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How Hindus Fought To Keep India Hindu Againt Islam
I have cleaned this Thread.
Post related to Jat history is now under Jat History thread.
Please provide facts with reference, not fiction and stick to topic.
The issue is true historical details not some propoganda.

Its true that these facts are well known but when we see Digvijay post a different scenario is presented.

Quote Digvijay

It is said that somebody told Akbar that Pratap wanted to accept Akbar as the king. Akbar was very happy to hear this. One of Akbar's general was Prthviraj Rathore who was a very good poet. He told Akbar this is a lie (incidentally Prithviraj's mother and ....

Gulleria Saheb there is no need to make it one vs other the point is relative contribution by different groups and JATS contribution was significant but not highlighted.That's all.

Now I am very happy that you have atleast known JATS in Sindh as early as senenth century otherwise in your last discussion your familirity with jats started from akbar times.Here I am thankful to posts of Acharya from Sindh story by K R Malkani on this form.

Now I would like to know Do you know the entire story.It is there online in Chach nama and you can refer the Sud history and hussaini dutt mohyal history for the reference.

The Sindh was ruled by jat sahi popular rulers and Dahir was just a coward characterless usurper recented by general public.He seduced the queen or vice versa but in the end the king fell ill in mysterious circumstances and suhandi her queen helped kill relatives of king in one of worst cases treachery and cold blooded crimes in history.After killing all relatives and king dahir was still afraid but persuaded by queen to take responsibility or wear bangles.Now the jat population was very hostile to this shoddy affair and revolted against king.It was a popular revolt by masses and dahir hide in fort closing its doors, blood flowed on streets but queen adviced to throw all money of treasurey to bribe people and control jats.In the end jats common people uprising was foiled..Similarly neighbouring lohana rulers also attacked but were defeated.To control these warrior ruling races Dahir won other groups and put ban on jats and lohanas to carry weapons and other derogatory conditions that even foreigners hesistate to put on subjects out of their fear of their attack.

Hearing relative of deposed ruler,king of chittor attacked and asked him to have a one to one fight .Dahir again feared and asked for mercy but all of sudden taking sword treacherously killed this king.

But it was not enough again his son married her own sister to save his kindom a taboo and a great crime in hindu religion .People just hated this and disliked them and jats meds(mair rajputs of today) and lohana (Lubhana) were no exception .In these circumstances no one can expect jats or med rajput to support such debased rulers.We have seen similar example in case Sahi badat ruler of gilgit and Netaji fighting british with japani forces.

Well again we find no mention of Rajput resistance or even mention of this word.The link gives the antiquity of Jats to Indus valley that will come out certainly after some time.

Ps Gulleria too is one of jat gotr widespread in rajasthan.

This digression was in responce to slanderous false aspersion and I hope members will appreciate it.
<!--QuoteBegin-Mudy+Aug 26 2006, 08:30 PM-->QUOTE(Mudy @ Aug 26 2006, 08:30 PM)<!--QuoteEBegin-->I have cleaned this Thread.
Post related to Jat history is now under Jat History thread.
Please provide facts with reference, not fiction and stick to topic.

I will repeat that you are being a hasty in your actions.
It is important to know the background of who the players were.
One does wonder, why you are not questioning the poster of that information as to the veracity of the information?
The original essay, post # 1, contains errors, which I have drawn attention of the readers to.
Your shifting the discussion to the jat history thread is a little highhanded, as is your alluding to the information provided by me as fiction.
It is this kind of attititude, whether here or in History textbooks that are taught to us and our children that leads to misinformed attitudes.

BTW what is your actual name, background, knowledge of the subject?

I have tried to send you an e mail, and a PM as requested by you. I get an error message in return,
Perhaps you (and the other moderators )can send an email.
We need some guidelines, and not artbitrary decisions.
If these kind of arbitrary decisions are to be made, and enforced, it will only encourage propoganda.
It give this group a level of credibility, that may not be the original objective.
Then will there be any point posting here?.
<!--emo&:argue--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/argue.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='argue.gif' /><!--endemo--> Dear forum members,
This was an unnecessary controversy as Mudy already pointed out that it was about How Hindus fought Muslims and not the infighting amongst Hindus. It's not difficult to find the source of controversy:
rubbish remarks in NCERT books
which is costing UPA everyday as their own partymen from Congress are opposing it in no uncertain terms.
At the same time, I am sorry to say that admin has not taken impartial action in this matter while parmitting Digvijay to continue and restraining Ravi.
However, I will request Ravi to take it easy as whatever action has been taken by admn, may not be easily undone.
I will request both Ravi and Digvijay to bury the hatchet regardless and continue the discussion in some other thread keeping in mind the following:
<span style='font-size:21pt;line-height:100%'><span style='font-family:Impact'>IF U DON"T LEARN FROM HISTORY; HISTORY REPEATS ITSELF.
Capt Kumar/Nandibaum/PC/Digvijay and others: Please don't add to controversy here while are trying to figure a way out. This recurring pattern of Jat and Rajput bickering is certainly cause for concern us and it's not the first time it's happened. We as a forum don't see a need to allow any two Indian communities we hold dearly to have a slugfest at India-Forum.

There are two separate threads and let's respect that. Also let's at times agree to disagree. If something is posted here - it's not the final word and doesn't mean that all moderators agree or disagree on it 100%. Please bear that in mind. Having said that, we moderators here aren't taking any sides and I'll be first to admit that I personally am not an authority to lean either way nor do I have any bias here.

Ravi: Check PM and let me know if you have problem accessing it (we have added controls on PM since it was being misused by some trolls and was a drain our bandwidth)
Narasimha Deva I, popularly known as Langula Narasimha, (AD1238-1264), the great Ganga monarch whose kingdom was extended from the Ganga in the
north to the Godavari in the south and under whom Orissa witnessed the zenith of prosperity is credited to have constructed the colossal Surya Deul (Sun temple) at Konark.

Some scholars, however, surmised that the temple was erected as a memorial by the ambitious monarch to commemorate his successful military campaigns against the Muslims. This speculation is plausible on the basis that the construction of the temple apparently began soon after Narasimha-I's military success against the Muslims and that there is a preponderance of military activities appearing in the decorative programme of the temple.

K.C. Panigrahi observes, "His (Narasimha's) victory over the Muslims of Bengal and his acquisition of the southern districts of western Bengal must have enormously raised his prestige in the eyes of the contemporary Hindu rulers and augmented his resources, which in all likelihood enable him to undertake the construction of a stupendous structure like the temple of Konark, designed to exhibit his power, prestige, opulence, devotion and perhaps to commemorate his victory also".

Orissa Review

Is there any more info on this great Hindu King??
Akbar's attack on Chittor as described by a bigoted Muslim historian named Al Badaoni:

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->And in this year the intention was formed of reducing the fortress of Chitor. Accordingly the Emperor took away Biyána from Hájí Muhammad Khán Sístání, and gave it as jágír to Áçaf Khán; and Basáwar and Wazírpúr Mandalga?h he also gave to him, on the understanding that he should proceed thither, and collect provisions and materials for the army. The Emperor set out after him, and travelling by way of Bárí and hunting in Mou-maidánah, proceeded thence towards Súpar. The subjects of Ráí Sargún evacuated the fort of Súpar, and Nazar Bahádur was appointed commandant of that fort, and Sháh Muhammad Khán Qandahárí to hold the fort of Kotah Baláyah.

When the Emperor arrived at the fort of Kákarún, having given to Shaháb-ud-dín Ahmad Khán and Sháh Bidágh Khán jágírs in the district of Málwah, he appointed them to quell the disturbances caused by the sons of Muhammad Sultán, viz. Mírzá Ulugh and Sháh Mírzá, who had fled thither from Sam-bhal. When the Amírs reached Ujjain, the Mírzás hearing the said news left that country, and went to Gujrát to Changíz Khán a follower of Sultán Mahmúd. Thus Málwah fell into the hands of the Amírs without their striking a blow.

And Ráná Udai Sing, committing the keeping of the fortress of Chitor to one Ráí Jaimal by name (a brave and chivalrous commander, who had been beseiged by Mírzá Sharfuddín Husain in the fortress of Mirt'hah and had cut his way out), himself took refuge in the high mountain ground and impassable jungles in the neighbourhood of Udaipúr Komal-mair. Áçaf Khán marched to Rámpúr, which is an inhabited district in that region, (P. 103) and took the fortress by storm, and ravaged the district. And Husain Qulí Khán marched towards Udaipúr, and ravaged the environs; but the Ráná left that place for some other maze-like mousehole.

The Emperor ordered Sábáts* and trenches to be constructed, and gradually brought close to the walls of the fortress. The width of the Sábát was such that ten horsemen could easily ride abreast in it, and its height was so great that a man on an elephant with spear in hand could pass under it. Many of the men of our army were killed by musket and cannon balls, and the bodies of the dead were made use of instead of bricks and stones. After a length of time the Sábát and trenches were brought up to the foot of the fortress, and they undermined two towers which were close together, and filled the mines with gunpowder. A party of men of well-known bravery fully armed and accoutred approached the towers, and waited till the towers should fall, and then they would enter the fortress.

By accident, though the two mines were fired at one and the same moment, the fuze of one, which was shorter than the other took effect soonest, and the fuze of the latter, which was longer, hung fire, so that one of the two towers was blown up from its foundations and heaved into the air, and a great breach was made in the castle. Then the forlorn hope in their impetuosity forgetting the second mine stormed the breach at once, and soon effected a lodging. While the hand-to-hand struggle was going on, suddenly the second fuze went off and blew the other tower, which was full, both of friends and foes, from its place and lifted it into the air. The soldiers of Islám were buried under stones, some of 100, and some of 200 man in weight, and the stony-hearted infidels in like manner flew about like moths in that flood of fire. Those stones were blown as far as three or four cosses, and a cry of horror arose from the people of Islám and from the infidels:—

Nearly five hundred warriors, most of them personally known to the Emperor, were slain, and drank the draught of martyrdom: and of the Hindús who can say how many! <b>Night by night the infidels mustering in force kept building up the wall of the fortress from the ruins of these towers.</b>

After waiting a considerable time, six months more or less, at last on the night of Tuesday 25th of Sha'bán* in the aforesaid year the Imperial troops advancing from all sides, made a breach in the wall of the fortress, and stormed it. The fierce face of Jaimal became visible through the flashing of the fire of the cannon and guns, which was directed against the soldiers of Islám. At this juncture a bullet struck the forehead of Jaimal, who was distinctly recognizable, and he fell dead. It was as though a stone had fallen among a flock of sparrows, for, when the garrison of the fortress saw that their leader was dead, they fled every one to their own houses. Then they collected their families and goods together and burnt them, which is called in the language of Hind jouhar. Most of those that remained became food for the crocodile of the blood-drinking sword, and a few of those who remained, who escaped the sword and the fire, were caught in the noose of tribulation. The whole night long the swords of the combatants desisted not from the slaughter of the base, and returned not to the scabbard, till the time for the afternoon siesta arrived. <b>Eight thousand valorous Rájpúts were slain</b>.

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Situated in the heart of the Rajasthan desert, Ajmer offers a compatible blend of Sufi culture and Hindu religion.
For long, Ajmer was always a politically and spiritually important centre for the Rajputs, the Mughals and the Marathas. It was the seat of administration for the Chauhans till, in 1193, the army of Mohammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan. Thereafter, it became a part of the Sultanate of Delhi.
However, the Rajputs regained the control of the city with the crusades of Rana Kumbha of Mewar and Raja Maldeo.


A Sufi site that proclaims oneness of different faiths calls the recovery of Hindu territory by Hindu rulers as a CRUSADE! <!--emo&:angry:--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/mad.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='mad.gif' /><!--endemo-->
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->A Sufi site that proclaims oneness of different faiths calls the recovery of Hindu territory by Hindu rulers as a CRUSADE!<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Guleriaji a lot of these sufis were frauds whose sole interest was to make converts and act as spies for Muslim kings so that they could do jihad. Sita Ram Goel had exposed these so called sufis in great detail, here is some info:
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Imam Hanifa criticized by Amir Khusru

Amir Khusru was a contemporary of Qazi Mughis-ud-din.  He is presented by the “modem” Muslims and lionised by the “educated” Hindus as the “pioneer of secularism in India”.  He had, however, something very specific to say on the status of Hindus vis-à-vis the Islamic state.  “Happy HindUstAn”, he wrote, “the splendour of Religion. where the Law finds perfect honour and security.  In learning Dehli can now compete with BokhAra, for IslAm has been made manifest by its kings.  The whole country, by means of the sword of our holy warriors, has become like a forest denuded of its thorns by fire.  The land has been saturated with the water of the sword, and the vapours of infidelity have been dispersed.  The strong men of Hind have been trodden under foot, and all are ready to pay tribute.  IslAm is triumphant, idolatry is subdued.  Had not the law [of Imam Hanifa] granted exemption from death by the payment of poll-tax, the very name of hind, root and branch, would have been extinguished. From GhaznI to the shore of the ocean you see all under the domination of IslAm.  Cawing crows5 see no arrows pointed at them; nor is the TarsA (Christian) there, who does not fear (taras) to render the servant equal with Allah; nor the Jew who dares to exalt the Pentateuch to a level with the KurAn; nor the Magh who is delighted with the worship of fire, but of whom the fire complains with its hundred tongues.  The four sects of MusulmAns are at amity and the very fish are SunnIs.”6

It has to be remembered that Amir Khusru was one of the foremost disciples of Nizam-ud-din Awliya of Delhi who is counted among the five great sufis of the Chishtiyya school.  He is himself regarded as an outstanding sufi on whose mazAr in Delhi urs is held every year.  His Hindi verses are cited as a proof positive of his love for the land of his birth.  But what the Amir says about Hindustan and Hindus speaks volumes about sufis and Sufism.  The few “educated” Hindus who admit that Prophetic Islam is “somewhat fanatic”, believe that Sufistic Islam is “large-hearted and liberal”.  The Chishtiyya school of Sufism in particular is supposed to have “built bridges between the two communities”.

True Face of Sufism

But the evidence that is available points towards a contrary conclusion.  The Chishtiyya school was foisted on India by Muin-ud-din who had settled down in Ajmer before the Second Battle of Tarain.  According to the sufi lore, he had made a few converts from among the local Hindus and started issuing orders to Prithivi Raj Chauhan, the Hindu king, for the benefit of these converts.  When the king ignored him, he invited Muhammad Ghuri to invade the Chauhan Kingdom.  Sir-ul-Awliya, the most famous history of the Chishtiyya school written by Khwaja Amir Khurd, another disciple of Nizam-ud-din Awliya, tells the following story: “His [Muin-ud-din’s] blessed tongue uttered spontaneously, ‘We have handed over Pithora alive to the army of Islam.’ In those very days, Sultan Muiz-ud-din Sam arrived in Ajmer from Ghazni.  Pithora had to face the army of Islam.  He was captured alive by Sultan Muiz-ud-din…  The Khwaja [Muinud-din] was a worker of great wonders.  Before he reached Hindustan, all its cities right upto the point of sunrise were sunk in tumult and infidelity and were involved with idols and idolatry.  Everyone among the rabble [Gods] of Hindustan claimed to be the great God and a co-sharer in the divinity of Allah.  The people paid homage to stones, sods of clay, trees, quadrupeds, cows and bulls and their dung.  The darkness of infidelism had made still more firm the seals on their hearts…  Muin-ud-din was indeed the very sun of the true faith.  As a result of his arrival, the darkness that had spread over this country was dispelled.  It became bright and glowed in the light of Islam... Anyone who has become a Musalman in this country will stay a Musalman till the Day of Dissolution.  His progeny will also remain Musalman… The people [of Hindustan] will be brought out of dAr-ul-harb into dAr-ul-IslAm by means of many wars."7

There is plenty of primary literature available in Arabic and Persian regarding the rise, development, and doings of numerous sufi silsilas in India.  Some of this literature has been translated into Urdu and English as well.  A study of this literature leaves little doubt that sufis were the most fanatic and fundamentalist elements in the Islamic establishment in medieval times.  Hindus should go to this literature rather than fall for latter-day Islamic propaganda.  The ruin of Hindus and Hinduism in Kashmir in particular, can be safely credited to sufis who functioned there from the early thirteenth century onwards.

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->AHMAD SHAH ABDALI (1757 and 1761 CE)

JihAd at Mathura and Vrindavan (1757 CE)

“But the Jat peasantry were determined that it was over their corpses that the ravager should enter the sacred capital of Braja. …eight miles north of MathurA, JawAhir Singh barred the invader’s path with less than 10,000 men and offered a desperate resistance (28th February, 1757). From sunrise the battle raged for nine hours, and at the end of it ‘ten to twelve thousand infantry lay dead on the two sides taken together, the wounded were beyond count’…155

The Hindu Bethlehem now lay utterly prostrate before the invaders.  Early at dawn on 1st March the AfghAn cavalry burst into the unwalled and unsuspecting city of MathurA, and neither by their master’s orders nor from the severe handling they received in yesterday’s fight, were they in a mood to show mercy.  For four hours there was an indiscriminate massacre and rape of the unresisting Hindu population - all of them non-combatants and many of them priests… ‘Idols were broken and kicked about like polo-balls by the Islamic heroes.’ [Husain Shahi, 39.] Houses were demolished in search of plunder and then wantonly set on fire.  Glutted with the blood of three thousand men, SardAr JahAn Khan laid a contribution of one lakh on what remained of the population and marched away from the smoking ruins the same night.

“After the tiger came the jackal.  ‘When after the massacre Ahmad ShAh’s troops marched onward from MathurA, Najib and his army remained there for three days, plundered much money and buried treasure, and carried off many beautiful females as captives.’ [Nur, 15 b.] The blue waves of the JamunA gave eternal repose to such of her daughters as could flee to her outstretched arms; some other happy women found a nearer escape from dishonour by death in their household wells.  But for those of their sisters who survived there was no escape from a fate worse than death.  A Muslim eyewitness thus describes the scene in the ruined city a fortnight later.  ‘Everywhere in the lanes and bazaars lay the headless trunks of the slain and the whole city was burning.  Many buildings had been knocked down.  The water of the JamunA flowing past was of a yellowish color, as if polluted by blood.  The man [a Muslim jeweller of the city, robbed of his all and fasting for several days] said that for seven days following the general slaughter the water had turned yellow.  At the edge of the stream I saw a number of huts of vairAgis and sannyAsis [i.e., Hindu ascetic], in each of which lay a severed head with the head of a dead cow applied to its mouth and tied to it with a rope round its neck.’

“Issuing from the ruins of MathurA, JahAn Khan roamed the country round, and plundering everywhere as directed.  VrindAvan, seven miles north of MathurA could not escape, as its wealth was indicated by its many temples.  Here another general massacre was practised upon the inoffensive monks of the most pacific order of Vishnu’s worshippers (c. 6th March).  As the same Muhammadan diarist records after a visit to VrindAvan: ‘Wherever you gazed you beheld heaps of the slain; you could only pick your way with difficulty, owing to the quantity of bodies lying about and the amount of blood spilt.  At one place that we reached we saw about two hundred dead children lying in a heap.  Not one of the dead bodies had a head…  The stench and effluvium in the air were such that it was painful to open your mouth or even to draw breath.’

Abdali’s attack on Gokul

“Moving a fortnight behind his vanguard, the AbdAli king himself came upon the scene.  He had stormed Ballabhgarh on 3rd March and halted there for two days.  On 15th March he arrived near MathurA, and wisely avoiding that reeking human shambles crossed over to the eastern bank of the Jamuna and encamped at MahAvan, six miles south-east of the city.  Two miles to his west lay Gokul, the seat of the pontiff of the rich VallabhAcharya sect.  The AbdAli’s policy of frightfulness had defeated his cupidity: dead men could not be held to ransom.  The invader’s unsatisfied need of money was pressing him; he sought the help of ImAd’s local knowledge as to the most promising sources of booty.  A detachment from his camp was sent to plunder Gokul.  But here the monks were martial NAgA sannyAsis of upper India and RajputAna.  Four thousand of these naked ash-smeared warriors stood outside Gokul and fought the AfghAns, till half of their own number was killed after slaying an equal force of the enemy.  Then at the entreaty of the Bengal subahdAr’s envoy (Jugalkishor) and his assurance that a hermitage of faqirs could not contain any money, the AbdAli recalled the detachment. ‘All the vairAgis perished but Gokulnath [the deity of the city] was saved’, as a Marathi newsletter puts it.” [Rajwade, i. 63.]156

Describing Afghan atrocities at this time, Munshi SadAsukh DehlawI wrote, “I have myself seen the depredations of the Afghans round Dehli and Mattra.  God defend us from them!  It makes the very hair of the body stand on end to think of them.  Two hundred thousand men were destroyed in these massacres, and the hordes of the enemy were without number.  Such atrocities, forsooth, were perpetrated in compliance with their religion and law!  What cared they for the religion, the law, the honour and reputation of the innocent sufferers? It was enough for such bigots that splendour accrued by their deeds to the faith of Muhammad and ‘Ali!”157

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->INVASION OF TRAVANCORE

Travancore had an alliance (Treaty of Mangalore) with the English Company according to which "an aggression against Travancore would be viewed as equivalent to declaration of war against the English" (p. 566). The Dutch who were afraid of Tipu also agreed to transfer the Kodungallur Fort to Travancore, mainly as a strategy to involve the more powerful British in case of war with Travancore on that account. Since Cochin was considered a tributary to Mysore, Tipu objected to the transfer of Kodungallur Fort which was part of Cochin territory before its occupation by the Dutch. Therefore, Tipu Sultan demanded of Travancore to (i) allow free access to Kodungallur because the Travancore defence line had stretched and passed through Cochin territory, and (ii) surrender all Hindu Rajas and nobles from Malabar who had taken refuge in Travancore. But the demand was rejected. That was his pretext for waging a war against the Travancore State. In the meantime, the Cochin Raja, who was under the guidance and protection of the weak Dutch, openly shook off his tributary links with Tipu and aligned with Travancore after the firm offer of support and protection by the British. It may be noted here that Tipu never fought against the British in Kerala. He fought only against the Hindu Rajas. His hostilities against the British were stepped up only when his ally, the French, waged wars against the British in Europe or his own kingdom was threatened.


The Travancore Raja replied to Tipu explaining that he did what he did as per the advice of the British (p. 517). That provoked Tipu. He launched an attack against Travancore but was defeated in January, 1790. According to Mr. Powney who was the Resident Representative of the English Company in Travancore, Tipu's attack was not only effectively stopped by the Travancore army, Tipu himself fell down from the rampart, was seriously wounded, and was rendered permanently lame during the counter-attack by the Travancore forces.

Tipu and his army were camping on the banks of the Alwaye river before launching the attack on the Travancore defence lines (Nedunkotta Fort). The Travancore army was no match for the huge Mysore army and the monsoon season was four or five months away. Therefore, under the guidance of Raja Kesavadas, the Prime Minister of Travancore, a temporary bund was constructed way up on the stream by a team headed by Kalikutty Nair. When the Mysore army launched its assault and Nedunkotta was penetrated, the temporary bund was breached in the midst of heavy fighting, causing an unexpected flood which drowned many Mysore soldiers and rendered the gunpowder wet and useless. The result was panic and confusion in the Mysore army. The triumphant Nair forces of Travancore inflicted heavy casualties on the- invading army. But the valiant Kalikutty Nair was also drowned in the sudden surge of water and became a martyr.

That was the first time, January 1, 1790, when Tipu Sultan tasted a humiliating defeat. It is recorded in Travancore history and also confirmed by the local folklore that as the wounded Tipu was lying unconscious in the battlefield he was rescued by a Nair soldier who quietly carried the unconscious Sultan to the Mysore military camp during the night and left quickly (p. 518). The brave Nair soldier could have easily killed the unconscious Tipu as many Muslims have done to a Hindu in similar circumstances; but his Hindu values of life prompted him to deposit the helpless victim near the Muslim camp.

According to authentic historical records, the Nair forces of Travancore attacked the Mysore army which was crossing the defence fortification, and inflicted heavy casualties on it. The sudden and unexpected attack made the Mysore Army panicky, and in the confusion Tipu Sultan fell down from the ramparts of the fort into the ditch below along with his palanquin. The fall made him permanently lame. Later on, the Travancore forces recovered from the ditch the sword, the pallanquin, the dagger, the ring and many other personal effects of Tipu and presented them to the Dharma Raja. Some of Tipu's personal weapons and ornaments were sent to the Nawab of Arcot on his request (Travancore History by P. Sankunny Menon, published by Kerala Bhasha Institute, Trivandrum, pp. 191-92).


Tipu retreated and sent for reinforcements from Coimbatore and Srirangapatanam. He also "recalled all his Muslim troops despatched earlier to different parts of South Malabar to hunt down and forcibly circumcise the Hindus and convert them" (p. 518). After regrouping and reinforcing his army, Tipu mounted another attack in March 1790 in order to demolish the Travancore defence line. He reached upto Veropally (Varapuzha) near Alwaye. Meanwhile, following firm assurance of support and protection by the English Company who had by this time extended their military power and political influence to the entire West Coast and South India, some of the important Malabar Rajas such as Pazhassi Raja, Kolathiri Raja and Kadathanad Raja, returned to their respective kingdoms and asserted their independence from Mysore suzerainty. The Cochin Raja shook off his tributary link with Mysore. The Zamorin and the Palghat Raja were promised help by the British in their opposition to the Mysore Sultan, with the promise of restoring their lost territories to them after the defeat of Tipu. All the Hindu Rajas and nobles had thus joined hands with the British against the war efforts of Tipu mainly because of his Islamic atrocities against the Hindus in Kerala. Revolt against the Mysore occupation forces broke out all over Malabar and spread to Coorg with the return of the chieftains to their respective areas. Before the end of 1790, the British captured Palghat Fort and secured the communication channel from Coimbatore to the West Coast for assisting the Travancore forces against the Mysore army. All along, Tipu's forces assisted by the Mappilas were devastating and plundering the entire country as per the recorded version of Martab Khan, Commander of the Mysore army.

By the time Tipu Sultan launched his second attack and demolished parts of Nedungotta in May 1790, heavy monsoon rains caused the Alwaye river to flood the countryside. Since the Mysore army was not accustomed to fighting during rainy season, it was easy for the Travancore army to defeat Tipu's army. That was the second defeat Tipu suffered near Alwaye in 1790.

In the meantime, Lord Cornwallis, the Governor General, himself assumed the command of the British forces and pushed forward towards Srirangapatanam, headquarters of Tipu Sultan. Simultaneously, the Maratha and the Nizam's forces also advanced from different directions. The final assault was mounted and Srirangapatanam surrounded in January-February 1791 by a combined army consisting of the British, Maratha and the Nizam's forces. Tipu Sultan, who-rushed to Srirangapatanam, abandoning his military operations against Travancore, was forced to sign a treaty in 1792 ceding the entire West Coast and half of his other possessions to the Allies, thus relieving the Hindus of Kerala from further Islamic brutalities.


It may be noted here that the Maharaja of Travancore had kept the British Governor of Madras informed about the political developments and the imminent military operations of Tipu Sultan against Travancore. But the then Governor of Madras, Mr. Holland, in spite of the obligations under the Treaty of Mangalore, specifically instructed the British contingents sent to the Travancore borders, not to assist the Travancore forces in case of war. When the Governor General, Lord Cornwallis, heard about Travancore's victory over Tipu's forces, he assumed at first that it was due to the active assistance rendered by the English Company. But later on, he came to know about the dubious actions and the corrupt character of Mr. Holland. The Governor of Madras was believed to be in the pay of Tipu Sultan. So he was relieved of his responsibilities and Lord Cornwallis himself assumed command of the Madras Army. The military operations against Srirangapatanam culminated in Tipu's surrender and the Treaty of Srirangapatanam signed in 1792. But as far as Tipu's defeat and humiliation on the borders of Travancore were concerned, the British played no role; the entire credit for the victory goes to the strategy of Raja Kesava Das and the valiant soldiers of the Travancore army. The British not only did not keep their solemn promise to the Malabar kings and chieftains, but also insisted that Travancore should pay heavily for the British "help".

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->APPENDIX 2

The Nedumkotta was a defence fortification constructed along the northern borders of the erstwhile Travancore State. It passed through the territories of the then Cochin State.

The Nedumkotta was built primarily to resist the invasion under Hyder Ali Khan against Travancore State. It was raised mainly with clay and mud, and reinforced with stones, laterite and granite at strategic places. It started from the Krishan Kotta on the west coast, above Kodungallur, and stretched upto the Annamalai Hills on the Western Ghats. It was about 48 km long, twenty feet wide and twelve feet high. Its alignment was along the Periyar river on the west coast upto Chalakudy from where it went along the Chalakudy river upto the Annamalai Hills in the east. There were underground cells to store gunpowder and other war materials, special chambers for soldiers to live, and look-outs and mounted field-guns all along the fortification. Besides, on the north side of the fortification, ditches were dug twenty feet wide and sixteen feet deep, and filled with thorny plants, poisonous snakes, and hidden weapons. On the south side as well as on the top of the fortification, wide roads were laid for the convenience of military movements.

The fortification was constructed during the regime of Rama Varma Raja, popularly known as Dharma Raja of Travancore, and under the direct guidance and supervision of the then Prime Minister, Ayyappan Marthanda Pillai, and the then Commander of the Travancore Army, the Portuguese Captain D'Lenoy. This historic defence line was comparable to the Great Wall of China except that the latter was more ancient and greater in length. It was under the protective cover of this Nedumkotta that a small army of Travancoreans under the command of Raja Keshavadas defeated and frustrated near Alwaye a formidable army of Islamic fanatics led by Tipu Sultan.

Today there is no physical evidence of the historic Nedumkotta in the form of even ruins anywhere in the Mukundapuram taluka - Chettuva, Parur, Kodakara, Chalakudy, Mullurkara, Enamanakhal and Karikodu - through which it passed. However, some place-names having a reference to the historic fortification are still popular in the northern borders of the erstwhile Cochin and Travancore States - Krishnan Kotta (meaning Krishnan Fort), Kottamukku (fort corner), Kottamuri (part of a fort), Kottaparampu (fort land), Kotta Vazhi (fort road), Kottalaparampu (magazine ground), Palayam (cantonment), etc.

Unfortunately, there are no memorials erected anywhere in Kodungallur, or Trichur, or Alwaye to honour Dharma Raja who gave shelter in his state to thousands of Hindus escaping from the Islamic brutalities of the fanatic Tipu Sultan; or Ayyappan Marthanda Pillai who was the architect of the historic Nedumkotta; or Raja Keshavadas under whose direct command a comparatively small army humbled and defeated the invading army of Tipu Sultan; or scores of valiant Hindu soldiers who laid down their lives to protect their country and faith.

The most despicable and shameful act of the anti-Hindu secularist government of Kerala since Independence was that instead of honouring the legendary heroes of the land, a memorial in the form of a flagstaff was erected near the historic Trichur Palace to perpetuate the memory of the Islamic bigot Tipu Sultan who was instrumental in the forcible mass circumcision and killing of Hindus, destruction of Hindu temples, and devastation of the Malabar, Trichur, Alwaye and Kodungallur regions.


1. Kerala Charitradharakal (Historical Documents) by Naduvattam Gopalakrishnan, pp. 84-89.

2. Thiruvithamkur Charitram (Travancore History) by P. Sankunni Menon, p. 161.

3. Kerala Charitram (Kerala History) by A. Sreedhara Menon, p. 55.

4. Malabar Manual by William Logan, p. 455.


The Ahoms, the descendants of the Shan dynasty (of China), inhabited the Assam valley during medieval times. The Ahoms, together with the Shans of Burma and Eastern China and the Siamese, were members of the Tai race. The state of Assam is believed to derive its name from this dynasty. King Sukapha of this dynasty invaded Assam from the east in 1228. The successors of Sukapha ruled the region for a century and a half. They gradually extended their power westward, down the valley of the Brahmaputra. <b>During the reign of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, the Ahom kings ruled the entire Brahmaputra valley</b>. The dynasty attained the height of its power under King <b>Rudra Singh</b>, who is said to have ascended the throne in 1695.
We might add the Sanayasi rebellion of Bengal among those chapters of Hindu resistence. A feature of this rebellion (which is usually not mentioned in 'official' NCERT history) is that, much of it was directed against Muslim zamindars in Bengal of later 19th century.
<!--QuoteBegin-PC Guleria+Aug 27 2006, 11:29 PM-->QUOTE(PC Guleria @ Aug 27 2006, 11:29 PM)<!--QuoteEBegin-->http://www.india9.com/i9show/32314.htm

The Ahoms, the descendants of the Shan dynasty (of China), inhabited the Assam valley during medieval times. The Ahoms, together with the Shans of Burma and Eastern China and the Siamese, were members of the Tai race. The state of Assam is believed to derive its name from this dynasty. King Sukapha of this dynasty invaded Assam from the east in 1228. The successors of Sukapha ruled the region for a century and a half. They gradually extended their power westward, down the valley of the Brahmaputra. <b>During the reign of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, the Ahom kings ruled the entire Brahmaputra valley</b>. The dynasty attained the height of its power under King <b>Rudra Singh</b>, who is said to have ascended the throne in 1695.

Hello PC,
Ahom kings used the last name Singh: such as King Rudra Singh and so on.
Also there was a buddhist named Rinchin in medieveal Kashmir who was ruling Kashmir. He wanted to become Hindu as most of the population at that time was Hindu in Kashmir. The Hindu monks told him (who is a king of entire Kashmir) that they cannot make him a Hindu as they cannot decide what his "Jaati" would be.

As a consequence Rinchin converted to Islam (by Bulbul Shah) which had no such pre condition and became known to the world as Sultan Sadruddin. This happened in 1320 A.D.

So are there any theories on how Ahom became Hindu? Or have we exhausted all research in finding that perhaps people like Lachit were really Bhartiya?

<!--QuoteBegin-sroy+Aug 30 2006, 11:48 AM-->QUOTE(sroy @ Aug 30 2006, 11:48 AM)<!--QuoteEBegin-->We might add the Sanayasi rebellion of Bengal among those chapters of Hindu resistence. A feature of this rebellion (which is usually not mentioned in 'official' NCERT history) is that, much of it was directed against Muslim zamindars in Bengal of later 19th century.
Could you please fill in more details?
<!--QuoteBegin-Bharatvarsh+Aug 27 2006, 10:43 PM-->QUOTE(Bharatvarsh @ Aug 27 2006, 10:43 PM)<!--QuoteEBegin--><!--QuoteBegin--><div class='quotetop'>QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->INVASION OF TRAVANCORE

Travancore had an alliance (Treaty of Mangalore) with the English Company according to which ........
This is very enlightening. Can we find more about resistance in the south?
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->The Hindu monks told him (who is a king of entire Kashmir) that they cannot make him a Hindu as they cannot decide what his "Jaati" would be.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Actually the Muslim chronicle "Baharistan-i-Shahi" of the 16th century gives a very different view of what happened (it actually gives a view that is contrary to the currently held mass opinion), here is what it says:
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Rinchan's conversion

During the early stages of his career, Rinchan showed no inclination towards any of the existing religions.[31] It was in the fitness of things that he embraced one of these religions and vigorously prayed to God the Merciful.

At this time only a handful of people in Kashmir had embraced Islam. Most of the people were either infidels or dissemblers. But when Rinchan thought of embracing a religion and associating himself with a community he made enquiries about the principles and laws of their religion from the savants among the infidels and the learned men of the times. They beseeched him to join their fold.[32] The Muslims also put before him the principles and teachings of the Islamic faith and invited him to embrace their religion. But owing to serious differences between these two religions and the disagreement [prevailing] among the two religious groups, he was not able to reach any decision. Each community considered its religion the true one and each group induced him to embrace its religion. He was in a fix because of the serious differences and glaring contradictions in the views of these communities. Their heated discussions and discourses led him to no satisfactory conclusion. However, blessed as he was with a dispensation for justice, for 'God helps those who help themselves,' he found the right path. He firmly decided that he would embrace the religion of the first man he would meet in the street after coming out of his house the next morning. He also resolved to join the community to which that man belonged.

Next morning he came out of his house. The rays of the sun of divine guidance, bringing every object from darkness to light, liberated him from the darkness of ignorance and disbelief; for all of a sudden, in the neighbourhood of his mansion he saw a dervish offering namaz (the Muslim way of praying), with full devotion. He went towards him. When the dervish had finished his prayer, Rinchan held him by his hand and brought him to his house. Then he called in an interpreter who knew their languages. He asked the dervish his name and then about his religion and the sect he belonged to. The dervish told him that his name was Bulbul Qalandar, that his religion was Islam[33] and that his community was that of Muslims. He disclosed to him that he was a member of the sect of Shah Ne'matullah Wali. He then mentioned to him some of the miracles performed by the Prophet, the virtues and superior qualities of 'Ali, the Imam, and lastly, the extraordinary feats of spirituality performed by Shah Ne'matullah Wali.

As a consequence Rinchin converted to Islam (by Bulbul Shah) which had no such pre condition and became known to the world as Sultan Sadruddin. This happened in 1320 A.D.
So according to that chronicle Hindus did ask him to embrace dharma, the currently held view may have gained popularity during colonialism as another instance of Brahmin moronism spread by interested parties (refusing to convert someone) and today it's accepted as a gospel truth but the older chronicles give another view.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->So are there any theories on how Ahom became Hindu? Or have we exhausted all research in finding that perhaps people like Lachit were really Bhartiya?<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
The Ahoms gradually assimilated themselves into Hindu society, the conversion was not some sudden thing, it happened gradually over centuries, also Assam had Sant Sankaradeva who is still considered as a patron saint of Assam, he popularised Vaishnavism through his preachings throughout Assam. Many of the Ahom kings as far as down to 18th century had 2 names, one a Sanskrit name the other one an Ahom name, Lachit Barphukhan (the famous general who beat back a Mughal invasion through a spectacular naval battle and considered a hero of Assam) is not a Sanskrit name, it's a Thai derived name, so that should indicate the fact that the conversion happened through gradual assimilation.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->This is very enlightening. Can we find more about resistance in the south?<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Yes I will make a few posts about that soon, the South had a great track record in resisting Islamic invasions chiefly because of the Vijayanagara kingdom.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Emulate the spirit and skill of Lachit Barphukan
Author: Lt. Gen. S. K. Sinha
Publication: Bharatiya Pragna
Date: August 2001

Maharashtra and Assam may be at two opposite ends of our vast and great country but they stand united by a common history, a common heritage and a common spirit. During the medieval period they produced two great military leaders of our country, Chhatrapati Shivaji in Maharashtra and Lachit Barphukan in Assam. It is in the fitness of things that our National Defense Academy, the cradle for military leadership is located at the home of the great Shivaji. It is also very appropriate that the statue of Lachit Barphukan is being installed at this Academy. This is not only pays homage to the memory of one of our great military leaders of medieval India but also underscores national spirit and promotes national integration.

I feel greatly honoured to be here to unveil the statue of Lachit Barphukan. May I take this opportunity to strike a personal note? I received my military training at the Officers Training School Belgaum, when I roamed over some of the hills, where Shivaji had operated. From my young days, I have been greatly fascinated by Shivaji's military genius and his devotion to moral values. I have been his ardent admirer. On being commissioned from Belgaum in 1944, I joined my battalion, and then located on the bank of the Brahmaputra at Guwahati. There, I learnt about the military exploits of Lachit. This caught by fascination and admiration. His great victory in the battle of Saraighat over the immensely superior Mughal Army, when Mughal imperial power was at its zenith, makes him one of the truly great military leaders of medieval India. More than half a century after my posting to Guwahati I took over as Governor of Assam. It has been my endeavour that the fame of Lachit Barphukan, which had remained confined largely to Assam, be also spread to other parts of the country. We have been holding special functions of Lachit Divas in Assam and we have produced a documentary film on this Ahom General. A cassette of this film is being presented to the N DA. The institution of a gold medal named after Lachit Barphukan for the best cadet in the officers like qualities and the installation of his statue at this Academy, are fulfillments of my long cherished desire.

It is interesting to note the connection between Shivaji and Lachit Barphukan. They were near contemporaries. Shivaji was some years older. The successful fight put up by Shivaji against Aurangjeb became a source of inspiration for the Ahoms in Assam. Like the Rajputs under Rana Pratap and the Marathas under Shivaji, the Ahoms under Lachit were fighting against Mughal imperialism to preserve their respective independence. There was no communal dimension to the battles waged by them. Rana Pratap fought a Mughal Army led by Raja Mansingh, Shivaji fought a Mughal Army led by Raja Jai Singh and Lachit fought a Mughal Army led by Raja Ram Singh.

Two key personalities on the Mughal side operating against Lachit had also operated against Shivaji. Shaista Khan, the maternal uncle of Aurangjeb had been the Viceroy of Deccan and was located here at Pune when Shivaji had raided his palace. Shaista Khan managed to escape but in the process lost three of his fingers to a cut by sword. The same Shaista Khan was now the Mughal Viceroy from Dhaka from where he provided support for the Mughal expeditionary forces moving up to Assam. At the head of Mughal Army was Raja Ram Singh, the son of Raja Jai Singh. At Purandar Jai Singh had fought against Shivaji. After the treaty of Purandar, his father to escort Shivaji to Agra had detained Ram Singh. It was the same Ram Singh who was sent as the head of a formidable Mughal Army to invade Assam. Lachit Barphukan crossed swords with him at Guwahati.

Assam was the only state of India, which defeated successive attempts by Delhi Sultans and Mughal emperors. Starting from the invasion of Bhaktiyar Khilji in early thirteenth century to the invasions of the Mughal armies of Aurangzeb in the late seventeenth century. Assam defeated seventeen such invasions. No doubt the geographical remoteness of Assam was the major factor but no less important was the military leadership and the fighting qualities displayed by the people of Assam.

Of these seventeen invasions there was only one in which the invader achieved some success. This was Mir Jumla's invasion. Mir Jumla was the Mughal Viceroy at Dhaka. In 1662 as the head of the large Mughal army he advanced up the Brahmaputra into Assam. There was dissension among the Ahoms and they could not put up any worthwhile resistance. The Ahom capital at Gargaon fell to the invader and king Jayadhwaja Singha fled to the hills. Like Napoleon at Moscow, Mir Jumla at Gargoan found that he had won only a pyrric victory. The French grand army got, decimated in the severe winter of the Russian steeps. Similarly Mughal army got decimated by monsoon, malaria and decentry. During its retreat, Mir Jumla died of illness. However before retreating Mir Jumla had imposed a humiliating treaty on the Ahoms. Two Ahom Royal princesses were taken for the Mughal imperial harem. Ahoms had to pay 3 lakhs as war indemnity and an annual tribute of 20 elephants. They also had to cede the western half of their kingdom from Guwahati to Manas river.

The Ahom king was keen to avenge the defeat he had suffered at the hands of Mughals and Lachit Barphukan proved to be the man of the hour. He was the son of Mumai Tamuli Borbarua who starting from the humble beginning had risen to the Governor of lower Assam as also Commander-in-Chief of the Ahom army. Thus Lachit Barphukan had the benefit of the upbringing the children of mobility of his times. His father arranged for his education in Humanities, Scriptures and Military skills as he grew up he was given positions of responsibilities. He was appointed. Scarf Bearer to, the Prime Minister functioning like his private secretary. He was successively appointed Superintendent of the Royal Horse, Commander of the strategic Simulgarh Fort and Superintendent of the Royal Household guards.

King Jayadhwaj Singha died soon after the defeat he had suffered at the hands of Mir Jumla. At his deathbed, he exhorted his nephew and successor king Chakradhwaj Singha to remove the spear of humiliation from the bosom of the nation. The new king was determined to retrieve national honour and started making elaborate preparations for recovering territory lost to the Mughals. Stock of food and war material were built up and an expeditionary army organised and trained.

Preparations were complete by 1667 and the king entrusted the command of the expeditionary army to Lachit Barphukan. This force started from Gargaon in August 1667 and advanced down the Brahmaputra to Guwahati. Lachit soon captured an important post of the Mughals on the North bank and Mughal reserves got drawn there. He beat back Mughal counter attacks. Simultaneously he organized night raid by his commandos on the South bank of the river against the Mughal fort at Guwahati. The commandos poured water into the mouth of Mughal canons and the Ahom army after a heavy cannonade pressed a determined attack. Lachit captured the fort and the Mughal Governor was taken a prisoner along with a large number of Mughal soldiers.

The Mughals abandoned Guwahati and Lachit advanced up to Manas river liberating the Ahom territory ceded to Mir Jumla. A stone victory pillar with inscription in Sanskrit now in Guwahati museum praises Lachit Barphukan for his victory against the Mughals at Guwahati in 1667.

Lachit was not the one to just rest on his laurels. He realized that the Mughal Emperor was bound to send a large army to avenge the defeat of his forces and suffered at Guwahati. He, therefore, set about organizing the defenses of Guwahati in a very meticulous manner for the anticipated invasion of Mughal forces. The terrain around Guwahati of low hills on either bank of the river, helped Lachit in organizing impregnable defenses. He organised prepared defenses at gaps of 9 ft. on the plains and 13.5 ft on the hills. The river line within the defensive perimeter on both banks was fortified and stockades were put up on sand banks in the river to deny the use of the waterway. All round defence and defence in depth were insured. For nearly 2 years he was developing his defenses while the Mughals organised a large force and advanced to Guwahati. It is said that Lachit was very ruthless with his subordinates in ensuring preparation of defences. He beheaded his own uncle who was found negligent in this regard, "My uncle is not greater than my country".

The Mughal Army under Ram Singh consisted of 30,000 infantry, 15,000 archers, 18,000 Turkish cavalry, 5,000 gunners and over 1000 cannons besides a large flotilla of boats. Portuguese and other European sailors were employed, to man the fleet. These forces moved up the Brahmaputra from Dhaka to Guwahati. Lachit's spies kept him informed of the progress of Ram Singh's advance. With the impregnable defences that he had prepared at Guwahati, he was confident to beat back the Mughal attack. He realized that he stood no chance in open ground on the plains against the immensely superior Mughal cavalry of Turkish and Arab horse. His small ponies were no match for them. The Mughals had to be denied any opportunity to exploit their overwhelming superiority in cavalry.

The Mughals made contact with Lachit's defences in March 1669 and laid siege to Guwahati, which lasted for a little over one year. There were five distinct phases of the battle fought at Guwahati. In the first phase the Mughals made repeated attacks against Ahom defences on both banks of the, river but failed to achieve a breakthrough. In the second phase they tried to send raiding parties by boats to get inside the Ahom defences. Lachit's river line defences foiled this attempt. A heavy monsoon set in during the third phase.

The Mughals got bogged down in mud and got isolated from each other due to flowing streams. The Ahoms were at an advantage. They were more used to the terrain and accustomed to the climate. They carried out extensive guerilla warfare, causing heavy losses to the Mughals. Ram Singh was very contemptuous of these operations and called it a "thieves affair". He challenged Lachit Barphukan to a duel. He also offered a bribe of 3 lakhs to Lachit to abandon Guwahati defences. When this did not work, he tried a ruse.

A letter addressed to Lachit, attached to an arrow, was host into the Ahom camp. It mentioned that Lachit had been paid one lakh to evacuate Guwahati and urged him to do so soon. The letter found its way to the Ahom King at Gargaon who became suspicious of the loyalty of Lachit Barphukan. Fortunately, the Prime Minister managed to convince the King that it was a trick being played by the Mughal Commander and he should not doubt Lachit's loyalty. However, the King insisted that Lachit came out of his defences and engage the Mughals in battle on open ground. Despite his objections to such a suicidal move, Lachit was forced to follow the order of the King. He came out of his defences on to the Allaboi plains to attack the Mughal army in the open. This was the fourth phase of the battle.

After some initial success in which the Ahoms captured the local Mughal Commander, Mir Nawab, the Ahoms drew the full weight of Mughal cavalry personally led by Ram Singh. The Mughal cavalry decimated the Ahom army on the plains and the later suffered 10,000 killed. Lachit had taken the precaution of digging a line of defences at the rear of his advancing, columns to which they could fall back if forced to do so. Thus he managed to extricate the remainder of his forces and moved back into his prepared defences.

The Mughals could not penetrate these defences and ultimately decided to launch a massive naval assault on the river. They had large boats, a few of them mounting up to sixteen canons. The Ahom soldiers were demoralized after the Allaboi disaster. Their Commander-in-Chief was seriously ill. At the sight of the massive Mughal fleet, they began to loose their will to fight. Some elements commenced retreat.

Lachit was observing this development from his sickbed. He had himself carried on a lotto a boat and with seven boats advanced headlong against the Mughal fleet. This had an electrifying effect on his soldiers. They rallied behind him and a desperate battle ensured on the Brahmaputra. 'The Ahoms in their small boats cut circles round the bigger but less maneuverable Mughal boats. The river got littered with clashing boats and drowning soldiers.

In this furious engagement, Lachit Barphukan managed to snatch victory from the jaws of defeat. The Mughals were decisively defeated and they retreated from Guwahati. Ahom territory up to Manas was once again liberated. Thus ended the fifth phase of the battle of Saraighat in a glorious Ahom victory, despite all odds and giving Lachit very deservedly legendary fame in Assam. In his hour of triumph, like Nelson at Trafalgar, Lachit Barphukan died of the illness that he had been suffering from.

The Mughal Commander-in-Chief acknowledging his defeat had a special word of praise for the Ahom solder and the Ahom Commander-in-chief. He wrote, "Every Assamese soldier is expert in rowing boats, in shooting arrows, in digging trenches and in wielding guns and cannons. I have not seen such a specimens of versatility in any other part of India." About Lachit Barphukan he wrote, "Glory to the country. One single individual leads all the forces. Even I Ram Singh, being personally on the spot, has not been able to find any loophole and an opportunity."

As young cadets on the threshold of your military career you need to be conversant with the lives and attainments of our great military heroes of the past. Lachit like Chhatrapati Shivaji and Rana Pratap was one of our great military heroes of the medieval period of our history. His exploits should be a source of great inspiration for you. Lachit's unbounded loyalty to his Government and his burning patriotism should be the beacon lights of your career. His professional competence and personal gallantry helped him to overcome all odds and snatch victory from the jaws of defeat. It should be your endeavour to emulate his inspiring example.

As an old soldier, I urge you to step forward in your career with confidence, emulating the spirit and skill of Lachit Barphukan. In the words of the great Chinese military thinker Sun Tzu of 3rd century BC, that will ensure that in a hundred battles you will win hundred victories.

(Lt. Gen. S. K. Sinha (Retd) PVSM, is the Governor of Assam)

There is a Sanskrit inscription commemorating his victory in Gauhati as the article mentions but I can't find the translation, also the archives of Jai Singh's kingdom may have the letters his son Ram Singh may have exchanged with Lachit.
<!--QuoteBegin-Bharatvarsh+Aug 31 2006, 05:34 AM-->QUOTE(Bharatvarsh @ Aug 31 2006, 05:34 AM)<!--QuoteEBegin--><!--QuoteBegin--><div class='quotetop'>QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->The Hindu monks told him (who is a king of entire Kashmir) that they cannot make him a Hindu as they cannot decide what his "Jaati" would be.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Actually the Muslim chronicle "Baharistan-i-Shahi" of the 16th century gives a very different view of what happened (it actually gives a view that is contrary to the currently held mass opinion), here is what it says:
Muslims are usually big liars and I would rather trust the other version. Note Rinchin wanted to legitimize his rule as he was an usurper. Since majority population was Hindu only a Hindu could be considered legit. The version I wrote was actually from M.J. Akbar's book.


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