Eastern Command, goes like this:

General Tewari was present at a briefing the three defence services held for Indira Gandhi. She was seated at a large table. On one side was General S H F J Manekshaw, the army chief, and on the other Admiral S M Nanda, the navy chief.

During the course of the presentation, the admiral intervened and said: 'Madam, the US 8th Fleet is sailing into the Bay of Bengal.'

Nothing happened; the briefing continued.

After sometime, the admiral repeated, 'Madam, I have to inform you that the 8th Fleet is sailing into the Bay of Bengal.'

She cut him off immediately: 'Admiral, I heard you the first time, let us go on with the briefing.'

All the officers present were stunned. Ultimately, their morale was tremendously boosted by the prime minister's attitude. She had demonstrated her utter contempt for the American bluff. link
<b>December 10, 1941</b>:
Flag of Independent India raised by Captain Preetam Singh in the Hadyai village of Siam-Malaya border, an event signifying the beginning of the attempt of INA soldiers in collaboration with Japanese towards Indian mainland to liberate it from British.

<b>December 12, 1911</b>:
Delhi replaced Calcutta as the Indian capital. This was the result of increased violent resistance faced by British administrators in Calcutta, due to the rising hot nationalism among Bengalis after the failed British attempt to partition Bengal and carve out a separate East Bengal for Muslims. Delhi offered a safer option.

<b>December 13, 2001:</b> Indian Parliament attacked by Jehadis.

<b>December 13 1971:</b>
USA moved a resolution at the United Nations Security council through their Anglo-French cousins that called for a cessation of hostilities in East Pakistan, the urgent conclusion of a comprehensive political settlement and the appointment by the UN Secretary General of a special representative to “lend his good offices, in particular for the solution of humanitarian problems”.

The resolution was summarily vetoed by the USSR, and Poland moved an alternative resolution that called for peaceful transfer of power in the eastern theatre of conflict to “the representatives of the people lawfully elected in December 1970”. It also called for negotiations between India and Pakistan for troop withdrawals in the western theatre.

The UN Security Council was scheduled to meet on December 15th and Z. A. Bhutto, the then foreign minister of Pakistan was sent to represent Pakistani side. (We shall come to it further below in this post.)

Meanwhile, USS Enterprise was closing in on Bay of Bengal, and the radio signals from Islamabad to the Pakistani forces in the east, intercepted by Indian intelligence, were saying, "Fight on, you are getting help from yellow (China) from the north, and white (America) from the south."

Seeing the international maneuvering, the Chief of the Army Staff S H F J Manekshaw reacted and sent an urgent order to Indian Armed forces to immediately capture "all the towns in Bangladesh except Dhaka", listing every single one that Indian Army had bypassed so far, in a view to finish off the war in next 48 hours on the ground, before Americans and Chinese can make any move.

<b>December 14 1971</b>:
As a result, the end of 1971 war started with a joint push by IAF and Army.

On early morning of 14th, IAF got an intelligence through communication intercepts which was confirmed by the Mukti Bahini men on ground, that an important meeting of top Pakistani officials and East Pakistan Cabinet was scheduled inside the Governor House in Dhaka. IAF decided to bombard the Governor House exactly at the time when the cabinet meeting was supposed to be in session.

Within a couple of hours, four MiG-21s of 28 Sqn were flying in from Gauhati for the operation, and as Dr. Malek, the Governor of the then East Pakistan, began the meeting with his cabinet and high officials, roaring MiGs came screaming down with perfect precision and accurately fired rounds of salvo into the Darbar Hall for several minutes.

The startled and freightened cabinet of East Pakistan immediately rushed to the Hotel Intercontinental (now Sheraton), to seek shelter under the UN Flag. Traumatized Governor resigned then and there.

By the psychological push delivered by this defining moment of 1971 war, the Pakistani civil administration in the East Bengal ceased to exist, paving way for Mukti Bahini to take over the civil administration, while Indian Army now got into act to flush out the remaining Pakistani Army on ground holed up inside East Bengal.

Almost simultanuously with the above IAF operation, Maj. Gen. G.S. Nagra, GOC Indian Army Eastern Command, ordered Brig. Sant Singh to advance with 2nd Div and capture Dhaka city. Advancing rapidly along the Mymensingh-Madhupur axis, ‘FJ Force’ comprising 13 Guards, 2 Para and 6 Bihar covered about 55 km before reaching the Bhuri Ganga river on the outskirts of Dhaka on the morning of December 15. The Paras wrestled control of the sole bridge over it and the force dislodged Pakistani gunners entrenched on a piece of high ground on the other side, who were tasked to protect the bridge.

Following calls by the Indian top brass to surrender, Pakistani Major-Gen Jamshed Khan, responsible for the defence of Dhaka, drove over with a white flag. He was stripped of his official flag, weapons and badges of rank. Indian Army commandeered his car and drove over to the Pakistani headquarters in Dhaka.

When Indian force swooped to Lt. General A.A.K. Niazi’s headquarters, Pakistanis were busy destroying documents and maps. When he was captured, Niazi kept silent. He was anxious as to what course the events would take. Ground reality was that Mukti Bahini was openly and repeatedly demanding the Indian Army to hand over Niazi along with 94,000 men of Pakistani army to Bahini to "take care of them". And unlike India, Mukti Bahini was not bound by any International Conventions, therefore the general perception was that not only Niazi but also a huge number of Pakistani Soldiers, if handed over to Mukti Bahini, would be simply slaughtered. Such was the well recognized perception because of the sentiment of revenge in Bengalis due to the general slaughter of thousands of Bengalis by Pakistanis earlier that year in the month of March.

Therefore, it was a matter of much relief for Niazi when he heard Brig. Sant Singh declare, “General, we declare you a prisoner of war.” The surrender would ceremoniously take place the next day, on December 16.

(In the hind sight, it might have been a better decision to let Bangladeshis handle their coreligionists during the heat of emotion of revenge - at least in part - paving way for a long term solution. A policy which Marathas had followed, and a policy which US is following in Iraq and Afghanistan.)

<b>December 15 1971</b>:

Bhutto entered the Security Council looking grim and made the most emotional, though well-prepared, speech of his career. It was in that speech that he said, “I have not come here to accept abject surrender. If the Security Council wants me to be a party of the legalization of abject surrender, then I say that under no circumstances, shall it be so. The United Nations resembles those fashion houses which hide ugly realities by draping ungainly figures in alluring apparel.

“The Permanent Representative of the Soviet Union talked about realities. Mr Permanent Representative, look at this reality. I know that you are the representative of a great country. You behave like one. The way you throw out your chest, the way you thump the table, you do not talk like Comrade Malik, you talk like Czar Malik. I see that you are smiling, well, I am not because my heart is bleeding.

“I am leaving your Security Council. I find it disgraceful to my person and to my country to remain here a moment longer than necessary. I am not boycotting. Impose any decision, have a treaty worse than the Treaty of Versailles, legalise aggression, legalise occupation, legalize everything that has been illegal up to December 15, 1971. I will not be a party to it. We will fight. We will go back and fight. My country beckons me. Why should I be a party to the ignominious surrender of a part of my country? You can take your Security Council. Here you are. I am going.” EXCERPTS: Did Bhutto break up Pakistan? -- Khalid Hasan

Almost at the same time, Manekshaw asked Major General Jack Frederick Ralph Jacob to fly into Dhaka and arrange the surrender of East Pakistani Army to Gen J S Aurora. Maj. Gen. Jacob gave Niazi 30 mins to decide whether he wanted to sign the proposed instrument of surrender or be ready to face consequences.

(What a historic moment it would have been! A pArasIka army chief and a yahUdI general negotiating the surrender of the army of the faithful to the Hindu army at a table headed by a Sikh!!! wow!)

The image you wrote about:
<img src='http://www.pictureworldbd.com/images/Liberation_War/war71%20(32).jpg' border='0' alt='user posted image' />

Instrument of surrender:
<img src='http://1971.uttorshuri.net/images/InstrumentOfSurrender.jpg' border='0' alt='user posted image' />
<!--QuoteBegin-Viren+Dec 15 2008, 08:11 PM-->QUOTE(Viren @ Dec 15 2008, 08:11 PM)<!--QuoteEBegin--><img src='http://www.pictureworldbd.com/images/Liberation_War/war71%20(32).jpg' border='0' alt='user posted image' />

Thanks Virenji for the images.

In the picture you posted, the only lady visible, peeping from behind the shoulders of an admiral is the wife of General JS Aurora.

Standing on the right most edge of the photograph (with a pipe he smoked?) is the Bengali Jewish officer in smile, architect of 1971 military strategy - General J F R Jacob. Jacob became well recognized in the establishment of Israel after the 1971 war. He is also known as an important actor in establishing government level Indo-Israel ties generally, but more particularly during NDA regime, when he joined BJP and headed its National Security panel as its adviser and visited Israel many times as representative. He was appointed the governor to Goa as well as Punjab during NDA rule.

<b>December 16, 1971:

The Public Surrender of 93,000 Pakistani Soldiers to India </b>

This surrender is unique, the only public surrender in history where a ceasefire was converted into a surrender, unheard of in the modern military history. A very interesting account of that historic day in words of Gen. Jacob when he was tasked to get a surrender of Pakistani force before the ceasefire would take effect:

(read in full at link below)
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->On the morning of December 16, Manekshaw phoned me and said: "Go and get a surrender."

"On what terms?" I asked. "I have already send you a draft surrender document. Do I negotiate on that?"

"You know what to do, just go!" he replied.

Then I made a mistake. I told him that when I was talking to Niazi, he had invited me for lunch, and I forgot about it.

I was changing helicopters at Jessore to get to Dhaka, when a man came running to me with a signal from Army HQ. I opened it, thinking good, now I have some orders.

I was unarmed, and carrying the document which I had typed (image of which Viren had posted above) and sent to Delhi. A staff officer was with me, that's all. I opened the letter, and it said: "The government of India has approved of General Jacob having lunch with Niazi."

Who wanted their permission?

Anyway, I landed at Dhaka still carrying this paper which I had sent to Delhi. On my arrival, I was met by the UN representatives who said we are coming with you to arrange the withdrawal of the Pakistani army and the takeover of the government. <b>I said thank you very much, I don't need your help. </b>

The Time magazine reporter who was there said I threatened to shoot them.

I didn't have a weapon to shoot them with!!!

I arrived at Niazi's headquarters, where I had the draft surrender document read out to him.

This is an unconditional surrender, he said. "You have only come here to discuss the ceasefire and the withdrawal of the Pakistani army."

"General," I replied, "this is not unconditional, I have worked on this for some time. I had put in it that we would protect ethnic minorities, that we would ensure the safety of them and their families, that they would be treated with dignity as officers and men according to the Geneva Convention. So it is not unconditional. Where would you find all these conditions laid down?"

But he said no.

I had thought he had 25,000 troops in Dhaka. He told me had 30,000.

I listened to the arguments for some time. His aides like Farman Ali were advising him not to surrender.

Finally, I told him, "Look general, you surrender, I will ensure your safety, the safety of your families, ethnic minorities, everyone. You will be treated with respect. If you don't I am afraid I can take no responsibility for what happens to you or your families. What is more, we will have no other option but to order the immediate resumption of hostilities.

I give you 30 minutes."

I walked out.

The Hamidur Rehman report says 'there was General Jacob, calmly puffing his pipe pacing up and down.'

And I was thinking, suppose he doesn't surrender, what do I do? He has 30,000 troops, we have 3,000, (in Dhaka) he can fight for three weeks at least!

The Hamidur Rehman report also says when they asked him why did you surrender, Niazi told them 'General Jacob blackmailed me! He threatened to hand us over to the Bahini, and that they would bayonet us.'

I did put pressure on him, but I didn't say I would hand him over to the Mukti Bahini for them to massacre. I said I would not be responsible.

Anyway, I was wondering what was going to happen as I walked back after half an hour. The paper I gave him was lying on the table.

"General, do you accept this paper?" I asked.

He kept quiet, he didn't answer. I asked him three times.

So I picked it up, and held it high, and said, "I take it that it is accepted."

There were tears in his eyes.

What came to be signed had to be re-signed in Calcutta two weeks later. The signed document was wrong.

I will surrender in my office, Niazi said.

<b>I said no, I have already given instructions that you will surrender at the race course, in front of the people of Dhaka. </b>

"I won't," he said.

<b>"You will," I said. "You will also provide a guard of honour."</b>

I made my own modalities for the surrender.

This surrender is unique, the only public surrender in history where a ceasefire was converted into surrender and signed in four hours. Niazi had the capacity to fight on for two to three weeks, and the UN was in session.

Then there was that lunch described as the Surrender Lunch, with all the silverware laid out.  we didn't touch anything, not even a drop of water.

After that ... we were going to the airport in Niazi's car. 

Near the airport, I saw a few of our troops trickling in. I saw two para boys in a jeep and I took them with me.

When I got to the airport, Tiger Siddiqi turned up with a truckload of Mukti Bahini. I don't know why, but I felt he wanted to shoot Niazi. If Niazi was killed at the airport, there would be no surrender.

I told the two para boys to point their rifles at him -- and ordered him off the airfield.

Then Aurora and his entourage, including his wife, landed. I was supposed to travel with Niazi and Aurora, but I was told to make way for Mrs Aurora. She was more important. Since everyone else had gone, and this was the last car, I hitched a ride in a truck.

After the signing, the crowd was wanting to lynch Niazi. We had very few troops there. So we had put a cordon around Niazi, put him in an army jeep which whisked him away.  We took 93,000 prisoners.

Due credit must go to Indira Gandhi who displayed courage and determination throughout the crisis. She stood up to US President Richard M Nixon and the UN, and led the country to its greatest victory.

We lost 1,400 men; 4,000 were wounded. The credit for our victory should go to the officers and men who fought gallantly against stiff resistance by the Pakistanis. The rifle and bayonet at the Amar Jawan memorial in New Delhi belongs to an unknown soldier who gave his life in the Jessore sector.

Let us not forget their sacrifice.

-- General J F R Jacob, Chief of Staff, Eastern Army Command.

How Pakistan surrendered in 1971

UPA wants to of course have nothing to do with either historic victory of 1971 or its Heroes. The other Hero, of course the Parsi General from Punjab, Sam Manekshaw, the Chief of Army Staff during the 1971, was insulted in death when neither any cabinet minister nor any service chiefs paid visit to his funeral a few months back.

<img src='http://www.rediff.com/news/2003/apr/03spec1.jpg' border='0' alt='user posted image' />

<img src='http://im.rediff.com/news/2006/dec/19war.jpg' border='0' alt='user posted image' />
(Niazi, Brigadiers Sant Singh and Shubeg Singh and Jacob just before the signing of the instrument of surrender.)


<b>December 16, 1773:</b>

This event is inderectly linked to India:

The Boston Tea Party was an act of direct action protest by the American colonists against the British Government in which they destroyed many crates of tea belonging to the British East India Company and dumped it in Boston Harbor. The incident, which took place on Thursday, December 16, 1773, has been seen as helping to spark the American Revolution and remains to this day one of the most iconic events in American history.

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