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Riots In India
Discuss Gujarat Godhra riots of 2002 in the 'Gujarat Riots' Thread.
List facts/figures and various commission findings on other communal riots, in this thread.
Nanavati panel indicts Cong leaders
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->The report of the G T Nanavati Commission, which probed the 1984 anti-Sikh riots, was tabled in the Lok Sabha today by Home Minister Shivraj Patil.

The report was tabled along with the Action Taken Report (ATR) on the last day of the expiry of the six-month deadline for its presentation in Parliament.

The panel says there was no evidence of a lapse at the highest level but points a finger of suspicion at Congress leaders Jagdish Tytler, Sajjan Kumar and H K L Bhagat and other local Congress leaders.

But significantly the report gives the central government headed the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi a clean chit.  <!--emo&Rolleyes--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/rolleyes.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='rolleyes.gif' /><!--endemo--> <i>(the guy justified it as earth shaking after big tree being uprooted)</i>

The ATR agrees with some of the observations made in the report on the role of certain key officials, yet says more evidence needs to be investigated.

Speaking to NDTY, Justice Nanavati said that there is credible evidence that Congress leaders have participated in the riots.

Tytler's role

<b>The Nanavati panel says there is a high probability that Union Minister Jagdish Tytler was involved.  </b>

However, the ATR observed that it is clear from the remark "very probably" against Tytler that the one-man panel itself was not absolutely sure about his involvement in the attacks.

The ATR observed, "It may be pointed out that in criminal cases, a person cannot be prosecuted simply on the basis of probability."

'Probably involved'

<b>The commission has noted that "there is credible material" against Congress leaders Sajjan Kumar and Balwan Khokhar and that they were "probably involved as alleged by witnesses".</b>

The report also says that the 7 FIRs against Congress MP Sajjan Kumar should be investigated. The ATR has pointed out that the five FIRs have already been dealt with while two FIRs do not relate to anti-Sikh riots

The commission also recommended the examination of only those cases where the witnesses had accused Congress leader Sajjan Kumar specifically.

<b>On H K L Bhagat's role, Justice Nanavati says given his mental and physical condition he has recommended no action, but he had a hand in the riots.</b>

Credible evidence

On the alleged role of Union Minister for Commerce Kamal Nath, the report says there is little or no evidence.

<b>In the 339-page report, the commission was of the view that there was "credible evidence" against Dharam Das Shastri that he had instigated his men, Tek Chand Sharma and Rajinder Singh, to organise attacks on Sikhs. </b>

The panel recommended to the government that "it should examine the relevant material and direct investigation or further investigation as may be found necessary with regard to the allegations."

Gavai 'responsible'

As far as then Lt Governor P G Gavai was concerned, the report said the explanation given by him was "not satisfactory and does not convince the commission in recording the finding that there was no lapse at his level."

It further said, "Gavai was the person responsible for maintenance of law and order in Delhi and, therefore, he cannot escape the responsibility for its failure."

"The government had taken immediate administrative action. Gavai was replaced by MMK Wali as LG of Delhi on November 4, 1984," the ATR observed.

Meanwhile, Gavai in Nagpur said he was being made the fall guy. He accused the Home Ministry of adopting delaying tactics when he went to them to ask for additional forces.

Union Home Minister Shivraj Patil defended the government's action.

He said the Nanavati report did not give the government much basis to prosecute or re-investigate Congress leaders.

Meanwhile, the NDA-led Opposition has said it will protest how local level Congress leaders have been let off in the riots.

Minorities panel unhappy

Reacting to the tabling of the report, the Akali Dal (Badal) faction says it will now hold demonstrations outside Parliament to protest against the ATR.

"It is sad that despite being active participants through partition we had to face such injustice. All those people who have been named in the report including Tytler and Sajjan Kumar should not be allowed to go scot free," said S S Dhindsa, Akali Dal (Badal) MP.

At a meeting of the Akali Dal, presided by its chief Prakash Singh Badal, the party says it will announce an exact date for that demonstration tomorrow.

Criticizing the Nanavati panel report, the Minorities Commission said it is unhappy with the government's ATR.

Chairman of the National Commission for Minorities Tarlochan Singh said the report is unsatisfactory. (With PTI inputs)

Anti-Sikh riots: Tytler denies role
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Do not attach my name to other Congress leaders (who have been named in the report)," he said when asked about the commission's observation that there is a "credible evidence" on his involvement in the riots.

Apart from Tytler, Congress leaders Sajjan Kumar and late Dharam Dass Shastri have been accused of the involvement in the riots<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
1984 riots: the inaction in Action Taken Report

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Justice Nanavati submitted his report to the home ministry on February 9, 2005. The report along with the government's Action Taken Report was tabled in Parliament on Monday.

These are some of the highlights:

1. <i>Observation/recommendation:</i> Police subinspector Hoshiar Singh and his men did not protect a gurdwara and did not disperse the mob that had assembled there to unleash violence.

<b>Action taken:</b> Action cannot be taken because Singh and the two constables are now retired. The government will consult the law ministry if action can be taken against them.

2. <i>Observation/recommendation:</i> Evidence against Congress leader Dharam Das Shastri. He instigated Tek Chand Sharma and Rajinder Singh to attack Sikhs.

<b>Action Taken:</b> Tek Chand Sharma and Rajinder Singh were convicted by the lower court. Shastri not named as an accused in this case. The government will look into it.

3. <i>Observation/recommendation:</i> Credible evidence against Jagdish Tytler (now minister for overseas Indian affairs) that very probably he had a hand in organising attacks on Sikhs. Further action recommended as may be found necessary.

<b>Action taken:</b> The government says the commission is not certain that Tytler had a role in organising the attacks on Sikhs and in the context of the judicial verdicts on the incidents mentioned in the commission's report, any further action will not be justified.

4. <i>Observation/recommendation:</i> Inquiry against subinspector Mange Ram for dereliction of duty.

<b>Action taken:</b> Legal hurdles in inquiry because he has retired from service.

5. <i>Observation/recommendation:</i> Action against following officers as they were negligent in performing their duties:
Deputy Commissioner of Police of South district Chander Prakash; Station House Superintendent of Srinivaspuri O P Yadav; Station House Superintendent of Delhi Cantt Rohtash Singh; Station House Superintendent of Nizamuddin Ram Phal; Subinspector Ved Prakash; and head constables Shakti Singh and Mahinder Singh.

<b>Action taken:</b> No evidence against some policemen while others are retired.

6. <i>Observation/recommendation:</i> Investigate those cases in which (Congress leader and now lawmaker) Sajjan Kumar is an accused.

<b>Action taken:</b> Seven cases against Sajjan Kumar. Two of them do not relate to the 1984 riots. No evidence in others. Therefore, there is no justification to reopen these cases.

7. <i>Observation/recommendation:</i> Explanation given by then Lieutenant Governor P G Gavai is not satisfactory. He did not give as much importance to law and order as the situation deserved. He cannot escape the responsibility of police failure.

<b>Action taken:</b> Gavai was replaced by MMK Wali as lieutenant governor on November 4, 1984.

8. <i>Observation/recommendation:</i> Then police commissioner S C Tandon was responsible for the maintenance of law and order. The attitude of the police was callous.

<b>Action taken:</b> Tandon was replaced on November 12, 1984, and he has since retired from service.

9. <i>Observation/recommendation:</i> There was delay in calling the army. There should be an independent police force. The government should see that all cases are recorded during riots and investigated by independent investigative officials.

<b>Action taken:</b> The government accepts the view.

10. <i>Observation/recommendation:</i> The government should take steps so that everybody is compensated and the affected families are rehabilitated. The government should consider providing employment to one member of the family if that family has lost all its earning male members.

<b>Action taken:</b> The government accepts the view. Some compensation has already been distributed
What a joke is this report and action taken?
Why Lalit Maken and his family name is missing. He and Tytler were running show in our area of Delhi. They have given clear chit to Bhagat's son. Bagat is sick why not distribute his wealth to victims.
<b>Manmohan Singh must resign: Sikhs</b>
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin--> "There is no hope of justice left and we have lost all faith in the government. We were denied justice 21 years back and no justice has been given now... Prime Minister Manmohan Singh should immediately resign on moral grounds," All India Riot Victims Relief Committee president Kuldeep Singh Bhogal said.

The Sikh forum, which has been working for the rehabilitation of riot victims, said, <b>"if the Commission report had used the phrase 'very probably' for Jagdish Tytler's involvement, the government could have at least ordered an enquiry into it."</b>

<b>"But then for this Tytler would have to resign... The Congress has tried to shield its leaders through the ATR," </b>said Wg Cdr R S Chatwal of the Sikh Forum.

"The report is highly disappointing. After over 20 years of fight, we realised that this country is not governed by the rule of law," said advocate H S Phulka, who represented the victims before the Nanavati Commission.

<b>"The ATR has again shown that Congress is anti-Sikh. You can easily kill 3000 people of a community and get away with it," </b>said Akali Dal (Badal) MP Sukhbir Badal.

"We have asked for a debate in Parliament tomorrow. On August 13-14, we are having a general body meeting of the Akali Dal where further course of action would be finalised," he said.
Manmohan Singh during his campanign blamed RSS for riots and lost election in Delhi, why this moron will resign, he is doing good job licking Sonia chappal. <!--emo&:angry:--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/mad.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='mad.gif' /><!--endemo-->
<b>Cong rejects demands for Tytler’s resignation</b>

<b>No commission has indicted me in anti-Sikh riots: Tytler</b><!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Nine commissions had been set up and not one has directly or indirectly named me. When you say Congress leaders are involved and automatically my name comes because unfortunately I belong to Delhi and the whole media is centred in Delhi," he told a private TV channel in reply to a question<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd--><!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->He said <b>"I belong to a Sikh family. I am a Kapur. We came from Pakistan and my father was cut into seven pieces".</b>

Asked if <b>after 21 years of the riots, Congress has no responsibility, Tytler said</b>, "Anybody who is guilty, how high and mighty he is, should be punished. I had said this in 1984 and I said this at least twenty times in between".
<b>Nanavati panel report indicts Tytler, Sajjan Kumar</b> -HT
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->The commission report said it had credible evidence against Tytler and Sajjan Kumar, which led to demands for Tytler's sacking as Overseas Indian Affairs Minister and action against Sajjan Kumar.

While the Nanavati report accused the Congress leaders of "helping the mob" in the "organised attacks on Sikhs" and said there was a high probability Tytler had a hand in the violence, the ATR said action could not be taken on mere probability
<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd--><!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->The Nanavati panel held local Congress units and their workers responsible for the carnage, and said seven First Information Reports were filed against Sajjan Kumar.

The report held Congress MP Dharam Dass Shastri, who has since died, directly responsible for the riots.
<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd--><!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->National Commission for Minorities chairman Tarlochan Singh, too, blasted the ATR and bemoaned the plight of the 1984 victims who were yet to get justice after 21 years.

"The commission's effort came to nothing and the ATR is absolutely useless," Singh said. "The Government has no sentiment for the victims' sufferings."

<b>Credible evidence against Tytler: Nanavati Commission</b>
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->The incidents regarding arson and looting in the riots that followed the assassination of Indira Gandhi in area under Police Station Bara Hindu Rao in the capital, burning of Gurdawara Pul Bangash and killing of Thakur Singh and Badal Singh on October 31 and November 1, 1984 were investigated.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Why ignoring rest of Delhi e.g. Nariana, Patel Nagar, Uttam Nagar, Janak Puri, Rajouri Garden, Tilak Nagar, CP, Timarpur, Raja Garden ...........?
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin--><b>Brazen Cong may burn bridges with Sikhs </b>
Sidharth Mishra/ New Delhi
The attempt to brazen itself out of the tight situation will lead to an irreparable loss of credibility for the Congress party. <b>The shameless effort to 'exonerate' its two stalwarts from their 'complicity' in the 1984 holocaust against the Sikh community</b>, would definitely mean a loss of moral ground for the Congress in times to come and make them unfit to charge their opponents of allegedly perpetrating a similar carnage.

The Nanavati Commission report, and the angry outburst against the attempts to water down its recommendations, has once again put the charge of orchestrating the carnage like an albatross around the neck of the Congress. While two individual leaders, Jagdish Tytler and Sajjan Kumar have a degree of difference in their exoneration or complicity, whichever way you interpret the report, the larger question of the willingness of the Congress to punish the perpetrators of the 1984 riots stands bigger than ever before.

<b>The party in the city is sure to face the backlash from the well-knit Sikh community, which did not even hesitate to teach a lesson to Dr Manmohan Singh when he contested the Lok Sabha polls from South Delhi in 1999. Dr Singh on the eve of the election committed the blasphemy of blaming the Rashtriya Swyamsewak Sangh (RSS) for instigating the riots against Sikhs. The Sikhs came out in large numbers to vote the next morning and ensured that Dr Singh was routed.</b> <!--emo&Big Grin--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/biggrin.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='biggrin.gif' /><!--endemo-->

Now with Dr Manmohan Singh as the Prime Minister presiding over the biggest ever cover-up of the carnage could well provide the much-needed elixir to a dormant BJP in the Capital. It was after several attempts at mollification by the Sheila Dikshit government that the Sikh voter was won over by the Congress ensuring a second consecutive term for the party at Player's Building. With Monday's developments, the Congress leaders and cadres would find it difficult to justify the Centre's stand on the issue.

While people would jump to the conclusion that with Sajjan Kumar and Jagdish Tytler in a spot, Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit would be able to put dissidence behind her, the bigger challenge she would face would be from the voter, as the party goes to polls for the Municipal Corporation of Delhi in 2006.

Despite its dismal performance in the last few polls, <b>the Congress has never been able to rout the BJP in the Sikh-dominated constituencies of West Delhi</b>. A revival of angst against the Congress could be a citywide phenomenon with the Capital's Sikh community hitting back with vengeance. <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin--><b>Carnage was organised by Congress leaders: Nanavati </b>
Pramod Kumar Singh/ New Delhi
Justice GT Nanavati Commission report on the <b>1984 anti-Sikh riots is certain to resurrect the ghost of the biggest ever holocaust of post-independence India.</b> Describing the anti-Sikh riots of 1984 as an<b> "organised carnage", </b>the report says, "local Congress leaders and workers had either incited or helped the mobs in attacking the Sikhs.

But for the backing and help of influential and resourceful persons, killing of Sikhs so swiftly and in such large numbers could not have happened." Although the report exonerates the Congress High Command, it indicts Delhi Police of dereliction of duty and points <b>an accusing finger at prominent Congress MPs of the time, notably Dharam Das Shastri, HKL Bhagat, Sajjan Kumar and Jagdish Tytler</b>.

As regards individuals, the report recommends reopening all such cases against Outer Delhi Member of Parliament Sajjan Kumar, which have been declared "untraced". In the case of Minister of Overseas Indian Affairs Jagdish Tytler, the commission is not very clear about the former's involvement but nonetheless seeks a re-examination.

Justice Nanavati in his overall consideration for the genocide that took place on Delhi roads in the aftermath of the assassination of then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on October 31, 1984 has written, <b>"The systematic manner in which the Sikhs were thus killed indicate that the attacks were organised. The exploitation of the situation was also by the local political leaders for their political and personal gains like increasing the clout by showing their importance, popularity and hold over the masses. Lack of fear of the police was also one of the causes for the happening of so many incidents within those three to four days. Probably, there was a desire on the part of some persons to teach a lesson to the Sikhs."</b>

That the capital was engulfed in anti-Sikh frenzy at the instigation of Delhi Congress leaders was amply manifested in Sultanpuri area, which housed the lower strata of society.<b> In Sultanpuri, the attacks on Sikhs were on very large scale and the commission has found the footprints of Outer Delhi MP and Delhi Congress strongman Sajjan Kumar</b>. The affidavits of persons residing in Blocks A and B disclose that in the morning of November1, 1984, a mob of about 500 to 600 persons gathered near B-2 park and was addressed by Sajjan Kumar who reportedly instigated them to attack the Sikhs for killing Indira Gandhi. The mob was raising slogans such as <b>"Khoon ka badla khoon". </b>More than 50 people were killed during the attacks and more than 650 houses were looted and burnt. Sumer Singh, Phota Singh, Sidhouri Kaur, Jatan Kaur and Prem Kaur in their statements before the commission specifically named Sajjan Kumar as the person who addressed the mob on that day and incited it to attack Sikhs. Vidya Devi whose husband was burnt alive named Sajjan Kumar for the death of her husband.

Moti Singh of B Block has stated that on the morning of November 1, Sajjan Kumar clearly told the mob that had gathered near B-block to take revenge and he had even promised cash rewards for those who killed specific Sikh leaders.

If that was not enough the survivors in Palam Colony and Amarjit Kaur of Chand Colony had spoken about the killing of her husband Captain Nazar Singh Mangat. She had specifically named <b>Sajjan Kumar as the person who led the mob, which killed her husband by burning him alive</b>.

Sajjan has also been named for his role in the Nangloi area that also witnessed largescale arson and killing of Sikhs. According to an affidavit filed by Satnam Singh, Sajjan Kumar held a meeting in Matiala and Navada villages near Kiran Garden and instigated them to attack Sikhs and loot their properties. The MP also allegedly distributed iron rods to the mob after which the frenzy began.

Coming down heavily on the conduct of Sajjan Kumar, the commission has asked, "Why so many persons had named him and attributed acts like addressing meetings and inciting people to kill Sikhs and to loot and destroy their properties remains unexplained by Sajjan Kumar. A technical defence taken by him that these witnesses had not named him before the police or in the courts is not a good explanation for disbelieving those witnesses. The commission is, therefor inclined to take the view that there is credible material against Sajjan Kumar and his associate Balwan Khokhar for recording a finding that he and Khokhar were probably involved as alleged by the witnesses."

Sajjan Kumar was not alone as there were other Congress leaders who took active part in the brutal killing of innocent Sikhs.<b> Om Prakash, the brother-in-law of former Delhi Minister Deep Chand Bandhu</b> had attacked the residents of Nimri Colony in Ashok Vihar. <b>Om Prakash had brought a jeep, which was loaded with inflammable liquid and they started attacking Sikh families in the presence of police officers.</b>

<b>HKL Bhagat, who was virtually ruling Delhi in 1984 has also been accused of leading a mob in Seemapuri area where many Sikhs were killed</b>. Residents of Krishna Nagar filed affidavits alleging that the mob, which killed many members of their families was addressed by HKL Bhagat. Kalyanpuri and Trilokpuri areas were worst affected in East Delhi as the <b>supporters of Bhagat let loose a carnage against hapless Sikhs </b>and there was one Dr Ashok, said to be an ardent supporter of the Congress leader who not only indulged in the killing but incited his ilk to avenge the killing of Indira Gandhi. After the mad frenzy subsided, the victims and their families were asked not to name Bhagat for the killings.

"The commission is of the view that there is a credible material against the Congress leaders and workers. The commission does not recommend any further action against Bhagat in view of his physical and metal condition."

Dharam Das Shatri, the then MP from Karol Bagh led his people to attack and loot Sikh families in Patel Nagar, Karol Bagh and other areas. The situation in Karol Bagh had taken an ugly turn after<b> Shastri allegedly asked local leaders Tek Chand Sharma and Rajinder Pal Singh to kill Sikhs. Shastri had even slapped and threatened the SHO of Karol Bagh if he dared to take any action while his supporters were busy targeting Sikhs. </b>

The commission has noted, "The commission, therefore, is of the view that there is credible evidence against Shastri who was a Congress leader of the locality that he had instigated his men Tek Chand and Rajinder to organise attack on Sikhs. The commission recommends to the government that it should examine the relevant material and direct investigation or further investigation as may be found necessary to the aforesaid allegations".

Jagdish Tytler, who was MP from North Delhi has been also accused of egging his supporters to target Sikhs. Surinder Singh in his affidavit had said that the mob that <b>attacked Gurdwara Pul Bangash and killed Jaswinder Singh and Thakur Singh was led by Tytler</b>. Surinder had claimed that Tytler later contacted him and asked him to sign on the dotted line but he refused. In his cross examination, Surinder Singh stuck to his guns and reiterated that he had not filed any affidavit earlier.

The commission has noted that it appeared that Jagdish Tytler was in some way involved in the attacks on Sikhs or their properties in the area. <b>"The commission considers that there is credible evidence against Jagdish Tytler to the effect that very probably he had a hand in organising attacks on Sikhs. The commission therefor recommends to the government to look into this aspect and take further action as may be found necessary." </b><!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->SO MANY COMMISSIONS
<b>Ranganath Misra Commission:</b> On April 26, 1985, six months after the 1984 carnage in which Sikhs were massacred in Delhi and elsewhere, then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi appointed the Ranganath Misra Commission to inquire into "the allegations in regard to the incidents of organised vilence" in Delhi.

<b>Jain-Banerji Committee:</b> It was set up to find out why the police did not register cases and, if they were registered, why was it not done properly. In November 1987, the Delhi High Court stayed the functioning of the Jain-Banerjee Committee because of its very first recommendation to register a murder case against Congress leader Sajjan Kumar. In October 1989, the High Court quashed the notification appointing this committee.

<b>Kapoor-Mittal Committee:</b> It was asked to look into the role of the police during the carnage. The two members gave separate reports on March 1, 1990. Justice Dalip Kapur gave no finding on the ground that the Committee had not been empowered to summon police officials to hear their version. Kusum Lata Mittal identified 72 police officials, including six IPS officers, recommending various penalties against them.

<b>Ahuja Committee:</b> Its task was to compute the number of deaths in the carnage. The Committee found that <b>2,733 Sikhs were killed in Delhi alone</b>.

<b>Poti-Rosha Committee:</b> Delhi Administration, prompted by the VP Singh Government, on March 27, 1990 appointed this Committee without the legal defects of Jain-Banerjee Committee. In August-September 1990, this Committee submitted its recommendations, including the prosecution of Sajjan Kumar. When a CBI team went to arrest him, <b>Sajjan Kumar and his supporters locked up the officials and detained them till his lawyer, RK Anand (now a Congress MP), </b>obtained "anticipatory bail" from Delhi High Court.

<b>Jain-Aggarwal Committee:</b> Delhi Administration constituted a fresh committee in October-November 1990 to take over the work of the Poti-Rosha committee. Apart from recommending action against Congress leader HKL Bhagat and Sajjan Kumar, it submitted a report on how the police scuttled cases against culprits. Action was recommended against several police officers.

<b>Naroola Committee:</b> Then Chief Minister of Delhi Madan Lal Khurana appointed an Advisory Committee in 1994 under the chairmanship of Justice RS Naroola to review the status of the recommendations made by earlier committees. The Naroola Committee made a particular reference to the failure of the police to proceed against HKL Bhagat and Sajjan Kumar.

<b>Nanavati Commission:</b> The NDA Government headed by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee appointed a judicial inquiry under the chairmanship of Justice GT Nanavati in 2000.
‘<b>Rao told me to protect friends...Rajiv told me you’re a heart patient, take rest’</b><!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Gavai insisted the carnage was not on account of any errors on his part but rather because the Rajiv Gandhi Government at the Centre ‘‘deliberately delayed’’ calling in the Army when the mass killings began on November 1, 1984.

For Gavai, the Nanavati report completes a dubious hat trick. The retired Maharashtra cadre IAS officer said this was the third occasion he had been made the ‘‘fall guy’’.

<b>The first time, he said, was when Rajiv Gandhi summoned him on November 2, 1984, and told him: ‘‘Gavaiji, you are a heart patient and you should now take rest.’’ Though he was advised to proceed on leave, Gavai chose to assume ‘‘moral responsibility’’ and resign the following day, after overseeing Indira Gandhi’s funeral</b>.
Two years later, the Ranganath Misra Commission, while exonerating the Rajiv Gandhi Government — its home minister was P V Narasimha Rao, later to become premier himself — held Gavai should have ‘‘perhaps’’ assumed more than just moral blame and kept open ‘‘the extent of his responsibility’’.

But in the Nanavati report, the blame for administrative lapses has not gone beyond him, to the Union Home Ministry or even further up. ‘‘Gavai was the person responsible for the maintenance of law and order in Delhi,’’ the Nanavati report says baldly, ‘‘and, therefore, he cannot escape the responsibility for its failure.’’

But Gavai had another view. Though law and order of Delhi came directly under the jurisdiction of the Union Home Ministry, it was convenient for everybody, he alleged, to pin the blame on him. <b>He ascribed this to two reasons: one, he was not a Congress politician, and, two, he belonged to the Scheduled Castes. </b>

Gavai’s chief claim to innocence is that he had asked the then commissioner of Delhi Police, S C Tandon, to call in the Army right on the morning of November 1, when the violence had just begun. But for reasons beyond his control, the Army entered only two of the then six police districts of Delhi by the evening of November 1. It became effective in all districts as late as November 3. By then, hundreds of Sikhs had been slaughtered.

<b>‘‘The sequence of events clearly tells a tale. Political authorities purposely wasted time in keeping with their nefarious design to teach Sikhs a lesson,’’</b> Gavai told The Indian Express. ‘‘(P V Narasimha) Rao was calling me up to only ask me to protect his friends.’’

When Rajiv Gandhi rebuked him at their November 2 meeting for not having acted swiftly in calling in the Army, Gavai, by his own admission, kept quiet. He saw no point in defending himself: <b>‘‘Who was I to delay the Army? Those who could have sent the Army had purposely delayed it. When I raised this with the then Army chief, he said these things (deployment) take time. The concern that was shown was all a drama.’’ </b> <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Politics of forgetting and forgiving
Harish Khare

A society ought to move beyond the politics of memory. Justice Nanavati has given enough ammunition to those who want to keep the pot boiling. 

TILL THE Gujarat Riots of 2002 the anti-Sikh Riots of 1984 were the most horrible moment in the life of the Indian republic and constituted the total collapse of the state order. Till the Gujarat riots, they had also remained the cause celebre that defined and divided the political parties, forces, and actors. For two decades, political correctness insisted on pronouncing the Congress party and its leadership as being actively and collectively involved in fanning the violence against the Sikhs.

The anti-Congress forces, especially the BJP and the Akali Dal, have used the memory of the 1984 violence for sustaining the emotional support of their coalition in and outside Punjab. The Congress, on the other hand, had been keen to suggest that it could not be held responsible for the criminal acts of its errant members. The Congress would not permit any dilution of the emotional and political symbolism of Indira Gandhi's martyrdom, just because a few Congress leaders' behaviour was suspect.

More than pressing the demand that "justice" be meted out, it became a battle over the memory of the 1984 riots that dictated the political parties' stance and various governments' response. Therefore it was only natural that when the Vajpayee Government came to power it should have appointed a commission of inquiry, both as a sop to its ally, the Akali Dal, and as a stratagem that "its" very own Commission would finally provide the "smoking gun" to shoot the Congress down.

After 20 years a polity should be able to decide on the culpability of this or that individual or organisation. The Nanavati Commission was expected to pronounce definitely the guilt or innocence of "the Congress leaders." It has come as close as it could to giving a clean chit to the "Congress" as an organisation:

"It was suggested that Shri Rajiv Gandhi had told one of his officials that Sikhs should be taught a lesson. The Commission finds no substance in that allegation. The evidence in this behalf is very vague. ... There is absolutely no evidence suggesting that Shri Rajiv Gandhi or any other high ranking Congress (I) leader had suggested or organised attacks on Sikhs. Whatever acts were done, were done by the local Congress(I) leaders and workers, and they appear to have done so for personal reasons." (page 182)

Though for a liberal polity it is comforting to know that the country's chief executive did not act irresponsibly, it does not look like the Nanavati Commission report would end the politics of 1984. Apportioning of guilt and blame is the staple diet of the political class. It is interesting that since 1984 so many of the personalities concerned have changed their political affiliations. For instance, P.C. Alexander, who was a key functionary in the Indira Gandhi establishment and the Rajiv Gandhi regime, is now a member of the BJP. S.S. Ahluwalia, who was a Rajiv Gandhi ally in the post-Operation Bluestar "management" of the sullen Sikh clergy and was later a member of the "shouting brigade in the Rajya Sabha, is now a BJP whip. Ram Vilas Paswan, who had accused then Home Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao of indifference to the riots, is now part of the Congress coalition. I.K. Gujral, who also attested against Narasimha Rao, is closer to the Congress than to the BJP-Akali Dal combine. Yet the politics of memory would not permit them the luxury of forgetting and forgiving.

A society is entitled to put an end to the politics of memory over any organised violence. A whole generation has lived with the periodic reminders of the 1984 violence. Young reporters, for instance, who covered the violence in the city are today senior editors in their news organisations; for them, the 1984 violence seemed particularly abhorring because till then they, like all citizens, subscribed to the comforting assumption that the Indian state consisted of a well-oiled efficient police force, a competent and caring bureaucracy, and a wise and vigilant political leadership. All those assumptions came apart in those three days of anti-Sikh violence in Delhi. But, since then, the country has witnessed so many breakdowns that the 1984 violence no longer looks a simple case of black and white, guilt and innocence of one set of decision-makers.

Collectively, a society ought to learn the right lessons from a major happening like the 1984 violence, steel itself against future outbreaks in law and order, examine and reform institutional procedures that come in the way of timely and effective containment of mobs.

Above all, a society ought to move beyond the politics of memory. Justice Nanavati has failed civil society. Rather than firmly close the book, he has given enough ammunition to those who want to keep the pot boiling. For its part, the Congress has expiated its guilt by elevating a Sikh to the high office of Prime Minister of India.
<b>Parliament adjourned as NDA asks Manmohan to quit</b><!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->We have decided to disrupt proceedings in both Houses and vociferously demand the resignation of the Prime Minister for trying to brush under the carpet the findings of the Commission by approving the action taken report and that of Tytler for his indictment by the Commission," BJP parliamentary party spokesman Vijay Kumar Malhotra told PTI after the half-an-hour long meeting.

The meeting chaired by former Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee, was attended by senior leaders including NDA convenor George Fernandes, S S Dhindsa, B K Tripathy, Prabhunath Singh, Sushma Swaraj and Malhotra.

"The Congress has betrayed the nation twice. First, by its involvement in the 1984 riots and secondly, by seeking to cover up the findings of the Nanavati Commission," Malhotra said. <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
<b>Dateline Delhi 1984</b>

<b>Complicity, tampering evidence: Tytler’s dirt</b><!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->NEW DELHI, AUGUST 8:<b> Unoin Minister Jagdish Tytler has been indicted not only for his complicity in the 1984 riots but also for attempting to tamper with the evidence against him. </b>

The Nanavati Commission said that Tytler had made a crucial witness against him file a second affidavit resiling from the earlier one
<b>Cong buries the Sikh massacre again</b>
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->POLITICS OF COMMUNALISM
By: Ms Zenab Banu
Appendix IV, Page 175-193
<b>Historical Survey of some major communal riots.</b>
Year             Place           Immediate Cause
1713 AD       Ahmedabad          Opposition to solemnise the holi
                                 festival on the one side and the
                                 cow slaughter on the other side
                                 between the neighbors of the two
                                 opposite communities.
1719-20      Kashmir             Vendetta of a Muslim gentleman of
                                 position against the Hindus
1729         Delhi               The murder of a Mussalman by a
                                 Hindu for reason not known
Dec.1782     Sylhet, Assam       The Muslims (having 2/3 majority)
                                 demanded the Hindus the discontin-
                                 uance of their religious ceremonies
                                 during the Muharram. Hindus refused
                                 to comply with this and petitioned
                                 Jinday (Officer Incharge of the Distt)
                                 for redressal.
Sept.1786   Balpur & other       Muslim committed armed attack on the
            places in Berar      Hindus who were busy in their prayers.
1809        Banaras              The attempted construction of a
                                 building by Hindus on the Veutrog
                                 construction ground between the
                                 Mosque (built by Aurangzeb) and the
                                 present temple of Bisheshwas.
1840        Moradabad            (no cause was given)
1851        Bombay               Publication of some thing undesirable
                                 against prophet Mohammed by a Parsi
                                 in Gujrati paper.
1857        Moradabad, Bijnaur   (After mutiny, no cause given)
1871        Bareilly             Moharram and Ramnavami festivals
                                 fall on the same day.
1874        Bombay               A book in Gujrati published by a RH
                                 Jalbhoy "Great Prophets of the World"
1873-84     Mopala riots         Intense provocation given to the
            near Calicut         Mopalas by the action of Raman who
                                 married a Muslim woman and soon after
                                 marriage reverted to Hinduism.
Oct.1886   Etawah & Delhi        The simultaneous occurrence of two
                                 religious festivals, Ramlila of
                                 Hindus and Moharram of Muslims.

1887       Bareilly              Moharram and Ramnavami festivals.
1889       Delhi                 Conversion of a Hindu to Islam
1890       Aligarh               Obstruction of places of worship --
                                 A pot of flesh was thrown at night
                                 in a mosque then beef was hung into
                                 two Hindu wells.
May1891   Calcutta               Friction between the parties over the
                                 building of a mosque
1891      Polaked in Salur       Religious Hindu procession attacked
          district.              by Muslims.
July 1892 Prabhaspatan           Moharram festival
Aug1893   Bombay-2               Muslims gathered an impression that they
                                 needed special protection and that the
                                 European system of administration tended
                                 to increase the influence of the Hindus
                                 at their expense.
Sept1893 Kolaba dist.               --do--
1893     Ballia in UP            A reaction to the cow protection movement
1894     Madras                  Vidaya Dasnisday-Muslim pelted the idol
                                 and the processionists with cow dung.
Feb1894  Yeola in Nasik          Obstruction of Moharram (Tazia) by Hindus
July1895 Porbundar               Muslim procession passing through
                                 Hindu quarter.
1895     Dhulia                  Ganpati procession attacked by Muslims
1907     Morghat                 Partition of Bengal
1907     Memonsingh              The reasons were partly the growing
                                 irritation of the Muslims with the
                                 Swadeshi agitation and the boycott of
                                 European goods, engineered by the Hindus
1910    Peshawar                 Holi and Muslim festival Bara Wafat were
                                 on the same day.
1912    Ayodhya, Faizabad        Over the sacrifice of cows by the
                                 Muslims on the occasion of Bakri Id.
1913    Nellore                  Construction and demolition of a mosque
1913    Kanpur                   Muslim's resentment over the demolition
                                 of a lavatory attached to a mosque in
                                 connection with Municipal improvements.
1916    Patna                    On Bakri-Id Hindu mob tried to prevent
                                 Muslims for performance of sacrifice.
1918    Gaya & Shahabad          Hindus terrorised the Muslims and
                                 prevented them from performing the
1921    Malegaon                 Indian Council's Act of 1919
1921    Bangalore                Resentment of non-coperation movement
1922    Multan                       --do--
1923    Amritsar, Lahore,        All over India 15-20 severe riots took
        Saharanpur in UP         place due to Shudhi movement originated
                                 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
1924    Allahabad, Calcutta,     Id festival and growing influence of
        and many other cities    Shidhi movement
1925    Calcutta                  (no reason given)
1926    Calcutta                  Music before the mosque
1926    Delhi, Patna, Rawal-      Deep-rooted hatred and animosity
        pindi, Allahabad, Dacca   engineered the riots with a minor
Jan.1927    Paluakhali and       A quarrel between two persons of
            Poonabalia           of opposite communities.
Feb, 1927   Larkana, Lahore          ---do---
June 1927   Dinapur, Multan      Suspicion and deep rooted hatred
            Bettiah, Comila       engineered the riot.
Sept.1927   Nagpur               Muslim procession molesting a
                                 Hindu passerby
Sept.1927   Ahmedabad            Muslim prayer in Mosque and Hindu
                                 song in temple coming into conflict.
Sept.1927   Dehradoon            Ram Lila procession
Nov.1927    Delhi                The procession of a Muslim dead body
                                 who killed a Hindu Mahant
1928        Bangalore, Surat,    Bakri-Id
            Nasik, Hydrabad
1929        Bombay               Some labour dispute engineered riot
1930        Dacca                In reaction of civil disobedience movement
1931        Banaras                    ---do---
1932        Bombay                     ---do---
1932        Alwar                      ---do---
1933        Alwar                      ---do---
1933        Calcutta                   ---do---
1934        Bharanga                   ---do---
1935        Hazaribagh            Ram Navami and Moharram on the same day
1935        Firozabad             Burnt a house with 11 persons including
                                  3 children i continuance of above chain
1935        Champaran                  ---do---
1935        Shikandarabad             ---do---
1935        Lahore                out of some old vendetta
1935        Dudhial               Lahore reaction
1936        Poona-Khanapur          ---do---
1936        Jamalpur              Music before a mosque by Hindu wedding
1936        Byculla               Temple-Mosque dispute
1937        UP                    Cattle fair
1939        Asansole              Demolition of a holy book Ramayana
                                  by an opposite communty person
1939        Delhi                 Quarrel between two persons
1939        Gawanpore             An attack by Muslims on Hindu
                                  marriage party
1939        #of dists. in UP      Holi festival
             and Calcutta
1939        Gaya                  Music before a mosque
1939        Kanpur                Processionists attacked by opposite
                                  community persons.
1939        Meerut                Reaction to it.
1939        Sindh                   ---do---
1939        Sukkar                  ---do---
1941        Calcutta              Occasion of Moharram
1941        Ahmedabad             Muslims set fire to Maneckchowk bazaar,
                                  Predominance of Hindus
1946       Ahmedabad, Calcutta,   Muslim league gave a call for liberation
           Bombay, Noakhali,      week
           Patna, Dacca, et al
1948       Udaipur                Quarrelling between two groups
                                  belonging to two opposite communities
1949       Secundrabad, Hydrabad, Started round Tonga which was
           Saharanpur, Hambal     suspected to be carrying beef through
                                  a Hindu locality.
1949       Akola                  Slaughter of a cow in a Muslim household
1950       Calcutta, Delhi        Hindu militant group RSS tried to
           Pilibhit, ALigarh      frustrate Indian Muslims to leave
           Dhubri, Bombay, et al  India
1951       Mangrol                    ---do---
1952       Banaras                 Hindus tried to carry out repairs to a
                                   place of worship of theirs adjacent to
                                   a mosque sanctioned by the city
1953       Viramgaom               Holi festival
1953       Bhopal                  Stone throwing by some miscreants at a
                                   procession taken by the Hindu Mahasabha
                                   to protest against cow slaughter
1953       Gauhati                 Angry crowed tried to prevent a
                                   Muslim family from sacrificing cow
1953       Ahmedabad, Nasik,       Ganapati festival and Moharram
           Poona, Sangli...        coincide
1953       Ahmedabad                 ---do---
sept.1953   Poona                   Arson bid in Poona
1953      Sholapur                  Ganpati immersion day playing music
                                    before a mosque.
1953       Jamnagar                 A boy stabbing a cow near a hotel
1954       Ghaziabad                Slaughter of a stolen cow
1954       Aligarh                  Over the price of a melon between a
                                    hawker and a customer
1954       Nizamabad                Some persons hoisted the Pakistani flag
                                    on the statue of Mahatma Gandhi.
1954       Mathura                  Some persons broke the idol of Krishna
                                    which was installed for worship in a
                                    temple near Idghah mosque.
1954       Gulbarga, Mannila,       Pakistani flag was hoisted over a
           Fatehpur.                temple of Ganesh.

1956       Bhopal                   Holi festival - Muslims threw bones
                                    in the Holi fire and an idol in a
                                    temple was defiled.
1956      Sholapur                  Rival claims to a shrine made by the
                                    two communities.
1956      Many parts of UP          A publication of the Bhartiya Vidya
                                    Bhavan alleging insulting reference
                                    on prophet Mohammed.
1956      Jabalpur                  Forcibly closing down of shops in
                                    protest against damage to an idol
                                    of Ganapati.
1956      Khamgaon                  Attack on a Ganapati procession
                                    before a mosque by a crowd
1957      Hazaribagh                A clash between students in
                                    Moharram procession
1958     Belgaun                    A procession of Hindus with music
                                    before a mosque
1958     Dulhia                     Unauthorised cow slaughter
1958     Yeola                      Muslims objecting a procession
                                    of Ganpati Idol.
1958     Bagalkot                   A procession of RSS was stoned near
                                    Panka mosque
1959     Lucknow                    Sprinkling of clour on Muslim on
                                    Holi festival by a Hindu
1959    Bhopal                          ----do----

1959      Sitamashi            Spreading of a rumour that a cow
                               was slaughtered
1960      Hubli                Idol of Maruti disfigured by someone
1960      Firozabad            Ramlila procession
1960      Saharanpur           Ramlila procession
1961      Jabalpur, Sangore    Effort to molest a Hindu girl
          Narsinghpur, Damoh
1961      Palanpur             Discovery of animal bones in the palace
                               of worship
1961      Many cities in UP    Aligarh University hostel boy when
                               misbehaved with hostel girl
1961      Bhopal               Meeting of Jana Sangh Dist. Committee
1961      Vidisha, Bhopal      Hindu procession being disturbed by Muslims
1962      Sikundra             Slaughter of a cow
1962      Malda in WB          A week's agitation against the publication
                               of a picture of Mohammed
1962      Agra                 A quarrel between two persons belonging to
                               opposite communities
1962      Mandsaur             A dispute over a business transaction
1962      Bareilly             Throwing of stones on a procession of
                               Hindus passing through Muslim residential area
1962      Ratanagiri           Ganpati procession attacked by Muslims
1963      Junagarh             Criminal assault by two Muslim youths on
                               a Hindu girl
1963      Islampur             Muslim participants of Moharram procession
                               attacked by the police with lathi
1963      Akola                Ganpati idol was attacked by stones
1963      Nadia, Calcutta      Hair of Mohammed from Hazratbal mosque
                                were stolen
1963      Srinagar                  ---do---
1964      Bihar, Orissa         Train carrying refugees of East Pakistan
1965      Udaipur               Scuffle between the two neighbors of
                                opposite community
1966      Udaipur               Scuffle between the two wrestlers of
                                two communities
1967      Ranchi                Brick batting on the Urdu agitators'
1967      Srinagar              Religious conversion and marriage of a
                                girl of the Pandi community to a
                                Muslim youth
1968      Meerut                A conference organised by the Jamaat-e-
                                Islami in a college and a procession
                                crossed by Jan Sangh
1968      Karimganj             Scuffle between two boys of opposite
                                community on a cow of a Muslim
1968      Vizhinjam             Clash between Muslims and Christians
                                when Muslims embarked on aggressive
                                violent acts against catholics
1968      Allahabad             Holy reveller threw water color on a
                                Muslim who pulled out a pistol
1968      Auditanda             Ramnavmi procession
1968      Manglore              Muslims had assaulted a Hindu fisherman
1968      Aurangabad            A Muslim backery servant's attack on a
                                cow with a knife
1968      Nagpur                Scuffle between a Muslim barber and a
                                Neo Buddha
1968      Parbhani              A Hindu college student stabbed by one
                                Muslim Rikshaw puller
1968      Mabajogi              Scuffle among students
1968      Pupri                 Durga procession passed through a Muslim
                                inhabited area
1968      Gumdum                A Hindu procession
1968      Cuttack               Music in front of mosque
1968      Veeranal              News of a death of a Muslim in his house
1969      Kendrapa              Music near a mosque
1969      Calcutta              Muslim demonstration before the office
                                of the 'Statesman'
1969      Anjar                 A clash between two persons of opposite
1969      Hubli                 Muslims objected to throwing of colored
                                water on them on Holi
1969      Mau in UP             Beating of a Hindu boy by Muslim boys
1969      Anjar                 An armed mob of Muslims attacked Hindus
1969      Gujarat               Mutual suspician and animosity between
                                two communities
1969      Ahmedabad             Atack on Jaganath tmple by Muslims
1969      Other cities in Guj.  Repurcussions of above
1970      Chaibasa              Ram Navmi procession
1970      Bhiwandi and other    Beginning with a quarrel between two
          parts of Maharashtra  persons of opposite communities
1972      Tonk                  Bakri Id
1972      Banaras               Bakri Id
1973      Delhi                 Two groups of miscreants clashed at Bara
                                Hindu Rao area
1974      Jugeshwari            Anti-Muslim feeling injected by Shiv Sena
                                workers in the minds of general people
1974      Delhi                 Quarreling of two persons belonging to
                                two opposite communities.
1975      Jogeshwari            Militant action of Shiv Sena volunteers
1977      Chittorgarh           Id Festival
1977      Banaras               Durga procession
Congress leaders conspired in Bhagalpur riots: book:-
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Patna, July 13 : Congress leaders had vested interests in allowing the 1989 Bhagalpur communal riots to flare up, party veteran and former Bihar chief minister Satyendra Narayan Sinha has alleged in his new book.

"Meri Yaden, Meri Bhool" has been penned by Sinha, who headed the Bihar government at the time of the <span style='font-size:21pt;line-height:100%'>riots that killed around 1,000 people, mostly Muslims</span>.

Sinha, a leader of the upper caste Rajput community who turned 89 this week, blames three powerful Congress leaders, including two former chief ministers, for the spread of the riots.

He wonders how the Ram Shila Pujan Yatra was allowed to pass through a Muslim dominated locality in Bhagalpur district, triggering violence across the district.

Sinha states in his book how an Indian Administrative Officer (IAS), Ashok Kumar Singh, was sent by him to control the riots but was forced to keep away and pushed into relief work. He says some other officials deputed to control the riots were similarly diverted for other work.

His disclosures may create a new controversy over the Bhagalpur riots with assembly polls due in the state in October-November.

Sinha said: "The book is a chapter of my life, it reflects what Bihar was in the past and what it is today.

"I wrote the book honestly. Some people might feel offended but I have written it without any malice to anyone," he said at the function.

The book was released by Defence Minister Pranab Mukherjee at a function attended by former Madhya Pradesh chief minister Digvijay Singh, Minister of State for IT Shakeel Ahmad, Governor Buta Singh and a host of MPs and leaders cutting across party lines.

Sinha is the father of former Delhi Police Commissioner Nikhil Kumar, who is now a Congress MP from Aurangabad.


<b>Don't politicise Nanavati Commission report: Patil </b><!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->New Delhi, Aug. 9 (PTI): Asking leaders "not to politicise" the Nanavati Commission report on 1984 anti-Sikh riots, Home Minister Shivraj Patil, today promised action "wherever necessary and possible" on the basis of the panel's recommendations.

"I appeal to political parties not not to politicise the report. Action will be taken wherever necessary and possible," he said in his first public reaction to the Commission's report alongwith the Government's Action Taken Report (ATR) tabled in Parliament yesterday.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Why Congress is politicizing Gujarat riots for last 3 years? Where is CAG and other reputed organisation, not a single word from any NGO or HRO or Amnesty.
Get this <!--emo&:roll--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/ROTFL.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='ROTFL.gif' /><!--endemo--> <!--emo&:roll--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/ROTFL.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='ROTFL.gif' /><!--endemo-->
Harish Khare in the Hundi

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Above all, a society ought to move beyond the politics of memory. Justice Nanavati has failed civil society. Rather than firmly close the book, he has given enough ammunition to those who want to keep the pot boiling. <b>For its part, the Congress has expiated its guilt by elevating a Sikh to the high office of Prime Minister of India.</b>
Using same peverted logic shouldn't NDAs selection of President absolve them of any and all crimes or associated guilt? <!--emo&:unsure:--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/unsure.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='unsure.gif' /><!--endemo-->

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