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History Taught In Pakistan
#34
Assertion of the Ideology of Pakistan
Many scholars have forcefully argued, with the help of historical record that the term
Ideology of Pakistan is a construction that did not exist when Pakistan was created. Justice
Munir has very clearly identified the first time when the phrase was coined. In his monograph
From Jinnah to Zia he writes:
The Quaid-i-Azam never used the words “Ideology of Pakistan” … For fifteen
years after the establishment of Pakistan, the Ideology of Pakistan was not
known to anybody until in 1962 a solitary member of the Jama’at-I-Islami used
the words for the first time when the Political Parties Bill was being discussed.
On this, Chaudhry Fazal Elahi, who has recently retired as President of Pakistan,
rose from his seat and objected that the ‘Ideology of Pakistan’ shall have to be
defined. The member who had proposed the original amendment replied that the
‘Ideology of Pakistan was Islam’ …
Thus the phrase Ideology of Pakistan had no historical basis in the Pakistan movement. It
was coined much later by those political forces which needed it to sanctify their particular
brand of politics, especially by those who had earlier been against the creation of Pakistan. It
is no wonder that the Jama’at-i-Islami and other religio-political parties use this phrase
extensively.
Although - as Justice Munir has noted, with which any authority on the Quaid-i-Azam would
agree - the Quaid never uttered the words Ideology of Pakistan, yet the curriculum
72 National Curriculum English (Compulsory) for Classes XI-XII, March 2002
16
Insensitivity to the Religious Diversity of the Nation
documents insist that the students be taught that the Ideology of Pakistan was enunciated
by the Quaid.
The chapter should present the Ideology of Pakistan as enunciated by Quaid-i-
Azam and should include relevant documented references.73
Needless to say no textbook has ever been able to cite a single reference to Mr. Jinnah
using the term Ideology of Pakistan. On the contrary, his speech to the Constituent
Assembly on the 11th of August, 1947 is completely contrary to the so-called ‘Ideology of
Pakistan’ as it is presented. He had said to the legislators who were to prepare the future
constitution of the newborn country:
“We are starting with the fundamental principle that we are all citizens and equal
citizens of one state … Now I think we should keep that in front of us as our
ideal, ad you will find that in the course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus
and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that
is the personal faith of each individual but in the sense as citizens of the state. …
You may belong to any caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business
of the state.”
There is no consensus on the term Ideology of Pakistan. It was neither defined nor
contained in any constitution of Pakistan, until General Zia-ul-Haq included the term in an
order of his military government that was made part of the 1973 constitution through an
illegal and questionable process. Even there, Zia-ul-Haq failed to define the term, leaving it
to the ideologues to suit it to their politics. It is now often equated with Islamic ideology, with
the assertion that Pakistan came into being to enforce Islamic principles of civil life as
enshrined in the Shariah. But there is a problem with this interpretation. If this were so, then
one cannot explain why most of the orthodox Islamic scholars, including Syed Abul Aala
Maududi of Jamat-e-Islami, were against the creation of Pakistan. Regarding the Ideology of
Pakistan to be the same as enforcing orthodox Islamic laws is also in direct conflict with the
ideas of the founder of Pakistan as quoted above.
It was during the Islamization era of General Zia-ul-Haq that the use of the term was
consolidated and made to appear in every aspect of the educational material. A sample of
quotations from curriculum documents below shows how this has been sanctified and turned
into an article of faith.
The Ideology of Pakistan be presented as an accepted reality, and be never
subjected to discussion or dispute74
The Ideology of Pakistan be presented as an accepted reality, and should never
be made controversial and debatable.75
Attempt is made to make the curriculum more representative and responsive to
the Ideology of Pakistan and societal needs76
73 Pakistan Studies Curriculum for Classes XI-XII, National Curriculum Committee, National Bureau of
Curriculum and Textbooks, Islamabad, 1986, p 3
74 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, p 41
75 Urdu Curriculum (First language) for Classes IV and V, National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks,
Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, March 2002, p 3
76 National Curriculum CIVICS for classes IX – X, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education, Curriculum
Wing, Islamabad, March 2002, p 4
17
The Subtle Subversion: The state of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan
… so that the Ideology of Pakistan could permeate the thinking of young
generation …77
Demonstrate an appreciation of the Ideology of Pakistan78
find pleasure in the protection of the Ideology of Pakistan, …79
Understand Islam and Ideology of Pakistan, and feel them deep in heart80
To promote understanding of socioeconomic and socio-cultural aspects of
Pakistani society, the Ideology of Pakistan and struggle for Pakistan81
Care be taken in the composition and editing of the essays that there ought to come
out an angle of propagation of Islam and the Ideology of Pakistan82
For speeches, writings and discussions, such topics be chosen that represent
positive thinking about Islam and Pakistan, and those topics be avoided that negate
or denigrate Islamic values and the Ideology of Pakistan.83
Teachers must thoroughly study the Ideology of Pakistan84
Understand Islam and Ideology of Pakistan, and feel them deep in heart85
Essays creating deep love for Islam and Ideology of Pakistan86
To develop a sense of love for the Ideology of Pakistan87
Love for Ideology of Pakistan88
Enhance a sense of respect for Cooperation and preservation of the Ideology of
Pakistan89
Cognitive objective: Knowledge of the Ideology of Pakistan90
77 National Curriculum CIVICS for classes XI – XII, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education, Curriculum
Wing, Islamabad, March 2002, p 3
78 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, p 140
79 Urdu Curriculum (first and second language) for classes VI-VIII, National Bureau of Curriculum and
Textbooks, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 1986, p 8
80 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, p 58
81 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education
(Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 6
82 Urdu Curriculum (First language) for Classes IV and V, National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks,
Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, March 2002, p 25
83 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, p 44
84 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, p 44
85 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, p 58
86 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, p 61
87 National Curriculum CIVICS for classes IX – X, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education, Curriculum
Wing, Islamabad, March 2002, p 14
88 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education
(Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 29
89 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education
(Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 43
90 Social Studies Curriculum for Classes VI – VIII, National Curriculum Committee, National Bureau of
Curriculum and Textbooks, Islamabad, 1984, p 7
18
Insensitivity to the Religious Diversity of the Nation
To create sentiments for the protection of the Ideology of Pakistan, love for the
country, …91
Be able to propagate the important values and traditions of Islam, … and adopt
national values in accordance with the Ideology of Pakistan92
To create sentiments for love of the country, safeguarding the Ideology of Pakistan,
…93
deepening the awareness of the Ideology of Pakistan94
enable the students to become a responsible, confident and patriot towards the
Ideology of Pakistan95
To explain Ideology of Pakistan; meaning and nature of Ideology of Pakistan. To
demonstrate the faith in Ideology of Pakistan 96
While writing the textbooks, material contrary to the Ideology of Pakistan which may
injure the feelings of different sects, or which may create hatred against any Muslim
leading personality may be avoided97
We have included so many quotations not for their diversity but for the diverse curriculum
documents in which they appear so repeatedly. The purpose seems to be to establish sanctity of
the term ‘Ideology of Pakistan’. No other political idea has ever been accorded such sanctity.
The only beneficiaries of this exercise have been the orthodox Islamic political forces whose
politics gets an undue advantage over the others.
It is to be granted that any political force has a right to define the future of the country as suits its
political ideology. In this respect, the religious political ideologues are quite in their right to claim
that Ideology of Pakistan should be as they define it, and should be the basis of all the policies of
the country. What, however, is completely unjustified is (1) to present it as a historical truth,
distorting history for this purpose, and (2) making education subservient to their politics.
The problem with stating that the Ideology of Pakistan was inherent in the founding premise
of Pakistan is not just that it is historically untrue. An emphasis on it gives a message to non-
Muslim Pakistanis that Pakistan is only for Muslims and that they do not have a place in it.
Hate Material
Associated with the insistence on the Ideology of Pakistan has been an essential component
of hate against India and the Hindus.
91 Urdu Curriculum (first and second language) for classes VI-VIII, National Bureau of Curriculum and
Textbooks, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 1986, p 41
92 Urdu Curriculum (first and second language) for classes VI-VIII, National Bureau of Curriculum and
Textbooks, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 1986, p 29
93 Urdu Curriculum (Compulsory, optional and Easy course), Classes IX and X, National Bureau of Curriculum
and Textbooks, Ministry of Education, Islamabad, 1988, p 4
94 English Curriculum for Classes IX-X, National Curriculum Committee, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of
Education, Islamabad, 1986, p 7
95 National Curriculum English (Compulsory) for Class XI-XII, March 2002, p 9
96 National Curriculum CIVICS for classes IX – X, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education, Curriculum
Wing, Islamabad, March 2002, p 15
97 National Curriculum CIVICS for classes IX – X, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education, Curriculum
Wing, Islamabad, March 2002, p 20
19
The Subtle Subversion: The state of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan
For the upholders of the Ideology of Pakistan, the existence of Pakistan is defined only in
relation to Hindus, and hence the Hindus have to be painted as negatively as possible.
That the pathological hate against Hindus is only because of adopting the so-called Ideology
of Pakistan is borne out by the fact that the pre-Ideology (before the 1970s) textbooks of
Pakistan did not contain this hatred. Although a lot of animosity towards Hindus might well
have been expected in the newborn Pakistan because of the bloody riots of the partition,
the early textbooks in Pakistan, many written after the partition, were free of the
pathological hate that we see in textbooks today. For example:
1. The early history books contained chapters on both the oldest civilizations Moen Jo
Daro, Harappa, Gandhara, etc., but also the early Hindu mythologies of Ramayana
and Mahabharata and extensively covered, often with admiration, the great Hindu
and Buddhist kingdoms of the Mauryas and the Guptas.
2. The books indeed showed biases when discussing the more recent history of the
politics of independence, but still one found school textbooks with chapters on Mr.
M. K. Gandhi, using words of respect for him and admiring him for his qualities.
3. Even in the somewhat biased history of politics of independence, the creation of
Pakistan was reasoned on the intransigence of the All India Congress and its
leadership rather than on ‘Hindu machinations’.
4. Some books also clearly mentioned that the most prominent Islamic religious
leaders were all bitterly opposed to the creation of Pakistan.
Such was the enlightened teaching of history for the first twenty five years of Pakistan
even though two wars were fought against India in this period. The print and electronic
media often indulged in anti-Hindu propaganda, but the educational material was by and
large free of bias against Hindus.
Then came the time when Indo-Pakistan History and Geography were replaced with
Pakistan Studies, and Pakistan was defined as an Islamic state. The history of Pakistan
became equivalent to the history of Muslims in the subcontinent. It started with the Arab
conquest of Sindh and swiftly jumped to the Muslim conquerors from Central Asia.
Simultaneously, there started a trend in the 1970s of stressing the so-called Ideology of
Pakistan. This involved creating an ideological straitjacket in which history of Pakistan,
especially that of the Pakistan Movement was to be re-written. Pakistan was told to have
been created to establish a truly Islamic state in accordance with the tenets of Qur’an
and Sunnah. The Ulema who had bitterly opposed the creation of Pakistan were turned
into heroes of Pakistan movement. The Quaid-i-Azam was represented as a pious
practicing Muslim. And hate and denigration was created for Hindus. A few examples of
the expression of this hate in some recent curriculum documents and textbooks are
given below.
Curriculum documents state the following as the specific learning objectives:
[The child should be able to] understand the Hindu and Muslim differences and
the resultant need for Pakistan98
Develop understanding of the Hindu Muslim Differences and need for Pakistan99
98 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Classes K-V, Integrated and Subject Based, National Bureau of
Curriculum and Textbooks, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 1995, p 151
99 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education
(Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 35
20
Insensitivity to the Religious Diversity of the Nation
Hindu-Muslim Differences in Culture, .. India’s evil designs against Pakistan (the
three wars with India)100
Identify the events in relation to Hindu-Muslim differences, which laid the
foundations for Pakistan101
The textbooks then respond in the following way to the above curriculum instructions:
Hindu has always been an enemy of Islam.102
The religion of the Hindus did not teach them good things -- Hindus did not
respect women...103
Hindus worship in temples which are very narrow and dark places, where they
worship idols. Only one person can enter the temple at a time. In our mosques,
on the other hand, all Muslims can say their prayers together.104
‘ … the social evils of the Hindus’105
Hindus thought that there was no country other than India, nor any people other
than the Indians, nor did anyone else possess any knowledge106.
[A story “The Enemy Pilot”, about a captured Indian pilot, presumably of Hindu
faith] He had only been taught never to have pity on Muslims, to always bother
the neighbouring Muslims, to weaken them to the extent that they forget about
freedom, and that it is better to finish off the enemy. He remembered that the
Hindus tried to please their Devi Kali by slaughtering innocent people of other
faiths at her feet; that they regarded everybody else as untouchables. He knew
that his country India had attacked Pakistan in the dead of the night to bleed
Pakistani Muslims and to dominate the entire Subcontinent.107
The Hindus who have always been opportunists cooperated with the English.108
…but Hindus very cunningly succeeded in making the British believe that the
Muslims were solely responsible for the [1857] rebellion.109
Nehru report exposed the Hindu mentality.110
100 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education
(Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 35
101 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education
(Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 35
102 Urdu Class V, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 108
103 Muasherati Ulum for Class IV, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, 1995, p 81
104 Muasherati Ulum for Class V, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, 1996, p 109
105 Social Studies Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002: p 59
106 Social Studies Class VIII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 82. This sentence, meant to
denigrate Hindus, describes the response of the local people to Al Beruni’s visit to India. It is obviously a
concocted lie because of the fact that Alexander the Greek had come to this land many centuries earlier,
that the rule of the Mauryas and the Guptas stretched to the lands from where Al Beruni had come, that the
Arabs had conquered Sindh before Al Beruni’s visit, that the Arab conquest was also aimed against the
Ismailis who had settled in the area around Multan even earlier, and that the Arabic mathematics was
deeply influenced by Indian mathematics, etc., etc.
107 Urdu Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 221
108 Social Studies Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002: p 141
109 Social Studies Class VIII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 90
110 Social Studies, Class VIII – Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore. March 2002, p 102
21
The Subtle Subversion: The state of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan
The Quaid saw through the machinations of the Hindus.111
Hindus declared the Congress rule as the Hindu rule, and started to unleash terror
on Muslims.112
The Hindus always desired to crush the Muslims as a nation. Several attempts were
made by the Hindus to erase the Muslim culture and civilisation. Hindi-Urdu
controversy, shudhi and sanghtan movements are the most glaring examples of the
ignoble Hindu mentality.113
While the Muslims provided all type of help to those wishing to leave Pakistan, the
people of India committed cruelties against the Muslims (refugees). They would
attack the buses, trucks, and trains carrying the Muslim refugees and they were
murdered and looted.114
After 1965 war India conspired with the Hindus of Bengal and succeeded in
spreading hate among the Bengalis about West Pakistan and finally attacked on
East Pakistan in December 71, thus causing the breakup of East and West
Pakistan.115
Urging the Students to Take the Path of Jehad and Shahadat
The themes of Jehad and Shahadat clearly distinguish the pre- and post-1979 educational
contents. There was no mention of these in the pre-Islamization period curricula and textbooks,
and the post-1979 curricula and textbooks openly eulogize Jehad and Shahadat and urge
students to become mujahids and martyrs. The following examples illustrate the point.
Learning Outcome: Recognize the importance of Jehad in every sphere of life116
Learning outcome: Must be aware of the blessings of Jehad117
Must be aware of the blessings of Jehad, and must create yearning for Jehad in his
heart.118
Concept: Jehad; Affective objective: Aspiration for Jehad119
Love and aspiration for Jehad, Tableegh (Prosyletization), Jehad, Shahadat
111 Social Studies Class-VII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, ?, p 51
112 Social Studies, Class VIII – Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore. March 2002, p 104
113 M. Ikram Rabbani and Monawar Ali Sayyid, An Introduction to Pakistan studies, The Caravan Book House,
Lahore, 1995, p 12
114 National Early Childhood Education Curriculum (NECEC), Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, March
2002, p 85
115 Social Studies (in Urdu) Class- V, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, p 112
116 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (Curriculum
Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 34
117 Urdu Curriculum (Compulsory, optional and Easy course), Classes IX and X, National Bureau of Curriculum and
Textbooks, Ministry of Education, Islamabad, 1988, p 8
118 Urdu Curriculum (first and second language) for classes VI-VIII, National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks,
Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 1986, p 13
119 Social Studies Curriculum for Classes VI – VIII National Curriculum Committee, National Bureau of Curriculum
and Textbooks, Islamabad, Year 1984, p 16
22
Insensitivity to the Religious Diversity of the Nation
(martyrdom), sacrifice, ghazi (the victor in holy wars), shaheed (martyr), …120
Simple stories to urge for Jehad121
Activity 4: To make speeches on Jehad and Shahadat122
To make speeches on Jehad123
Evaluation: To judge their spirits while making speeches on Jehad,
Muslim History and Culture124
Concepts: Jehad, Amar bil Maroof and Nahi Anil Munkar125
Importance of Jehad126
Affective objective:Concepts of Ideology of Pakistan, Muslim Ummah and
Jehad127
Stories: eight lessons; Folk tales (mythical, moral, Islamic, travel and
adventure, Jehad)128
Again, the repetition illustrates how insistent the curricula are on the inclusion of
material on jehad and shahadat in textbooks and in classroom teaching.
Narrowing the Options
It is interesting to note that a general objective in curriculum documents: To create
awareness and love for Islamic faith, and to bring up children according to Islamic valueshas
been replaced by particular objectives, that completely narrow the options textbook writers
may have for writing pedagogically sound textbooks. The following excerpts demonstrate the
point.129
120 Social Studies Curriculum for Classes VI – VIII National Curriculum Committee, National Bureau of
Curriculum and Textbooks, Islamabad, Year 1984, p 21
121 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, p 56
122 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, p 154
123 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education
(Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 33
124 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education
(Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 35
125 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education
(Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 34
126 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education
(Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 34
127 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education
(Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 35
128 Urdu Curriculum (First language) for Classes IV and V, National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks,
Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, March 2002, p 18
129 Integrated Curriculum, Classes I – III, National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks, Ministry of Education,
Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, March 2002
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