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How Hindus Fought To Keep India Hindu Againt Islam

Here is an essay on what happend with Islamic rulers in India. Most of the history that is taught to us is very biased as it is taken directly from the court historians of muslim rulers.

The essay is organized into three parts:
a) First section is from William Wilson Hunter, a famous indologist of 19th century.
b) Second section is a partial list of rulers who fought the muslims and the battles they fought are described. (I am working on an update in which all I will add info about the marathas, Sikhs, the empires of south India, Assam, Kashmir, UP, MP).
c) Section on references that were used to create this article.

Source: Rajputs and Invasions of India (This has better formatting and nice pictures then what has been cut and pasted below).
(Extensive updates to the site. New section on Chivalry added. A new section on
Banda Bhadur added. Organization of Indian Kingdoms is updated and so
is the protection of Hinduism section). Aug-2006 update.


PS: Thanks Viren for letting me post the link and I encourage forum members to ask a lot of questions.


The Rajputs suffered the brunt of the aggression from various Mongol-Turkic-Afghan warlords who repeatedly invaded the Indian subcontinent, then known as Hindustan. Hindustan was one of the most economically prosperous regions in the world till 18-th century and had grabbed the attention of several neighbouring Islamic kingdoms.

Organization of Indian kingdoms during invasions

W.W. Hunter describes in Chapter X of his book, The Indian Empire, Its People, History And Products, the organization of Indian kings and how they fought these invaders.

Within a hundred years after his (Muhammad's) death, his followers had invaded the countries of Asia as far as the Hindu Kush. Here there progress was stayed and Islam had to consolidate itself during three more centuries before it grew strong enough to grasp the rich prize of India. But almost from first the Arabs had fixed eager eyes upon that wealthy country. Fifteen years after the death of prophet, Usman sent a sea expedition to Thana and Broach on the Bombay coast (647 ? AD). Other raids towards Sindh took place in 662 and 664 with no results.

The armies of Islam had carried the crescent from the Hindu Kush westwards, through Asia, Africa and Southern Europe, to distant Spain and Gaul, before they obtained a foothold in Punjab. This long delay was due, not only to the daring of individual tribes, such as Sindh Rajputs, just mentioned but to the military organization of the Hindu Kingdoms.

Each of these groups of kingdoms, alike in the north and in the south, had a certain power of coherence to oppose to a foreign invader; while the large number of groups and units rendered conquest a very tedious process. For even when the overlord or central authority was vanquished, the separate units had to be defeated in detail, and each state supplied a nucleus for subsequent revolt. We have seen how the brilliant attempt in 711, to found a lasting Muhammedan dynasty in Sindh, failed. Three centuries later, the utmost efforts of two great Musalman invaders (Mahmud of Ghazni and Mohammed Ghori) from the north-west only succeeded in annexing a small portion of the frontier Punjab Province between 977 and 1176 A.D. The Hindu power in Southern India was not completely broken till the battle of Talikot in 1565; and within a hundred years, in 1650, the great Hindu revival had commenced which under the form of Maratha confederacy, was destined to break up the Mughal Empire in India. That Empire, even in the north of India, had only been consolidated by Akbar's policy of incorporating Hindu chiefs into his government(1556-1605). Up to Akbar's time, and even during the earlier years of his reign a series of Rajput wars had challenged the Muhammadan supremacy. In less than two centuries after his death, the succesor of Akbar was a puppet in the hand of the Hindu marathas at Delhi.

The popular notion that India fell an easy prey to the Musalmans is opposed to the historical facts. Muhammadan rule in India consists of a series of invasions and partial conquests, during eleven centuries, from Usman's raid, circ.647, to Ahmad Shah's tempest of invasion in 1761 A.D.

At no time was Islam triumphant throughout the whole of India. Hindu dynasties always ruled over large areas. At the height of the Muhammadan power, the hindu princes paid tribute, and sent agents to the Imperial court. But even this modified supremacy of Delhi lasted for little over a century (1578-1707). Before the end of that brief period the Hindus had begun the work of reconquest. The native chivalry of Rajputana was closing in upon Delhi from the south; the religious confederation of the Sikhs was growing into a military power on the north-west. The Marathas had combined the fighting powers of the low-castes with the statesmen ship of the Brahmans, and were subjecting the Muhammadan kingdoms throughout all India to tribute. So far as can now be estimated, the advance of the English power at the beginning of the present century alone saved the Mughal Empire from passing to the Hindus.

Partial list of Rajputs who fought the invaders

Bappa Rawal

The Chittorgarh fort in Rajasthan was the site of several battles between the Rajputs and the Islamic invaders.
The Chittorgarh fort in Rajasthan was the site of several battles between the Rajputs and the Islamic invaders.

Muslims started attacking India within a few decades of the birth of Islam. For a few hundred years they had no success. Mohammed Bin Qasim was able to defeat Dahir in Sindh but was routed by Bappa Rawal. Qasim attacked Chittore, which was ruled by Mori Rajputs, via Mathura. Bappa, of guhilote dynasty, was a commander in Mori army and so was Dahir's son. Bappa defeated and pursued Bin Qasim through Saurashtra and back to Sindh. After this resounding defeat of the caliphate at the hands of Bappa, for next few hundred years there were no more Islamic incursions into India. (note Muslim historians rarely recorded the defeats of their kings).

Then Mahmud started his raids and was successful in looting Somnath.

Prithviraj Chauhan

Muhammad Ghori attacked India multiple times. First time he was routed in present day Gujarat by Rajputs. Mularaja-II was not even a teen yet and his mother organized the defences of Pattan. Battle was fought at Kayadara near Mount Abu and Ghori was resoundingly defeated. After this defeat he never entered India through Gujarat. In first battle of Taraori in 1191 Prithviraj Chauhan captured Ghori and Ghori begged for his life. Prithviraj allowed him to go despite his generals asking him not to do so.
Prithivraj lived at Taragarh fort which was also known as Ajaymeru after which the town of Ajmer got its name.
Prithviraj Chauhan lived at Taragarh fort which was also known as Ajaymeru after which the town of Ajmer got its name.

Following year Ghori came again. Prithviraj advanced with his army and sent a letter to Ghori. In this letter Ghori was asked to return as he had been defeated the previous year and was spared his life. Ghori replied that he was in India on the orders of his brother, Ghiasuddin, and that he could only retreat after he got a word from his brother. This letter was sent in the evening and Ghori moved his camp back a few kilometers. On receiving this letter and seeing Muhammad move his camp back Prithviraj assumed that Ghori was not interested in fighting. Ghori also knew that rajputs did not fight in the night and only started fighting after sun had come up. (This is an ancient Kshatriya practice e.g mahabharata was also fought mostly in day time). He attacked in the early morning hours when Prithviraj and his army were sleeping and was able to win this war.

Hammir Dev Chauhan

Ranthambore fort of Hada Chauhan dynasty

Prithviraj's descendant, Hammir Dev Chauhan ruled Ranthambore. Jalore was ruled by another branch of Chauhans, the Songaras. Ala ud din Khilji usurped Delhi from his father-in-law, Jalal-ud-din Khilji, by killing him in cold blood. In 1299 Ala ud din's mongol general Ulugh Khan sought to quell Hindu resistance in Gujarat and besieged Junagadh and sacked the temple at Somnath. Ulugh Khan had broken the shivalinga of Somnath and was carrying it back to Delhi. Kanhad Dev Songara, ruler of Jalore, attacked and defeated Ulugh Khan. His son Biramdeo and Jaitra Deora were the generals who commandeered Kanhad Dev's army. They captured the fragments of the Shivalinga. Kanhad had the shivalinga washed in Gangajal and had the fragments placed at various Shiva temples around Jalore. One of Ala ud din's generals was a neo-Muslim, Muhammad Shah, who had helped Kanhad Dev. This general later went and stayed with Hammir Deo in Ranthambore. Ala ud din wanted him dead, and asked Hammir to hand him over. Hammir replied that he knows how to draw his sword, and anyone who has taken shelter in his fort would not be turned over. Hammir did not consider Khilji king of India. Ala ud din attacked Ranthambore in 1299, but his armies were defeated. He finally came himself in 1301, and there was a long siege. Hammir was very well prepared. When the fort did not fall after repeated bloody skirmishes Khilji resorted to diplomacy. Hammir was very suspicious but he heeded to his councillors who told him that sword is not always the best recourse. Ratipal and Ranmal, who were close confidants of Hammir, were sent to the Khilji camp. Ranmal's father was hung by Hammir for treachery and his property was confiscated. Ranmal earned the trust of Hammir by being brave in battles that Hammir fought but perfidy was in his blood. Khilji bribed these two generals of Hammir's army and consequently Ranthambore fell.

Rawal Ratan Singh,Gora,Badal

Palace of Queen Padmini
Palace of Maharani Padmini

Khilji wanted to win Chittor because sisodiyas of Chittor never accepted the rule of Islam. Another reason was Rani Padmini. He laid a siege but Chittor would not fall. Then he requested Rawal Ratan Singh, husband of Rani Padmini, that if he is allowed a glimpse of Rani he would leave. By this time the situation inside the fort was getting bad. Rawal discussed this with his advisers and they agreed that they can show Padmini's face in a mirror to the sultan. The meeting took place and afterwards out of courtesy when Ratan Singh was walking Khilji out of the palace, Khilji's men captured Rawal Ratan Singh. Khilji sent a message to the fort that Rawal can be spared by exchanging Rani Padmini. Padmini discussed this with Gora, her maternal uncle, who was a Chauhan rajput. Gora told her not to worry and that he would go and bring back Rawal Ratan Singh. Padmini's nephew Badal who was just sixteen also assured her. A message was sent from the fort to Khilji that Padmini would come with 700 of her servants in "palanquins" (palki in hindi) and that no Muslim soldier should peek inside the palki to outrage the modesty of the women. Letter also said that before Padmini meets Khilji she would like to talk to Rawal. Khilji agreed. All the palki's had the best rajput warriors with two swords each. When Padmini's palki, which was occupied by Gora, reached Rawal's tent he asked Rawal to mount the horse and go back to the fort. Then Gora gave a signal and every rajput came out of the palki and attacked the Muslims who were cut to pieces. Gora reached Khilji's tent and was about to kill the sultan when Khilji moved his concubine in front of himself. Gora, being a rajput could not kill an innocent women and these few seconds were enough for Khilji's guards to kill Gora from behind.

Maharana Hammir

Jag Niwas, the summer abode of the Ranas of Mewar, in Udaipur Rajasthan
Jag Niwas, the summer abode of the Ranas of Mewar, in Udaipur Rajasthan

After Ratan Singh's death his successor Laxman Singh tried to capture Chittor and fought a battle with Tughlaq near Chittor. He died along with his son Ari. His second son Ajay was severely wounded but was taken away from the battlefield by other soldiers and survived. Ajay was not a powerful ruler and his sons were likewise. Ajay knew that Ari had a son Hammir and he called Hammir to come to him. Hammir, along with his mother came to see his uncle. Ajay said that he had grown weak and a dacoit, Munja Balicha, was wreaking havoc in Rana Ajay's domain. Hammir vowed that he would take care of Munja. Hammir took seven warriors with him and set out to finish Munja. Hammir at this stage was just a teenager. Munja was tracked. When Munja was riding with his band to plunder a village, Hammir stood in his way on his white steed. Munja asked him to leave the way or die. Hammir challenged him to a duel and seeing that Hammir was just a teenager Munja readily agreed. Hammir killed Munja and brought his head and put it at Rana Ajay's feet and told his uncle that Munja will never be a problem again. Rana Ajay realized Hammir should be the ruler and he coronated Hammir as the new ruler of Mewar. Ajay's sons were unhappy with this and decided to move to Maharashtra. Do note that Chittor was called Khijarabad at this time as Ala ud din had renamed it after his son and at Hammir's coronation was ruled by Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Hammir captured Chittor. Tughlaq became very unhappy and launched a massive campaign against Hammir which he led himself. Hammir knew as soon as he captured Chittor that Tughlaq would attack him. He rallied all nearby rajput states to join him and they did. Battle was fought and Tughlaq was badly defeated and captured. After he paid a hefty fees and surrendered all of Mewar's territory he was let go. After this defeat Mewar was never attacked by Tughlaq.

Maharana Kumbha

Vijay Sthamb (Victory Tower) built by Maharana Kumbha
Vijay Sthamb (Victory Tower) built by Maharana Kumbha

Later Rana Kumbha repeatedly defeated sultans of Malwa and Gujarat and built 32 forts in Rajasthan. Even the combined armies of sultans of Malwa and Gujarat could not beat Kumbha. To commemorate his victory over these Muslim rulers of Malwa and Gujarat, Maharana Kumbha built the victory tower in 1440 A.D.

Kumbhalgarh fort built by Maharana Kumbha
Kumbhalgarh fort built by Maharana Kumbha

The tower has nine-stories and is covered with exquisite sculputres of Hindu Gods and Godesses depicting episodes from Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Rana Sanga

In Kumbha's lineage was Rana Sangram Singh or Sanga. Ibrahim Lodi, ruler of Delhi, was defeated by Man Singh Tomar of Gwalior but being a Hindu Kshatriya, Man Singh out of magnanimity let Ibrahim go back to Delhi. Man Singh's descendants fought at Haldighati along with Maharana Pratap against Akbar and showed exemplary bravery. Lodi was defeated by Babur later. Now Babur was having sleepless nights because of Sanga. Babur sent about 1500 choice cavalry to attack Sanga. These were butchered by Sanga's rajputs.
The Chittorgarh fort in Rajasthan was the site of several battles between the Rajputs and the Islamic invaders.
The Chittorgarh fort in Rajasthan was the home of Sisodiya clan of Rajputs and was also the site of several battles between the Rajputs and the Islamic invaders.

Babur wanted to discuss peace terms. For discussions Sanga sent his general Silhadi (Shiladitya). Babur won this general by promising him independent kingdom. Silhadi came back and reported that Babur does not want peace and he wants to fight. Fight started and Babur's army was being knocked out of the field and victory was certain for Sanga. At this juncture Silhadi and his army just left the field and this tilted the war in favor of Babur and he won.

Rao Maldeo Rathore

Humayun, Babur's son was defeated by Sher Shah Suri, a Pathan. Humayun was forced to leave India and he took refuge with Safavid king of Persia. Sher Shah became ruler of Delhi. The Sesodias of Mewar had not yet recovered from Rana Sanga's treacherous defeat. In Marwar the Rathores were becoming very powerful. The Rathore king Rao Maldeo had extended his territory to within a couple of hundred kilometers of Delhi. Sher Shah attacked Maldeo. Maldeo came with a force of 40 thousand and Sher Shah had 60 thousand. In the evening Sher Shah sent forged letters to Maldeo's camp. In these letters it was stated that few generals from Maldeo's army were buying arms from Sher Shah's army. This caused great consternation in Maldeo who thought there is treachery and that some of his generals had crossed over to Sher Shah. Maldeo left with 20 thousand men.
Mehrangarh Fort, Home of Rathore rulers of (Rajasthan, India)

Mehrangarh Fort, Home of Rathore rulers of (Rajasthan, India)

In reality there was no treachery. Later when Maldeo's generals Kumpa (his progeny are Kumpawat rathores) and Jaita (his progeny are Jaitawat rathores) found out what happened they did not loose cool and decided they would not leave the field even though they just had 20 thousand men and had to face 60 thousand Pathans of Sher Shah. Finally battle of Sammel was fought and Sher Shah was shocked by what he saw. Sher Shah's top generals lost there lives and his army suffered heavy losses. After this Sher Shah commented that "for a few grains of bajra [a grain crop that grows in Marwar] he had almost lost the entire kingdom of India". It is a moot point now but had Maldeo not retreated because of the fake letter Rathores/Rajputs would have defeated Sher Shah. In my bhoomi (Rajasthan) Deoras are considered the most stubborn, Hadas the most brave and Rathores the invincible warriors on the battlefield (Ranbanka Rathore).

Maharana Pratap

Humayun's son Akbar was born in the palace of a Hindu king, at Amarkot, who had given Humayun shelter when he was being pursued by Sher Shah. Akbar realized that he can never subdue Rajputs and become sole ruler of India. He decided to pursue diplomacy and was able to convince the Kacchwaha Rajput rulers of Amber(modern day Jaipur) about a matrimonial alliance. King of Amber agreed and Maan Kunwar became Akbar's queen and the mother of Prince Salim, who later became the Mughal emperor Jahangir. Soon other Rajput kingdoms in Rajasthan also gave their daughters to Akbar. This was the darkest period in the history of Rajputs.

Maharana Pratap of Udaipur
Maharana Pratap of Udaipur

Only two kings remained against this. The sisodiyas of Mewar and Hadas of Ranthambore. Hada are Chauhans. Finally Kunwar Man Singh of Amber and Akbar went and met Surjan Hada that he should become friends with Akbar. Surjan some how agreed but one of his conditions of friendship was that no daughter of Hadas would ever be asked to marry mughals and Akbar agreed. Surjan was very saddened by this friendship with Akbar and the fact that he could not help Maharana Pratap against Akbar. He felt so ashamed that he moved his residence to Banaras and made sure that Hindus in the holy city had no problems at the hands of Muslims. So there remained just the house of Mewar the sole bearer of Rajput pride in the face of immense opposition from Mughals as well as other rajputs who had sold there souls essentially to mughals by giving there daughters.

Looking down from the Chittorgarh fort.
Looking down from the Chittorgarh fort.

Maharana Pratap, the Sesodia ruler of Mewar, passed a law in his state that none of his followers will intermarry with Rajputs who have given their daughters to Muslims. This rule was followed by his loyal band of Rajputs, which included Rathores, Chauhans, Sesodias, Parihars, Tomars, Kacchwaha and Jhalas. Maharana Pratap never accepted Akbar as ruler of India, and fought Akbar all his life. Akbar first tried diplomacy to win over Maharana Pratap but nothing worked. Pratap just said he has no intention to fight with Akbar but he cannot bow down to Akbar and accept him as the ruler. Some scholars argue that there is some chance that Maharana could have become friends with Akbar but in the siege of Chittor when Akbar killed 30,000 civilian, unarmed residents of Chittor, because they refused to convert to Islam, left a lasting impression on Maharana's mind and he decided he cannot bow to such an unjust and cruel human being as Akbar was. (People should note that when Hindu Kings fought with each other unarmed civilians were never killed in the loosing king's territory).


Finally Akbar attacked Maharana Pratap at Haldighati. Akbar's general was Man Singh Kacchwaha of Amber, leading an army of 40 thousand men. Maharana had about 8 thousand men and some Bhil warriors. One of Maharana's generals was Hakim Khan Sur, who was from the line of Sher Shah Suri, a pathan. Pathans are the only faction of Muslims that Rajputs do not mind befriending because a Pathan would rather give his life then his word. During the first attack Maharana Pratap's army routed the Mughals and Mughals ran for there life. Maharana Pratap decided to kill Man Singh, and Maharana Pratap's horse Chetak put his front feet on the trunk of the elephant that Man Singh was riding and Maharana threw his lance. Man Singh ducked, and the elephant driver was killed. Finally the numerical superiority of the Mughal army was too much and the battle ended in a stalemate. When Mughal army entered the nearby town of Gogunda they were so mortified that Maharana would attack them again that no one would venture out of the camp for months. They ran out of food and conditions were just miserable in the Mughal camp. They killed there own horses and ate them to survive. Finally help arrived many months later. Akbar was very unhappy with his generals and his army and he refused to see his generals for months.

Akbar kept sending expedition after expedition against Maharana Pratap but never succeeded. He lost lot of money and men in trying to defeat Maharana Pratap. For 30 years Pratap remained ahead of Akbar and in last ten years of his life was able to free most of his kingdom. The only fort Pratap could not recover was Chittor and that saddened him a lot. His son, Amar Singh, won that fort after Pratap's death.

Chetak Smarak
Chetak Smarak

It is said that somebody told Akbar that Pratap wanted to accept Akbar as the king. Akbar was very happy to hear this. One of Akbar's general was Prthviraj Rathore who was a very good poet. He told Akbar this is a lie (incidentally Prithviraj's mother and Pratap's mother were real sisters. Pratap and Prithviraj played together as kids in there maternal grandfather, Akshay Raj Songara's home who was a Chauhan rajput). Prithviraj wrote this letter to Pratap:

The hopes of the Hindu rest on the Hindu yet the Rana forsakes them. But for Pratap, all would be placed on the same level by Akbar; for our chiefs have lost their valour and our females their honour. Akbar is the broker in the market of our race; he has purchased all but the son of Udai (Singh II of Mewar); he is beyond his price. What true Rajput would part with honour for nine days (nauroza); yet how many have bartered it away? Will Chittor come to this market ...? Though Patta (an affectionate name for Pratap Singh) has squandered away wealth (on warfare), yet he has preserved this treasure. Despair has driven man to this market, to witness their dishonour: from such infamy the descendant of hammir alone has been preserved. The world asks, from where does the concealed aid of Pratap emanate? None but the soul of manliness and his sword .. The broker in the market of men (Akbar) will one day be surpassed; he cannot live forever. Then will our race come to Pratap, for the seed of the Rajput to sow in our desolate lands. To him all look for its preservation, that its purity may again become resplendent. It is as much impossible for me to believe that Pratap has called Akbar his emperor as to see the sun rising in the west. Tell me where do I stand? Shall I use my sword on my neck or shall I continue my proud bearing?

Pratap replied to him:

By my god Eklinga, Pratap would call the emperor Turk alone and the sun would rise in the east. You may continue your proud bearing as long as Pratap's sword dangles on the mughal head. Pratap would be guilty of Sanga's blood, if he was to tolerate Akbar. you would have the better of it, no doubt Prithviraj, in this wordy quarrel.

Prithviraj was overjoyed on getting this letter.

Maharana Pratap's son, Amar Singh, fought 17 wars with the Mughals but he finally accepted them as rulers. At this time a large chunk of Maharana Pratap's band of loyal Rajputs became disillusioned by the surrender and left Rajasthan. This group included Rathores, Deora Chauhans, Pariharas, Tomaras, Kacchwaha and Jhalas. They are called "Rors" and settled mostly in Haryana, with some in Uttar Pradesh. Until today they do not intermarry with other Rajputs but "gotra permitting" with other Rors only.

Maharaja Jaswant Singh

Umaid Bhavan Palace is the abode of Rathore rulers of Marwar
Umaid Bhavan Palace is the abode of Rathore rulers of Marwar

In the Battle of Dharmatpur, Jaswant Singh opposed Aurangzeb. The battle was fought on 15th April 1658, fifteen miles from Ujjain. Jaswant could have attacked Aurangzeb but he allowed Murad's armies to join Aurangzeb. He was desirous of beating both mughal princes at once. This delay allowed Aurangzeb to win over the mughal general, Kasim Khan, who was sent by Shah Jahan to help Jaswant Singh. Kasim Khan defected as soon as the war started but 30,000 rajputs of Jaswant decided that they would not leave the field. Some prominent generals in Maharaja's army were Mukund Singh Hara of Kotah and Bundi, Dayal Das Jhala, Arjun Gaur of Rajgarh in Ajmer province and Ratan Singh Rathore of Ratlam. Jaswant attacked both Aurangzeb and Murad and they barely escaped. According to James Tod in Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan:

"Ten thousand Muslims fell in the onset, which cost seventeen hundred Rathores, besides Guhilotes, Haras, Gaurs, and some of every clan of Rajwarra. Aurangzeb and Murad only escaped because their days were not yet numbered. Notwithstanding the immense superiority of the imperial princes, aided by numerous artillery served by Frenchmen, night alone put a stop to the contest of science, numbers, and artillery, against Rajput courage."

Jaswant Thada:Chaatri (Cenotaph) of Maharaja Jaswant Singh
Jaswant Thada:Chaatri (Cenotaph) of Maharaja Jaswant Singh

Finally the unequal contest ended and Aurangzeb named the place of victory Fatehabad. In this battle Durga Das Rathore changed four horses and lost about half a dozen swords (they broke due to intense fighting) and he finally fell down half dead. Maharaja ordered him to be carried away. After his wounds healed he promptly rejoined Maharaja's army. James Tod further writes in Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan:

"Rajputs, even in the moment of battle, worshipped the rising sun, and they sealed there faith in there blood; and none more liberally than the brave Haras of Kotah and Bundi. . . The annals of no nation on earth can furnish such an example, as an entire family, six royal brothers of Kotah, stretched on the field, and all but one in death. Of all the deeds of heroism performed on this day, those of Ratan Singh Rathore of Ratlam, by universal consent, are pre-eminent, and are wreathed into immortal rhyme by the bard in the Raso Rao Ratan."

Prithvi Singh was Jaswant Singh's son. It is chronicled in Marwar khyats that Aurangzeb presented Prithvi Singh a dress which was poisoned. On wearing this dress Prithvi died in great pain. Prithvi was a good leader and a brave prince. Jaswant could not get over the shock of his son's death. He was very saddened because he had no male heir who could seek revenge. Jaswant died in 1680. James Tod writes in his Annals and Antiquities of ancient Rajasthan:

"Sighs never ceased flowing from Aurang’s heart while Jaswant lived. . . had all the princely contemporaries of Jaswant- Jai Singh of Amber, Rana Raj Singh of Mewar, and Chattrapati Shivaji coalesced against their national foe, the Mughal power would have been made extinct. Could Jaswant, however, have been satisfied with the mental wounds he inflicted upon Aurangzeb, he would have had ample revenge; for the image of the Rathore crossed all his visions of aggrandizement. The cruel sacrifice of his heir, and the still more barbarous and unrelenting ferocity with which he pursued Jaswant’s innocent family, are the surest proofs of the dread which the Rathore prince inspired while alive."

Aurangzeb tried to kill Jaswant Singh many times. James Tod writes in his Annals and Antiquities:

"It was by the vigilance of this chief (Mokund Das Kumpawat), and his daring intrepidity, that the many plots laid for Jaswant’s life were defeated. He had personally incurred the displeasure of Aurangzeb, by a reply which was deemed disrespectful to a message sent by the royal "Ahadi" (royal messenger), for which the tyrant condemned him to enter a tiger’s den, and contend for his life unarmed. Without a sign of fear he entered the arena, where the savage beast was pacing, and thus contemptuously accosted him: "Oh, tiger of the Miyan, face the tiger of Jaswant"; exhibiting to the king of the forest a pair of eyes, which anger and opium had rendered little less inflamed than his own. The animal, startled by so unaccustomed salutation, for a moment looked at his visitor, put down his head, turned around and stalked from him. "You see" exclaimed the rathore, "that he dare not face me, and it is contrary to the creed of a true rajput to attack an enemy who dares not confront him".

It is written in Tarikh Mohammed Shahi that Aurangzeb, on hearing the news of Maharaja's demise, said, "Darwaja-e kufra shikast" i.e the door opposing the islamic faith in India is broken.

Soon after Maharaja Jaswant Singh's death, Aurangzeb imposed Jizyah. While Jaswant was alive Aurangzeb did not have the courage to impose Jizyah on non-muslims. V.A. Smith writes on page 438 of his book, Oxford History of India, "the death of Jaswant Singh emboldened the imperial bigot to re-impose the hated Jizyah, or poll-tax on non Muslims".
Durga Das Rathore

Durga Das Rathore

Durga Das Rathore

When Jaswant Singh Rathore died he had no son and this gave Aurangzeb a chance to appoint a Muslim as the ruler of Marwar. This upset Rathore Rajputs a lot. Two of Jaswant Singh's queens were pregnant when he died. One queen gave birth to Ajit Singh and other to Dalathamban. After Ajit's birth, Rathore generals, chief among them was Durga Das Rathore (a Karnot Rathore) went to Delhi along with the queens and the infants, and asked Aurangzeb that crown of Marwar should be given to Ajit Singh. Aurangzeb was very cunning and he had no intention of handing over the throne of Marwar. He suggested that Ajit should grow up in his harem but internally he wanted to kill them all.

Durga Das sensed this and they smuggled Ajit Singh out of Delhi to the outskirts of the city. When Mughal army came to capture them in Delhi, Durga Das and his men attacked the Mughals and started riding out of Delhi. Raghunandan Bhati and others soaked the streets of Delhi in crimson by flowing the blood of mughal pursuers. There were about three hundred Rajputs with Durga Das and there were thousands of pursuing Mughals. Every so often 15 - 20 Rajputs would fall behind attack the Mughal pursuers and in the process get themselves killed but it allowed the forward party to create some distance between Ajit and the Mughals. This continued till the evening by which time the Mughals had given up and Durga Das was left with just seven men out of three hundred he started with and reached Jaipur along with Ajit Singh.

Thereby started the 30 year Rajput rebellion against Aurangzeb. Mewar and Marwar forces combined together and almost killed Aurangzeb when he was trapped in the mountains of Rajasthan but the Mewar king out of magnanimity allowed Aurangzeb to escape.

All the trade routes were plundered by Rajputs and they started looting various treasuries of Rajasthan and Gujarat. To crush them Aurangzeb sent many expeditions but no success. These expeditions and drying up of revenue from trade routes running through Rajasthan had severe effect on his resources. In addition the lion of Maharashtra, Shivaji, had freed almost all of Maharashtra and was at constant war with Aurangzeb. Shivaji had some Rajput ancestry.
The historical city of Jaisalmer was founded by the Bhati clan of Rajputs.
The historical city of Jaisalmer was founded by the Bhati clan of Rajputs.

Finally, on his death-bed Aurangzeb complained that his life had been a complete failure. He was the sole reason for Mughal empire's crumbling. His war campaigns had practically left the treasury dry for his progeny.

Baron De Boigne payed tribute to rajput (rathaura) valor in his memoirs, which were published by his son in 18th century. De Boigne fought the rathaurs, as part of Mahadaji Scindia's army at Tonga, Lalsot and Medta.

James Tod describes the fate of Jaswant Singh's family and the birth of his son Ajit Singh. Following excerpt from Page 45,46 of Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan:

"When Jaswant died beyond the Attock, his wife, the (future) mother of Ajit, determined to burn with her lord, but being in the seventh month of her pregnancy, she was forcibly prevented by Uday Kumpawat. As soon as the tidings reached Jodhpur, the Chandravati queen, taking a turban of her late lord, ascended the pile at Mandore. The Hindu race was in despair at the loss of the support of their faith. The bells of the temple were mute; the sacred shell no longer sounded at sunrise. The queen was delivered of a boy, who received the name of Ajit. As soon as she was able to travel, the Rathore contingent, with their infant prince, his mother, the daughters, and establishment of their late sovereign, prepared to return to their native land. But the unrelenting Aurangzeb, carrying his vengeance towards Jaswant even beyond the grave, as soon they reached Delhi, commanded that the infant should be surrendered to his custody. Aurang offered to divide Maru amongst Marwar nobles if they would surrender their prince; but they replied, "Our country is with our sinews, and these can defend both it and our Lord." With eyes red with rage, they left the Aum-khas. Their abode was surrounded by the host of the Shah. In a basket of sweetmeats they sent away the young prince, . . . and prepared to defend their honour; they made oblations to the gods, took a double portion of opium, and mounted their steeds. Then spoke Rinchor and Govind, sons of Jodha, and Chandarbhan the Darawat, and the son of Raghu, on whose shoulders the sword had been married at Ujjain, with the fearless Baharmall the Udawat, and the Sujawat, Raghunath. "Let us swim," they exclaimed, "in the ocean of fight. Let us root up these Asuras, and be carried by the Apsaras to the mansions of the sun." Then spake Durga Das Rathore, son of Asakaran, "The teeth of the Yavans are whetted, but by the lightning emitted from our swords, Delhi shall witness our deeds".

As thus the chiefs communed, and the troops of the king approached, the Rajloka (wives and daughters of Maharaja Jaswant Singh) of their late lord was sent to inhabit Swarga. Their own wives and daughters, were placed in an apartment filled with gunpowder, and the torch applied—all was soon over. Lance in hand, the Rathores rushed upon the foe, then the music of swords and shields commenced. Wave followed wave in the field of blood. Every tribe and every clan performed its duty in this day’s pilgrimage to the stream of the sword, in which Durgadas ground the foe and saved his honour.
The Rajputs founded several cities of modern-day Rajasthan. The historical city of Jodhpur was founded by the Rathore clan of Rajputs.
The Rajputs founded several cities of modern-day Rajasthan. The historical city of Jodhpur was founded by the Rathore clan of Rajputs.

When these brave men saw that nothing short of the surrender of all that was dear to a Rajput was intended by the fiend-like spirit of Aurangzeb, their first thought was the preservation of their prince; the next to secure their own honour and that of their late master. The means by which they accomplished this were terrific. Accordingly, “the battle fought by the sons of Duharia (rathore king who ruled Marwar in ancient time) in the streets of Delhi” is one of the many themes of everlasting eulogy to the Rathores; and the seventh of Sravan, S.1736 (the second month of the Monsoon of A.D. 1680), is a sacred day in the calendar of Maru.

In the midst of this furious contest, the infant prince was saved. DurgaDas and a few chosen friends repaired to the isolated rock of Abu, and placed him in a monastery of recluses. There the heir of Maru was reared in entire ignorance of his birth. Still rumours prevailed, that a son of Jaswant lived; that Durga and a few associates were his guardians; and this was enough for the loyal Rajput, to be his rallying-word in the defense of his rights."

Protection of Hinduism

A point to note here is that lot of Muslims, Western and some Hindu historians think that Islam/Muslims did not do conversion of Hindus by sword. The argument they give is that there are so many Hindus still today in India. This is completely wrong because most Muslim rulers in India tried to convert as many as they could but it was the strength of Rajput sword and later Maratha,Sikh swords that kept Hinduism alive in India. If there were no Rajputs, Marathas , Sikhs in India, then India would be just like Iraq, Iran, Turkey, or Pakistan in terms of religion of the population.

The preservance of Hinduism in India by the Rajput sword against the entire might of Islamic rulers is the most glorious achievement by a race in the annals of world history and every one should know this fact, more so Indians and most definitely each and every Rajput. Presence of Rajput generals in Mughal army was a blessing in disguise for the Hindu population as the mughal army when headed by a rajput general could not engage in wanton destruction of Hindu temples as well as mass coversion of Hindus to Islam.

In his Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan James Tod wrote:

"What nation on earth could have maintained the semblance of civilization, the spirit or the customs of their forefathers, during so many centuries of overwhelming depression, but one of such singular character as the Rajpoot? . . . Rajasthan exhibits the sole example in the history of mankind, of a people withstanding every outrage barbarity could inflict, or human nature sustain, from a foe whose religion commands annihilation; and bent to the earth, yet rising buoyant from the pressure, and making calamity a whetstone to courage. . . . Not an iota of their religion or customs have they lost. . . ".

Contrast this to how Muslims converted entire Iranian kingdom, where a very ancient religion of Zoroaster flourished, on the edge of the sword in a very short amount of time:


"Suffice it to say, that with Yezdezird, the forty-fifth king in the descent of the race of Kaimurs, ended the ancient Persian monarchy. The neighbouring and wealthy empire of Persia presented too tempting a prize to the fanatic and ambitious spirit, evoked by Mahomed, to remain long unmolested , and in the middle of the seventh century of the Christian era, the Arab sword invaded Persia, under Caliph Omar. In a fierce and well-contested battle with the Persians at the village of Nahavand, about fifty miles from the ancient city of Ecbatana, the fate of the empire was decided.....Yezdezird, abandoning his kingdom as lost, fled the country; and after wandering in solitude and disguise for a period of ten years, was at last treacherously slain by a miller to whom the secret of his identity had been confided (651 AD). ....

Thus on the conquest of Persia, the Mahomedan soldiers of the Caliphat of Baghdad traversed the length and breadth of the country, presenting the alternative of death or the Koran, and compelling the conquered nation to accept the one or the other. By these oppressive and cruel means, a hundred thousand persons are said to have daily abjured the faith of there forefathers; and the fire-temples and other sacred places were destroyed or converted into mosques."


# Beck, Dr. Sanderson (2004), India & Southeast Asia to 1875., World Peace Communications, ISBN 0976221004.

# Bhati, Hari Simha (2002), Annals of Jaisalmer: a pre-medieval history., Kavi Prakashan, ASIN B0000CPJC0.

# Bhati, Dr. Hukam Singh (2003), Bhati vamsa ka gauravamaya itihasa Vol I-II., Ithihass Anusandhan Sansthan, Chaupasani, Jodhpur.

# Bhati, Dr. Narayan Singh (1991), Maharaja Mansingh: the mystic monarch of Marwar., Maharaja Man Singh Pustak Prakash, Jodhpur.

# Bhati, Dr. Hukam Singh (1990), Maheca Rathaurom ka mula itihasa: Ravala Mallinatha ke vamsaja - Maheca, Baramera, Pokarana, Kotariya aura Khavariya Rathaurom ka sodhapurna itihasa., Ratan Prakashan, Jodhpur.

# Bhati, Dr. Hukam Singh (Editor) (1993), Mevara jagiradaram ri vigata : Maharana Amarasimha Dvi. evam Maharana Bhimasimha., Pratap Shodh Pratishtan, Udaipur 313 001.

# Bhati, Dr. Hukam Singh (Editor) (2001), Svatantrya vira Rava Chandrasena: Jodhapura ka sasaka 1562-1581., Rajasthani Shodh Sansthan, Chaupasani, Jodhpur.

# Bhati, Dr. Hukam Singh (Editor) (2002), Vira siromani Rava Amarasimha Rathaura : Nagaura ka sasaka, 1638-1644., Rajasthani Shodh Sansthan, Chaupasani, Jodhpur.

# Bhatnagar, Professor V.S. (), Essays on Bardic literature.

# Chauhan, Dr. Bindhayaraj (2003), Bharata ka Liyonidasa, Sonigira Virama de Chauhana, Jalaura: Lionidas of India Sonigira Viram de Chauhan., Arjun Singh Songara publication, Sanchore, Jalore, Rajasthan.

# Chauhan, Dr. Lal Bhadur Singh (ISBN 81-7043-429-7), Rashtra-gaurava suravira Maharana Pratapa., Atma Ram and Sons, New Delhi 110006, ISBN 81-7043-429-7.

# Choudhury, Bani Roy (2nd Ed. 1977), Folk tales of Rajasthan., Sterling Publishers, ASIN B0007ANEHY.

# Dua, Shyam (2004), The luminous life of Maharana Pratap., ISBN 8175738324.

# Gehlote, Sukhvir Singh (2000), Svatamtrata-premi Durgadasa Rathaura., Navbharat Publications, Jodhpur 342 001, Rajasthan.

# Harlan, Lindsey (1992), Religion and Rajput Women: The Ethic of Protection in Contemporary Narratives., University of California Press, ISBN 0520073398.

# Heinemann, S O (1990), Poems of Mewar., Vintage Books, ISBN 81-85326-40-1.

# Hunter, W.W. (1886), The Indian Empire, Its People, History and Products., London: Trubner & Co, Ludgate Hill, 1886, ISBN 81-206-1581-6.

# Joshi, Dr. Sanjay (2004), Unveiling Ajitsingh's Sanskrit biography : issues in Marwar history and Sanskrit poetics., Books Treasure, Jodhpur, ISBN 81-900422-1-1.

# Kadam, Vasant S (1993), Maratha confederacy : a study in its origin and development., Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, ISBN 81-215-0570-2.

# Mathur, Professor G.L. (2004), Folklore of Rajasthan., Publisher Rajasthani Granthagar, Sojati Gate, Jodhpur.

# Mathur, Dr. L.P (2004), War strategy of Maharana Pratap, its evolution and implementation., Publication Scheme, Ganga Mandir, Jaipur-1, ISBN 81-8182-016-9.

# Mishra, Jwalaprasad (1914), Jati Bhaskara., Khemaraj Shrikrishnadas.

# Nagar, Dr. (Kr.) Mahendra Singh (2004), The genealogical survey : Royal house of Marwar and other states., Maharaja Man Singh Pustak Prakash, Jodhpur.

# Nirala, Suryakant Tripathi (1998), Maharana Pratapa, ISBN 81-267-0836-0.

# Ojha, Dr. Gauri Shankar Hira Chand (First edition 1936, Second revised edition 1999), Sirohi rajya ka itihasa., Rajasthani Granthagar, Sojati gate, Jodhpur.

# Prakash, Ved (2005), Vira Durgadasa Rathaurha., Rajbhasha Pustak Pratishthan, Shivaji Marg, Delhi 110053, ISBN 81-88613-10-X.

# Premchand, Munshi (1998), Maharana Pratap., Sahityasagar, Jaipur 302003.

# Ranade, M G (1962), Rise of the Maratha power., ISBN 1135403368.

# Rathore, Professor L.S (1991), Maharana Hammir of Mewar: Chittor's lost freedom restored., The Thar Bliss Publishing House, Jodhpur 342 001.

# Rathore, Dr. L.S Rathore (1990), The glory of Ranthambhor., Jodhpur university press, Jodhpur (India).

# Rathore, Dr. L.S (1988), The johur of Padmini : the saga of Chittor's deathless heroine., Thar Bliss Publishing House, Jaipur.

# Reu, Pt. Vishveshwar Nath (2005), Maravara ka itihasa Vol I-II., Rajasthani Granthagar, Sojati Gate, Jodhpur, ISBN 81-86103-46-5.
Can anyone tell me if there are two different Hammir's?

One is Hammir Deo Chauhan who died fighting valiantly against Muslims, so is the other Hammir Singh (the liberator of Mewar) different from this Hammir?
<!--QuoteBegin-Bharatvarsh+Aug 21 2006, 09:41 PM-->QUOTE(Bharatvarsh @ Aug 21 2006, 09:41 PM)<!--QuoteEBegin-->Can anyone tell me if there are two different Hammir's?

One is Hammir Deo Chauhan who died fighting valiantly against Muslims, so is the other Hammir Singh (the liberator of Mewar) different from this Hammir?

Yes they were two different Hammirs. One was a Sisodia rajput that is Mahrana Hammir in whose line Mahrana Pratap was born. The other was Hammir Deo Chauhan a lineal descendant of Prithviraj Chauhan.

For some reason the moderators do not let me post the link to my website in which the article looks much nicer because it has good photographs and is formatted better.

Mods can I please post the link to my website?

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Mods can I please post the link to my website?
Digvijay: Go ahead. We'll make a one-time expection. Every week we get atleast 10 new members who join solely to peddle their websites, blogs, wares etc - which is not fair to the members of this forum. I trust you'll stick around to help other members with any questions/comments you might have on your work.
The story of military revival of Hindus cannot be completed without mentioning these:

- Harihar, Bukka I and II, Krishna Dev of Vijayanagaram
- Rajput Gau-raksha (Gorakha) kings of Nepal
- Rajput Kings of Kangda and Kumayoon Hills
- Kakatiyas of Andhra
- Chhatrasaal, other Bundel kings
- Jat and Gurjar warriors of Haryana, Rajasthan and UP
- Tomar, Parmar, Chandels of MP
- Pals in Bengal, Asam (not very sure)
- Later Marathas and Sikhs - which hammered the last nail in the coffin of muslim rule.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->- Kakatiyas of Andhra<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Bodhi the Kakatiyas didn't fight Islamic invasions much, infact after Rudramba her grandson Parataparudra tried his utmost to resist Muslim invasions from the North but lost and committed suicide while on his way to Delhi as a prisoner, the real revival started after the fall of the Kakatiyas (under whose rule Andhra attained one of it's most glorious periods), a Hindu confederation of about 75 local warlords came together to drive out Muslims, the main leaders were Prolaya Nayaka, Kapayya Nayaka and Vema Reddy and they drove out Muslims from all of Eastern Andhra, the Western part was liberated by Somadeva.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->- Jat and Gurjar warriors of Haryana, Rajasthan and UP<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
The Jats attained their most glorious period under Maharaja Surajmal when they became one of the major powers in India along with the Marathas and they broke the back of the Mughal power around all the imperial seats like Agra.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->- Pals in Bengal, Asam (not very sure)<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Assam had the Ahoms who managed to keep Assam virtually free from Muslim rule.
<!--QuoteBegin-Bharatvarsh+Aug 22 2006, 08:36 PM-->QUOTE(Bharatvarsh @ Aug 22 2006, 08:36 PM)<!--QuoteEBegin--><!--QuoteBegin--><div class='quotetop'>QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->- Kakatiyas of Andhra<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Bodhi the Kakatiyas didn't fight Islamic invasions much, infact after Rudramba her grandson Parataparudra tried his utmost to resist Muslim invasions from the North but lost and committed suicide while on his way to Delhi as a prisoner, the real revival started after the fall of the Kakatiyas (under whose rule Andhra attained one of it's most glorious periods), a Hindu confederation of about 75 local warlords came together to drive out Muslims, the main leaders were Prolaya Nayaka, Kapayya Nayaka and Vema Reddy and they drove out Muslims from all of Eastern Andhra, the Western part was liberated by Somadeva.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->- Jat and Gurjar warriors of Haryana, Rajasthan and UP<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
The Jats attained their most glorious period under Maharaja Surajmal when they became one of the major powers in India along with the Marathas and they broke the back of the Mughal power around all the imperial seats like Agra.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->- Pals in Bengal, Asam (not very sure)<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Assam had the Ahoms who managed to keep Assam virtually free from Muslim rule.

Assam is inhabited by one of the bravest people of India. Yet the Indian polity has managed to make them terrorists by favoring the bangladeshi muslims over Assamese Hindus. There General, Lachit Barphukan's, millitary tactics were legendary. His statue was recently put at National Defence Academy (NDA), Kharagvasla.

Ravi, why dont you post what you know? Thanks, ramana
Folks: Please, let's not waste more bandwidth on good-Jat/bad-Rajput or good-Rajput/bad-Jat talk. We've been down that path couple times in recent past.
Let's accept there were good/bad people all over and move on.
Ravi: This is the exactly the kind of Jat versus Rajput discussion I was trying to steer this thread away from with my previous post in this thread and since repeated by Mudy - mind you neither one of us has a dog in this fight.

I believe there is a Jat History thread on this forum supporting material and let others respond with their comments/questions/concerns.

While we are on the Jat subject, I might have missed your posts on the recent controversy about a Marxists historian denigrating Jats. Perhaps you could shed some light on the area you are expert on (in separate Jat thread, let's not mix issues here).

(this post to be deleted later)
<!--QuoteBegin-Ravi Chaudhary+Aug 25 2006, 12:06 AM-->QUOTE(Ravi Chaudhary @ Aug 25 2006, 12:06 AM)<!--QuoteEBegin-->Poster Dingvijay has referred to Rana sanga and the " memoirs of Babur" the baburnama

3)  Perhaps I have missed it but nowhere  can I see is the term 'rajput' used to describe him! He is descibed as Pagan.

Ravi Chaudhary


"The Rajput Princes, from Mewat to Udaipur, had joined in a confederacy, of which Rana Sanka, the Prince of Udaipur, was at the head."

Also look at the names of Rajput kings who were assembled against Babur: Hada is an ancient Chauhan rajput shakha. They are Prithviraj Chauhan's ancestors. Now I have seen both Gujjars and Jats claim that Prithviraj Chauhan was also a gujjar/jat. So do you have a substantial number of Hada Jats? (And do not give me it is same as Hooda). There are many lakh Rajput Hadas (kingdoms of Bundi and Kotah).

Why is that gujjars and Jats are hell bent on claiming all rajput kings as Jats or Gujjars?
Does any rajput intermarry with a jat or a gujjar today? NO. Jat women just like gujjar women go and work in the fields. No rajput women does such activity. Rajputs and Jats/Gujjars are socially and culturally not the same people as is clear from these people not intermarrying with each other.

Just because Gujjars and Jats have similar surnames you have made the leap that they are the same people which is not true.

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->2) This is not a Hindu army fighting an Islamic one. Sanga has plenty of Muslims in his forces.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
By this logic the INA wasn't fighting the British army because there were plenty of Indian's in the British army.

Shivaji also had some Muslims in his army but that doesn't mean he wasn't fighting as a Hindu for dharma against Aurangzeb's fanaticism and the Muslim rulers (including Abdali) had some Hindus as allies or as part of their forces, doesn't mean that they are not waging jihad (they themselves say so).

I am aware of Sanga and Babur's agreement and all that but just pointing out that if go by the above logic then even the INA wasn't fighting the British.

Sanga may not have thought of it as a religious war because of his earlier agreements with Babur but later rulers like Rana Pratap, Shivaji or Chhatrasal were indeed fighting for Hindus.
To add to Bharatvarsh's point, also look at the Sanga-Babur war from the Babar's point of view. 1) Babur does mention the fight against Sanga as Jihad against the hindus - so what if there were some muslims on the side of Rana Sanga for political reasons. 2) Were there any Hindus fighting on the side of Babur?

Also don't forget to take into consideration Guru Nanak's first hand account of Babur's invasion as recorded in Babarvani section of Sri Guru Grantha - particularly how Babar treated the people captured and cities that befell.

By the way is "bAbar" derived from "Barbar"? What does Babar otherwise mean in Turkish/Percian? also "Humayun"?
<!--QuoteBegin-Bodhi+Aug 25 2006, 05:54 AM-->QUOTE(Bodhi @ Aug 25 2006, 05:54 AM)<!--QuoteEBegin-->To add to Bharatvarsh's point, also look at the Sanga-Babur war from the Babar's point of view.  1) Babur does mention the fight against Sanga as Jihad against the hindus - so what if there were some muslims on the side of Rana Sanga for political reasons.  2) Were there any Hindus fighting on the side of Babur?

Also don't forget to take into consideration Guru Nanak's first hand account of Babur's invasion as recorded in Babarvani section of Sri Guru Grantha - particularly how Babar treated the people captured and cities that befell.

By the way is "bAbar" derived from "Barbar"?  What does Babar otherwise mean in Turkish/Percian?  also "Humayun"?

Most muslim historians and this includes Babur would never portray the truth accurately if it made them or there masters (if a court historian was writing) look bad.

Let us look at the events:
a) When Rana Sanga came with his force he camped at Biana near Kanhua.
b) Babur sent an advanced guard of about 1500 choice cavalry which was decimated by
Sanga's rajputs.
c) After this for next two weeks there was no fighting as Babur's troops were demoralized because some of his best cavalry were no match for the rajputs.
d) In these two weeks negotitations for Babur's surrender were going on and Babur agreed to pay a tribute to the Maharana and it was also decided that Peela Khal would be the border between Sanga's domain and Babur.
e) The person that Sanga had sent to negotiate was Silhadi who was one of the seniormost general in Sanga's army.
f) This general was won over by Babur with a promise of an independent kingdom (which he did get at Raisen and this fellow died fighting Sher Shah Suri).
g) Once Babur won this general Silhadi, he had Silhadi inform Sanga that babur is interested in fighting.
h) When the attack commenced Babur's right wing was being thrashed and at this juncture Silhadi who led the herole i.e the vanguard (the most important piece of the formation is herole or van because this force delievers the knock out punch) just left the field and this tilted the war in favor of babur.

Now let us look at the koran angle. In koran battle of Badr that Muhammad fought is described. It is depicted in this battle that a handful of soldiers of muhammad's army defeated a much larger army(which was actually untrue as both armies were well matched). This became the main propaganda weapon for muslims to attract there kin for jihaad. Every battle they fought is described as if the opposing army had 10 times more men then the muslim army and the muslims still won(supposedly because they are doing jihaad)!

In the context of Rana Sanga the day was lost because of treachery. Both armies had almost the same strength.

Afghan Lodi had just lost at Panipat and some of his clansmen did come over to fight alongside the Maharana but there strength was miniscule as compared to the rajputs.

Our modern historians, this includes the JNU crowd, look at the presence of a few muslims in rajput armies and start chiming that Hindus were not fighting to save there religion. This is purely absurd. From the time of Ghazni and even before perhaps all Hindus especially the kings knew that muslims converted Hindus on the edge of the sword, broke Hindu temples and treated captured Hindus with contempt by making them slaves . This behavior led to extraordinary customs in rajputana, that of jauhar and Saka.

So if someone is delusional that these fights by rajputs were not to save there religion then they better do some more analysis.

Here is an excerpt from Page 289 of Chapter 14 of Baburnama, translated by Annette S. Beveridge:

My March Against Rana Sangha

"(11 February/9 Jumada Awal ) We left Agra and dismounted in the countryside where we remained for a few days to assemble our army. News reached us that due to <b>Rajput</b> Rana Sangha's speedy advance with all his troops our scouts were unable ..........."

Now let us look at Page 154:

"... recruited some Afghans of the Dilazak and yusufzai tribes and also a few Jats and Gujurs".

So either you have not read Beveridge, or you are lying. (Reason I say lying because the index of Beveridge's book has close to half a dozen rajput references and is very hard to miss them).

Lastly as is evident that Jats, Gujjars and Rajputs are different people as even a "foreigner" in 16th century could observe that. So your claims that Maharana Pratap's family was a Jat is frivolous and you should purge it from your thoughts and if possible educate other brethern of yours too.

I will be happy to answer more questions from you.


From Babarnama...

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->On Monday, the 9th of the first Jumāda, I began my march to the holy war against the heathen.... At this station we received information that Rāna Sanka had pushed on with all his army nearly as far as Biāna. The party that had been sent out in advance were not able to reach the fort, nor even to communicate with it.... Kāsimi, Shah Mansūr Birlās, and every man that came from Biāna, I know not whether from fear, or for the purpose of striking a panic into the people, bestowed unbounded praise on the courage and hardihood of the pagan army.  (http://persian.packhum.org/persian/pf?fi...1052&ct=58)

On Saturday, the 14th of the first Jumāda, I marched from the vicinity of Agra, and encamped.

(next day) I had directed that the different Begs should have charge of the advance and scouts in turn. When it was Abdal-azīz’s day, without taking any precautions, he advanced as far as Kānwā, which is five kos from Sīkri. The pagans were on their march forward when they got notice of his imprudent and disorderly advance, which they no sooner learned, than a body of four or five thousand of them at once pushed on and fell upon him. Abdal-azīz and Mulla Apāk had with them about a thousand or fifteen hundred men. Without taking into consideration the numbers or position of the enemy, they immediately engaged. On the very first charge, a number of their men were taken prisoners and carried off the field.

(records various commanders of his army who lost their lives.  Also records that the Hindu army did not attack his retreating soldiers)

In consequence of the bold and unexpected advance of the pagans, joined to the result of the engagement that had taken place at Biāna, aided by the praises and encomiums passed on them by Shah Mansūr, Kāsimi, and those who had come from Biāna, there was an evident alarm diffused among the troops; the defeat of Abdal-azīz completed this panic.

(couple of weeks passed. He appaently made a very good tactical arrangement of artilery, with ditches, waterbodies, and canons.  A party from Kabul arrived for reinforcement)

While the army was yet in the state of alarm and panic that has been mentioned, in consequence of past events and of ill-timed and idle observations that had been spread abroad, that evil-minded wretch Muhammed Sherīf (an astrologer), instead of giving me any assistance, loudly proclaimed to every person whom he met in the camp, that at this time Mars was in the west, and that whoever should engage coming from the opposite quarter would be defeated. The courage of such as consulted this villainous soothsayer was consequently still further depressed.

Such were the happenings in the army of Babar. Entire army was completely depressed and afraid of Rana Sanga's side. Now Babur takes some clever actions. Between 22 and 24th of that month ->

1. He ordered a complete plunder of the nearby towns, to divert the focus.
2. He promsed to remove the taxation on muslims of India, if he is victorious in this war. He sends "firman" of this effect to various places.
3. He incites holy jihad against Hindus. tries to invoke islamic religious sentiments in the army and encourage them. Compares his war with Muhammed's wars and so on.)

Firman says (24th of the first Jumāda, year 933 - Feb 26, 1527):
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->"....we have directed this holy warfare to commence with the Grand Warfare, the War against our Evil Passions. In short after saying with the tongue of truth and sincerity, O, my Creator! we have subjected our passions; fix us on thy side, for* I have written on the tablets of my heart, that now, for the first time, I have indeed become a Musulman,* I have blazoned abroad the desire to renounce wine, which was formerly hid in the treasury of my heart. And the servants, victory-adorned, in obedience to the commands which terminate in blessing, have, for the glory of religion, dashed upon the ground of contempt and ruin, and broken in pieces, the goblets, and cups, and all the utensils and vessels of silver and of gold, which, resembling in their number and splendour the stars of the lofty sky, were the ornaments of the Assembly of Wickedness,* and were like unto those idols which, God willing, we shall quickly be aided in breaking to pieces; and every fragment was thrown to a needy or helpless one. ........... And as an offering made on occasion of this sincere repentance, the sea of royal bounty has risen, and displayed the waves of liberality, which is the source of the populousness of the world, and of the glory of the sons of men. And a firmān has issued, renouncing, as far as concerns the Musulmans, the tamgha of all our dominions, the amount of which exceeds all limits and calculation; for although, in the time of former sultans, the usage was to levy it, yet the practice was opposite to the constitutions of the laws delivered by the holy prophets*; and orders have been given, that in no city, or town, or road, or street, or passage, or port, should the tamgha be received or levied....."

His address to his commanders:
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->".....The Most High God has been propitious to us, and has now placed us in such a crisis,* that if we fall in the field, we die the death of martyrs; if we survive, we rise victorious, the avengers of the cause of God.* Let us, then, with one accord, swear on God’s holy word, that none of us will even think of turning his face from this warfare, nor desert from the battle and slaughter that ensues, till his soul is separated from his body.....Master and servant, small and great, all with emulation, seizing the blessed Korān in their hands, swore in the form that I had given."
About the outcome of the above actions he took, he says that, "My plan succeeded to admiration, and its effects were instantly visible, far and near, on friend and foe." (http://persian.packhum.org/persian/pf?fi...1052&ct=61)

Then he mentions about the Sanga's army:
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->In these elephants the wretched Hindus
Were confident, like the warriors of the elephant.*
Like the evening of Death, the detested and execrable bands,
Darker than night, and more numerous than the stars,
All ascending like fire, nay, rather like smoke,
Raised their heads in hostility to the azure sky:
Like ants they issue from right and left,
Horse and foot, thousands of thousands.

And about the outcome of war:
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->All the Hindus were scattered and confounded,
With stones,like the warriors of the elephant.
Many hills of their bodies were seen,
And from each hill flowed a rivulet of running blood.
From the dread of the arrows of the ranks full of grandeur,
They were flying and running
to every field and hill.

They go backwards in flight. And the event happened as it had been ordained of Fate. And now the praise be to God, who is All-hearing and All-wise; and except from whom there is no help, for he is great and powerful.  For love of the Faith I became a wanderer in the desert, I became the antagonist of Pagans and Hindus,
I strove* to make myself a martyr; (However) Thanks be to the Almighty who has made me a Ghāzi (victorious over the enemies of the Faith).
Lest discuss how to take Bharatvarsha back. Task is still unfinished. Fight is till on. <!--emo&:blow--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/blow.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='blow.gif' /><!--endemo-->
<!--QuoteBegin-Ravi Chaudhary+Aug 25 2006, 04:08 PM-->QUOTE(Ravi Chaudhary @ Aug 25 2006, 04:08 PM)<!--QuoteEBegin-->
<b>The issue is historical accuracy</b>



Let me interject here. You do have a point about historical accuracy. But we have easily over 1500 posts on this very forum when it comes to complaining about historical accuracy that affects India - say with respect to issues like Satish Chandra's 'Jats are robbers' comment; or Witzel and Farmer attacking California parents for past 8 months; or for that matter some freedom fighters like Savarkar or Lala Lajpat Rai etc having to make way for johnny-come-lately like Lallu Yadva, Priyanka Gandhi etc in Indian text books.

But we never see your comments in those issues (perhaps I've overlooked, feel free to correct me). If 'Historical accuracy' becomes an issue only when Rajput posts are discussed, how should it be interepreted other than it's a Jat/Rajput issue? Maybe I am reading too much into a one sided concern for historical accuracy, feel free to send me an email.


The posts on this forum should be based on historical facts and should not be some sort of propoganda let it be any group Rajput Jat or gujjar.

But any persion after reading posts can feel that it is more a propoganda for a cast as authors tries to twist well known facts like letter of forgiveness from Maharana that was recieved by poet Prithvi himself and concealed from Akbar was portrayed as if Mahrana partap never wrote such a letter,a fact even present on rajput links as rajput samaj.Similarly portrayals of fights are highly biased.

Secondly the defence of India borders by jat tribes from muslim aggression ,killing of ghori by khokhar jats ,attack on mahmud Gajnavi army by jats while returning after somnath raid Fight of jat armies with tyrrant Temur whom he reffer his only enemy,fight of Jatwan with kutubuddin army,resistance of hindu sahis and role of jat kingdom of Ranjit Singh(again jat) and Surajmal etc. has almost been neglected.I am giving only contribution of the jats among many groups whose contribution have not been included,leaving such matter may downplay their role in resisting foreign invaders.

When such post find a respected site like this people take every word a hard fact,which may not be the case.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->facts like letter of forgiveness from Maharana that was recieved by poet Prithvi himself and concealed from Akbar was portrayed as if Mahrana partap never wrote such a letter,a fact even present on rajput links as rajput samaj.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Who concealed it, wikipidea openly mentions it:
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Pratap wrote to Akbar indicating his readiness to negotiate a treaty. Pratap's first cousin (his mother's sister's son) Prithviraj Rathore, who was one of Akbar's coutiers, heard of this overture. He is said to have grown despondent and written thus to his cousin Pratap:

Everyone knows that Maharana Pratap Singh did write a letter but after reading Prithviraj's letter to him he decided to continue his fight.

Even the online Mewar Encyclopedia mentions this:
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Pratap Singh I's letter from Prithiraj. Desperate and dejected after years of hardship endured while fighting the Mughals, Maharana PRATAP SINGH I (1572-1597) sent a note to his arch enemy, Emperor AKBAR demanding alleviation of his ordeal.


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