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Itihasa-purana - II
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->The a~nkusha is the goad of the universe, the lasso is the abode of all fetters that binds beings as they rise to higher levels or descend. The trident he sports has for its three prongs persistance, origin and destruction. He bestows all that people desires with the varada mudra.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

Thanks for write up on tumburu. Sharada gives a slightly different dhyana with Khatvanga and Kapala instead of Trishula and Varada mudra.

Are there any temples with this tumburu murti/vigraha in India?

<b>The primal shrine of vighnadeva </b>
We pay obscience to the terrible medholka, who is surrounded by the eight extraordinarily beautiful goddesses clad in shimmering blue silks: tIvrA, chAlini, nandA, bhogadA, kAmarUpiNi, ugrA, tejovatI, satyA and is embraced by vighnanAshini who is seated beside him.

oM rAyaspoShasya dadhitA nidhido ratnadhAtumAn rakShohaNo valagahano vakratuNDAya huM //
medholkAya svAhA //
oM hrIM grIM hrIM //

Having worshipped the awful one-tusked son of rudra by the Punya river, the Kashi of the gANapatyas, we saw him in the embrace of the delightful madanAvatI. Then we proceeded to the foremost of his shrines in the grove of Mayurapuri which has grown decadent as a result of the downward turn of the age of kali, eating tasty bhakShaNas that delight the fiery one along the way. Having reached the shrine we entered through the gate guarded by lakShmI and nArAyaNa. Then we proceeded to see medholka accompanied by his two wives siddhi and saMR^iddhi, who are also known as madadravA and madanAvatI. Atop his head rests vAsukI, his eyes and navel are studded with gems and his trunk is turned left. Having worshiped ulka and his wives we proceeded to see the gates guarded respectively by umA and rudra, the delightful kAma and ratI, and varAha with mahI seated on his lap. Then we saw the 23 idols of vighna and pacified him eight times as :
ekadanta, mahodara, gajAnana, lambodara, vikaTa, vighnarAja, dhumravarNa and vakratuNDa, along with his two wives. Then we worshiped the great manthAna bhairava who stood at the wall and bhavasharvA. Then we moved to see the rat and the peacock of ulka and the vR^iShabha of mahAdeva.

On the place of Mayurapuri, the sUta had thus narrated a tale in the days of yore:
chakrapANi and ugrA had a son named sindhu. He was favored as result of his devotions by savitA who infused his navel with the soma of immortality. He was given the boon that as long as the soma remained in his navel he could not be harmed by the devas and was immune to their missiles. In due course armed with this boon he rose to be a lord amongst the asuras, restoring their lost glory which had been shorn by the devas. He overcame the devas in a deadly battle and imprisoned them in Gandaki. The devas knew that one deva who had escaped and could relieve them was the terrible heramba, who appeared to them riding a lion, bearing ten arms and promised to relieve them after taking birth through umA's womb.

Duely, in the sylvan groves of Lenya Parvata, ulka was born to umA and sharva and named gaNesha. vishvakarma provided the young gaNanAtha with an axe, a~nkusha, lasso and a trident when he was six and at seven, gotama performed his upanayanaM. The news of the deva's birth was relayed to sindhu by his spies who sent his agent krurAsura to slay the umAputra. However, after a short struggle gajAnana snared him with his lasso and dragging him down cut his head off. In subsequent skirmishes gaNapati slew other agents of sindhu such as balAsura, vyomAsura, kshemAsura and kushalAsura repulsed their troops with his arrows. One day as gaNanAtha was sporting in a sylvan grove he saw a large egg of vinAtA. With his usual curiousity he handled it and in the process broke. From it emerged a giant peacock that he brought under his control with his lasso and made it his vAhana.

Alarmed at his activities sindhu despatched his great commander kamalAsura with a huge army to quell gaNeshvara and bring his head. gaNeshvara mounted the mighty mayUra and from his two sides sprang forth his two wives, siddhi and saMR^iddhi fully armed with swords, cleavers bows and tridents. vighna himself, with ten arms was armed with a lasso, mace, trident, bow, a~nkusha, axe, cleaver, an explosive shatagni weapon, the bhindipAla, the bhushuNDI, the mudgara and a chakra. Thus, he advanced to attack the asura army. The asuras were assailed by a hail of weapons hurled by the terrible god and his shaktis. Having consumed the army he advanced at kamalAsura. After a prolonged fight he destroyed the bow of the demon and struck him all over with his missiles. The blood flowing out the demon spawned many new demons. But madadravA and madanAvatI, beloveds of the great deity, swooped on these demon and swallowed them. Then the wives of vighna drunk all the blood of kamalAsura and stopped the emergence of new demons. Seeing this ganesh hurled his trident at the neck of kamalAsura and the trident having severed his head carried it to the kShetra of Mayurapuri, where it fell.

Then gaNapati assembled the army of the gaNas of rudra. He himself formed the center and created a three assault divisions lead by vIrabhadra, nandin and his brother kumAra. umA and rudra also accompanied him as he proceeded to besiege Gandaki to release the devas. nandin was sent as an emissary to sindhu ask him to surrender humbly or face an attack. sindhu choose to fight and arrayed his army under divisions headed by kAla and vikAla, his wife's brothers and dharma and adharma, his valiant sons. On the first day vIrabhadra tore off the head of kAla with his cleaver after a prolonged fight with the asura commander. nandikeshvara and vikAla fought with much fury and was struck down by his mace. But recovering rapidly he slew him by shattering his skull with his trident. The next day dharma and adharma put up a fierce fight and forced the pramathas and the bhUtas into a rapid retreat. nandin and vIrabhadra were beaten back and the gaNa army was in disarray, when kumAra rallied it to face the asuras again. kumAra consumed then armies with his fiery dart and finally reached dharma. The two fought each other with charmed shaktis for long and finally the six-headed deity slew him by striking him on his chest with his shakti. Next with a blow from his thunderbolt skanda killed adharma and destroyed sindhu's army. The older demons suggested sindhu to surrender, but he refused and himself charged the next day on gaNapati on his flying car. gaNapati mounted on the mayUra countered his astras for a while. Finally finding his weakeness, he cut off of his bow and shattered his chariot. However, his arrows and those of kumAra failed against the invincible frame of sindhu. sindhu rushed at gaNapati with his cleaver upraised. But gaNapati suddenly dismounted his peacock and contracting in size, got under sindhu and shot an arrow at his navel. This broke the receptacle of the soma of immortality which preserved him and it flowed out. With that gone ulka chopped of the head of sindhu and ended his reign.

He then handed the peacock to his brother kumAra as his vAhana.

medholkAya svAha //
Not sure if this belongs here. Please move to appropriate thread if required.

vaidyanAtha dIxitIyaM, the dharma shAstra work is now available for download in Sanskrit.


Another interesting link,


In Brahma loka Ramayana has 100 crores of slokas and Chathurmukha Brahma wanted to introduce it to Bhooloka. He searched for a good narrator and He found Narada,a thriloka sanchari (one who roams all 3 worlds) an eligible candidate. It was Naradha who suggested Valmiki who was capable of composing Ramayana.

In flash back Valmiki Maharishi was a hunter and was called Ruksha his (original) name. Other than hunting He also used to rob people for his livelihood. Narada wanted Valmiki to become eligible to write sriramayana. So He did upadesa to Ruksha the "THARAKA MANTHRA" i.e. Rama nama. It is a great manthra which can elevate a person to higher level. After chanting the Tharaka manthra the hunter Ruksha became a great sage. FROM THIS WE HAVE TO REALIZE THE GRACE OF AN ACHARYA whose krupa can transform the lives of disciples amazingly. First of all an Acharya through their kataksha will removes the sins and obstacles of their disciple and makes them eligible for upadesa (initiation) by which one can attain keerthi and even mukthi. Narada means one who removes ignorance and gives the knowledge.In SriRamayanam Naradha acts as an Acharya who converts an ignorant hunter and robber into a great sage and AdiKavi ( first and foremorth poet of this world).

The first two sargas of Ramayana tells us about the birth of Ramayana into this world. After becoming a maharshi, Valmiki wanted to know about Purna Purusha (a complete man),a man having all good qualities. To clear His mind of any doubts, Naradha immediately comes to the rescue of Valmiki and enlightens Him about the the man with all the good qualities Valmiki is seeking for. The first
sarga of Ramayana starts with the arrival of Narada to Valmiki's asramam. Then Valmiki enquired Narada about a person who is shodasa kalaparipurna on this earth.

[[Those sixteen qualities He is looking for are
1.principled one (Gunavan)
2.potential one (Veeryavan)
3.conscious one (Dharmajnaha)
4.redeemer (Kruthajnaha)
5.truth-teller (Satyavakyaha)
6.self-determined (Dhrudhavrataha)
7.one having good conduct (Charithravan)
8.one who is the well-wisher of all the beings(Sarvabhutha hithaha)
9.scholor of all scriptures(vidwan)
11.one who is always lovable and good to look(sadaika priyadarsanaha)
12.courageous-one (Atmavan)
13.one who controlled his anger (jithakrodhaha)
14.brilliant-one (dyuthiman)
15.one who is not having jealousy (Anasuyakaha)
16.For whom even devathas also will afraid to stand before him in war, when he was grew angry
(kasya bibhyati devascha jatha roshasya samyuge).]]

Narada replied "SRIRAMA" the son of Dasaratha is having all these sixteen qualities on this earth. Then he told the whole story of Srirama in brief starting from his birth to returning to Ayodhya after killing Ravana. When Narada told the story to Valmiki , Rama was ruling His kingdom effeciently.

[[We know the moon in the sky will have 16phases and he will be purna on purnima day only. Our lord Srirama was always having 16qualities (compared with 16 phases) and praised as Sriramachandra by devotees. ]]

Narada said that Srirama will rule his kingdom for 11,000 more years and will return to his abode. After giving all these information to Valmiki Narada went away.First sarga ends with the phalasruthi of Sriramayana revealed by Narada. Because Narada said the whole Ramayana in brief (sankshepa) the first sarga is called as SANKSHEPA RAMAYANA. When we read Sankshepa Ramayana it is equivalent to reading the Whole Ramayana and and by chanting this, one will get rid of all sorts of sins.

The Second sarga says how sage Valmiki got inspiration to write the story of Sriama. Valmiki went to a river called Thamasa to perform afternoon sandhyavanadanam. There happened an incident which
inspires Valmiki to compose the first poetry (slokam).

Let us all try to remember all the qualities of SriRama and try to cultivate and practice atleast a few of them daily.

Jai Srimannarayana
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Ancient Hindus could navigate the air
By Shachi Rairikar

"The ancient Hindus could navigate the air, and not only navigate it, but fight battles in it like so many war-eagles combating for the domination of the clouds. To be so perfect in aeronautics, they must have known all the arts and sciences related to the science, including the strata and currents of the atmosphere, the relative temperature, humidity, density and specific gravity of the various gases..." —Col. Olcott in a lecture in Allahabad, in 1881.

The Rig Veda, the oldest document of the human race, includes references to the following modes of transportation: jalayan—a vehicle designed to operate in air and water (Rig Veda 6.58.3); kaara—a vehicle that operates on ground and in water (Rig Veda 9.14.1); tritala—a vehicle consisting of three storeys (Rig Veda 3.14.1); trichakra ratha—a three-wheeled vehicle designed to operate in air (Rig Veda 4.36.1); vaayu ratha—a gas or wind-powered chariot (Rig Veda 5.41.6); vidyut ratha—a vehicle that operates on power (Rig Veda 3.14.1).

Ancient Sanskrit literature is full of descriptions of flying machines—vimanas. From the many documents found, it is evident that the scientist-sages Agastya and Bharadwaja had developed the lore of aircraft construction.

The Agastya Samhita gives Agastya's descriptions on two types of aeroplanes. The first is a chchatra (umbrella or balloon) to be filled with hydrogen. The process of extracting hydrogen from water is described in elaborate detail and the use of electricity in achieving this is clearly stated. This was considered to be a primitive type of plane, useful only for escaping from a fort when the enemy had set fire to the jungle all around. Hence the name agniyana. The second type of aircraft mentioned is somewhat on the lines of the parachute. It could be opened and shut by operating chords. This aircraft has been described as vimanadvigunam, i.e. of a lower order than the regular aeroplane.

The process of extracting hydrogen from water is described in elaborate detail and the use of electricity in achieving this is clearly stated.

Aeronautics or Vaimaanika Shastra is a part of Yantra Sarvasva of Bharadwaja. This is also known as Brihadvimaana Shastra. Vaimaanika Shastra deals with aeronautics, including the design of aircraft, the way they can be used for transportation and other applications, in detail. The knowledge of aeronautics is described in Sanskrit in 100 sections, eight chapters, 500 principles and 3,000 shlokas. Great sage Bharadwaja explained the construction of aircraft and the way to fly it in air, on land, on water and use the same aircraft like a submarine. He also described the construction of war-planes and fighter aircraft.

Vaimaanika Shastra explains the metals and alloys and other required material, which can make an aircraft imperishable in any condition. Planes which will not break (abhedya), or catch fire (adaahya) and which cannot be cut (achchedya) have been described. Along with the treatise, there are diagrams on three types of aeroplanes—Sundara, Shukana and Rukma.

The aircraft is classified into three types—Mantrika, Tantrika and Kritaka, to suit different yugas or eras. In krita yuga, it is said, Dharma was well established. The people of that time had the divinity to reach any place using their ashtasiddhis. The aircraft used in treta yuga are called Mantrika vimana, flown by the power of hymns (mantras). Twenty-five varieties of aircraft including Pushpaka vimana belong to this era. The aircraft used in dwapara yuga were called Tantrika vimana, flown by the power of tantras. Fifty-six varieties of aircraft including Bhairava and Nandaka belong to this era. The aircraft used in kali yuga, the on-going yuga, are called Kritaka vimana, flown by the power of engines. Twenty-five varieties of aircraft including Sundara, Shukana and Rukma belong to this era.

Bharadwaja states that there are 32 secrets of the science of aeronautics. Of these, some are astonishing and some indicate an advance even beyond our own times. For instance, the secret of para shabda graaha, i.e. a cabin for listening to the conversation in another plane, has been explained by elaborately describing an electrically worked sound-receiver that did the trick. Manufacture of different types of instruments and putting them together to form an aircraft are also described.

It appears that aerial warfare was also not unknown, for the treatise gives the techniques of shatru vimana kampana kriya, and shatru vimana nashana kriya, i.e. shaking and destroying enemy aircraft, as well as photographing enemy planes, rendering their occupants unconscious and making one's own plane invisible.

In Vastraadhikarana, the chapter describing the dress and other material required while flying, talks in detail about the clotheswear for both the pilot and the passenger separately.

Ahaaraadhikarana is yet another section exclusively dealing with the food habits of a pilot. This has a variety of guidelines for pilots to maintain their health through strict diet.

Bharadwaja also provides a bibliography. He had consulted six treatises by six different authors previous to him and he gives their names and the names of their works in the following order: Vimana Chandrika by Narayanamuni; Vyoma Yana Mantrah by Shaunaka; Yantra Kalpa by Garga; Yana Bindu by Vachaspati; Kheta Yaana Pradeepika by Chaakraayani; Vyoma Yaanarka Prakasha by Dundi Natha.

As before Bharadwaja, after him too there have been Sanskrit writers on aeronautics and there were four commentaries on his work. The names of the commentators are Bodh Deva, Lalla, Narayana Shankha and Vishwambhara.

Vaimaanika Shastra explains the metals and alloys and other required material, which can make an aircraft imperishable in any condition.

Evidence of existence of aircraft are also found in the Arthashastra of Kautilya (c. 3rd century b.c.). Kautilya mentions amongst various tradesmen and technocrats the saubhikas as `pilots conducting vehicles in the sky'. Saubha was the name of the aerial flying city of King Harishchandra and the form saubika means `one who flies or knows the art of flying an aerial city'. Kautilya uses another significant word, akasa yodhinah, which has been translated as `persons who are trained to fight from the sky'. The existence of aerial chariots, in whatever form it might be, was so well-known that it found a place among the royal edicts of Emperor Asoka and which were executed during his reign from 256-237 b.c.

It is interesting to note that the Academy of Sanskrit Research in Melkote, near Mandya, had been commissioned by the Aeronautical Research Development Board, New Delhi, to take up a one-year study on `Non-conventional Approach to Aeronautics', on the basis of Vaimaanika Shastra. As a result of the research, a glass-like material which cannot be detected by radar has been developed by Prof. Dongre, a research scholar of Benaras Hindu University. A plane coated with this unique material cannot be detected using radar.

But perhaps the most interesting thing about the Indian science of aeronautics and Bharadwaja's research in the field was that they were successfully tested in actual practice by an Indian over a 100 years ago. In 1895, full eight years before the Wright Brothers' first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, USA, Shivkar Bapuji Talpade and his wife gave a thrilling demonstration flight on Chowpatty beach in Mumbai.

An even more astonishing feature of Talpade's aircraft was the power source he used—an ion engine. The theory of the ion engine has been credited to Robert Goddard, long recognised as the father of liquid-fuel rocketry. It is claimed that in 1906, long before Goddard launched his first modern rocket, his imagination had conceived the concept of an ion rocket. But the fact is that not only had the idea of an ion engine been conceived long before Dr Goddard, it had also been materialised in the form of Talpade's aircraft.

Talpade, a resident of Mumbai, was an erudite scholar of Sanskrit literature, especially of the Vedas, an inventor and a teacher in the School of Arts. His deep study of the Vedas led him to construct an aeroplane in conformity with the descriptions of the aircraft available in the Vedas and he displayed it in an exhibition arranged by the Bombay Art Society in the Town Hall. Its proving the star attraction of the exhibition encouraged its maker to delve deeper into the matter and see if the plane could be flown with the aid of mercurial pressure.

For, the one hundred-and-ninetieth richa (verse) of the Rig Veda and the aeronautical treatise of Bharadwaja mention that flying machines came into full operation when the power of the sun's rays, mercury and another chemicals called naksha rasas were blended together. This energy was, it seems, stored in something like an accumulator or storage batteries. The Vedas refer to eight different engines in the plane and Bharadwaja adds that they are worked by electricity.

Talpade carried on his research along these lines and constructed an aeroplane. In his experiments he was aided by his wife, also a deep scholar of the Vedic lore, and an architect-friend. The plane combined the constructional characteristics of both Pushpaka and Marut Sakha, the sixth and eighth types of aircraft described by Bharadwaja. It was named Marut Sakha meaning "friend of the wind".

With this plane, this pioneer airman of modern India gave a demonstration flight on the Chowpatty beach in Mumbai in the year 1895. The machine attained a height of about 1,500 feet and then automatically landed safely. The flight was witnessed, among many others, by Shri Sayajirao Gaekwad, the Maharaja of Baroda and Justice Govind Ranade and was reported in the Kesari, a leading Marathi daily newspaper. They were impressed by the feat and rewarded the talented inventor.

Unfortunately, Talpade lost interest in things after his wife's death, and after his own death in 1917 at the age of 53, his relatives sold the machine to the Rally Brothers, a leading British exporting firm then operating in Mumbai. Thus, the first ever attempt at flying in modern India, undertaken and made successful by an Indian, in a plane of Indian manufacture and built to Indian scientific specifications, slid into the limbo of oblivion.

(The writer can be contacted at shachi_rairikar@h...)<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Relevance Of Ramayana To Modern Life

The whole universe is under the control of God. God is governed by Truth. Noble souls are the guardians of Truth. Such noble souls are verily the embodiments of Divinity. (Sanskrit Sloka)

Embodiments of Love!

All are essentially the embodiments of Divinity. Eswara Sarva Bhoothanam (God dwells in all beings). Isavasyam Idam Jagat (God permeates the entire universe). Where is the need to search for such an all-pervasive Divinity?

Sarvata Pani Padam Tath Sarvathokshi Shiromukham,
Sarvata Sruthimalloke Sarvamavruthya Thisthati.
(Sanskrit Sloka)

How can you search for Him who is moving about with thousands of feet, thousands of eyes and thousands of ears? So, it is utterly foolish to search for God. God is within you. As you have forgotten your true Self and are carried away by the temporary and transient physical body, you are unable to understand the Divine. When you get rid of body attachment and develop attachment towards the Self, only then you can understand the divine Atmic Principle.

Values Contained in Rama's Story

Embodiments of Love! Life is like a game of chess; not merely that, it is like a battlefield. The story of Rama teaches us the threefold Dharma (code of conduct) pertaining to the individual, the family and the society. You have to make every effort to understand the duties of the individual, the family and the society. Rama is the ocean of compassion. He is love personified. It is possible to understand His divinity only through the path of love. Love is the undercurrent of human life. Man will be able to manifest his innate divinity only when he develops love within.

The modern society needs to follow the Dharma that is contained in the epic Ramayana. What is the reason? Today, the son is not paying heed to his father's advice and the parents are not concerned about the future of the son. Devotion to the Guru should be the aim of the students. But, the students are not having regard for their teachers and the teachers are not imparting anything good to them. In such a situation, everyone needs to follow the ideals of the Ramayana. The Ramayana speaks of the true identity of the individual, the real significance of the family and the sanctity of the society. The Ramayana teaches the importance of human values. Today corruption is rampant in all fields such as business, education and politics. Under these circumstances, the principles of the Ramayana are very important. It explains in detail the relationship that should exist between brothers, the father and the son, the preceptor and the disciple.

All of us live on the same earth. The same sky is above all of us. We breathe the same air and drink the same water. Ignoring this underlying principle of unity man visualizes multiplicity, which is a big mistake. The Ramayana centers on the principle of unity in diversity. Today as man has lost the ability to see unity in diversity, he is immersed in restlessness. What we need today is to see unity in diversity and the divinity behind this unity.

The culture of Bharat says: Sathyam Bruyath, Priyam Bruyath, Na Bruyath Sathyamapriyam (speak the truth, speak sweetly and softly and never utter truth in an unpalatable way). Sathyam Bruyath is the moral value. Priyam Bruyath is the social value. Na Bruyath Sathyamapriyam is the spiritual value. So, the moral, social, and spiritual values are all contained in the above statement. The Ramayana teaches these values in the simplest way. But, man has forgotten the message of the Ramayana and is leading the life of a Ravana. Ravana did not understand this principle of divinity. There was no transformation in him though he had acquired all forms of knowledge and had done severe penance. He ruined himself on account of excessive desires. Before his death, he gave a message to the people:

"O people with all my skills and expertise in different forms of knowledge I became a victim of desires. I lost my sons, ruined my clan and burnt my king dom to ashes, as I could not control my desires. Do not become a victim of desires like me. Follow the path of truth and righteousness and be like Rama. Experience divinity"

Put Ramayana's Teaching into Practice

The relationship that existed between the brothers of Rama is an ideal to the rest of the humanity. They lived in unity in spite of troubles and turmoil. Mother Kaikeyi wanted her son Bharata to ascend the throne of Ayodhya, but Bharata never had any such desire. He went to Chitrakoota Mountain, fell at the feet of Rama and prayed, He, being the eldest, should take over the kingdom of Ayodhya. But, Rama did not yield to his request. Quoting the Vedic dictum Mathru Devo Bhava, Pithru Devo Bhava. He exhorted Bharata to obey the command of the father and fulfill the desire of his mother by becoming the king of Ayodhya. Rama promised him that He would render all help and support. That is why even today people extol Rama as Sathyavakparipalaka (one who adheres to truthful speech).

Today many people read the holy Ramayana, but few understand its essence. They spend their time in acquiring bookish knowledge and superficial knowledge, but fail to have practical knowledge. There are many people who can explain the teachings of Ramayana in a beautiful way, but how many of them obey the command of their fathers in their daily life? Not many! What is the use of reading various texts, if we do not put into practice the message contained in them? Can anyone enjoy the taste of various delicious items such as Mysore Pak, Gulab Jamoon, Jilebi, etc., by merely repeating their names? No. One can enjoy the taste only when one eats them. Mere textual information is of no use. But, man today is interested only in information, and not transformation. Intellect will blossom only when there is transformation.

If your ambitions are not fulfilled, do not waver or get depressed. He is a realized one who is cheerful in the face of all adversities.

One has to face many obstacles in one's life, but one should never get depressed. Life is a challenge, meet it. Life is a dream, realize it. Life is a game, play it. Life is love, enjoy it. Be cheerful and courageous in the face of adversities; never give scope to any weakness whatsoever. The Vedanta declared: Na Ayamatma Balaheenena Labhya (a weak-minded person cannot realize the Atma). A weak-minded person cannot accomplish anything. So, you should be strong-minded. Develop faith in that which is good.

As there is no fear of sin and love for God, humanness is on the decline in human beings. This is the cause for lack of peace in the world.

Therefore, man should cultivate Daiva Preeti, Papa Bheeti and Sangha Neeti (love for God, fear of sin and morality in society). Though Rama and Ravana were equally well versed in all forms of knowledge, sage Valmiki extolled Rama as Divine and condemned Ravana as a foolish one. What is the reason? Ravana did not translate into action the knowledge he had acquired and on the contrary he used it for wicked purposes. On the other hand, Rama translated all his knowledge into action and gave joy to one and all. Sarvaloka Hithe Ratah (Rama was engaged in the welfare of all). Sarvajnanopasampannah (He was the master of all forms of knowledge). Sarvasamudhita Gunaihi (He was the embodiment of all good qualities). These are the three aspects that manifested Rama's divinity. Whoever has these three aspects is essentially divine. In fact, everyone is divine. But because of attachment to the body, man is not able to understand his divine nature. Man can experience and enjoy divinity only by treading along the path of love. Love is God; God is love. So, live in love.

Start the day with love
Spend the day with love
Fill the day with love
End the day with love
This is the way to God.

The Best Sadhana: Love Everybody

The cause for man's suffering is that he has constricted his love to himself and his family. He should develop the broad feeling that all are his brothers and sisters. Expansion of love is life; contraction of love is death. All are the children of God. All are sparks of the Divine. Lord Krishna declared in the Bhagavad Gita: Mamaivamso Jeevaloke Jeevabhutha Sanathana (the eternal Atma in all bodies is a part of My Being). So, man should have the broad feeling to identify himself with everybody. Humanity can never progress without broad feelings.

See no evil, see what is good
Hear no evil, hear what is good
Talk no evil, talk what is good
Think no evil, think what is good
Do no evil, do what is good
This is the way to God.

When there is such an easy path to divinity, why do you trouble yourself by undertaking rigorous spiritual practices such as Japa, Thapa and Yoga? Divinity cannot be attained by all these austerities. How easy it is to love everybody!

Love all and think of divinity. Moses used to think of Jesus all the time. As a result, his face shone with divine effulgence. He resembled Jesus so much that people used to mistake him for Jesus. Ratnakara, a robber, on being advised by Narada started chanting the name of Rama incessantly, as a result of which the radiance of Rama was seen on his countenance and he became sage Valmiki. Rama is Lokadatha (the giver of the world) and Valmiki became Slokadatha (composer of the holy hymns). There is no difference between the giver and the composer. The Vedas declare: Brahmavid Brahmaiva Bhavathi (the knower of Brahman becomes Brahman himself). So, you should always think good, do good, talk good and hear good. Only then you can become good. A true human being is one who is good. A wicked person can never be called a human being.

There are four qualities in man - the divine, demonic, animal and human. What is the divine quality in man? Sarvaloka Hithe Ratah. (engaged in the welfare of everybody). That is the divine nature. What is the human quality? Always undertake meritorious deeds (Punya). Never indulge in sin (Papa). Paropakara Punyaaya Paapaaya Parapeedanam (rendering help to others is merit, harming others is sin). Help ever, Hurt never. What constitutes the animal quality in man? Jnanena Sunya Pasubhir Samana (devoid of wisdom man is equivalent to an animal). The purpose of human life does not lie in merely eating, drinking, sleeping and indulging in materialistic comforts. Even animals indulge in such activities. But unlike man animals do not possess the evil qualities of amassing, robbing and stealing. Today man is human only in form, but not in behavior.

Less Luggage, more Comfort

Janthoonam Narajanma Durlabham (human life is the most difficult to attain of all living beings). The good that you experience in this life is the result of meritorious deeds done in several past lives. This human life is not new. This message is contained in the word Manava. Ma means 'not' Nava means 'new', which means human life is not new.

Today man has degenerated to the level of an animal due to excessive desires. Less luggage more comfort makes travel a pleasure. But, the desires (luggage) in man are multiplying day by day. Human life is a long journey. One should lead a divine life (Divya Jeevanam), not a mean life (Deena Jeevanam). Always be happy. Difficulties do come in life. That is the law of nature. Never get disheartened by them. Difficulties are like passing clouds. Difficulties come and go, but morality comes and grows. Unfortunately, there is decline in moral values in the society today.

Rama stood as a shining example of upholding the moral values in the society. Even when he was asked to leave for the forest at a time when he was supposed to be coroneted, he was not perturbed in the least. Sukhadukhe Samekruthva Labhalabhau Jayajayau (he is an equal minded one who treats the dualities of life pain and pleasure, victory and defeat, gain and loss - alike). Rama displayed this virtue of equanimity. Today, man aspires for positions of authority though he does not deserve them. But, Rama relinquished the position even though He deserved it. Rama was courageous in the face of adversities. He never gave any scope for weakness. He led the life of a Dheera (courageous one), not a Deena (weak-minded). Same is the case of one who is in His company. Hanuman, by contemplating on Rama incessantly, became a Dheera. He displayed this quality of courageousness in the court of Ravana. But the same Hanuman stood like a Deena (humble one) in Rama's presence. This drives home the point that one should be a Deena (humble one) in front of divinity and Dheera (courageous one) in the face of evil.

Annihilate the evil qualities of Kama (desire), Krodha (anger) and Lobha (greed). Ravana ruined not only himself, but also his dynasty because of Kama. Therefore, to the extent possible control your desires. Today Government has imposed ceiling on land and property through legislation, but what is essential is ceiling on desires. Not only did Hiranyakasipu refrain from chanting the name of Lord Hari, he also insisted that his son Prahlada should follow suit. He developed hatred towards his own son for singing the praise of Lord Had against his wishes. This evil quality of anger led to his doom. Duryodhana was greed personified. He was not prepared to part with even a small piece of land. He subjected the Pandavas to enormous hardships. What happened to him ultimately? He became a victim of his own greed.

Desire, anger and greed are the greatest impediments in the path of spirituality. Render help to others, if possible. Never hate anybody under any circumstances. The essence of 18 Puranas is contained in these two maxims: Help ever, Hurt never.

Spirituality Promotes Spirit of Unity

The story of the Ramayana reveals the ideal relationship that should exist between brothers. Lakshmana and Satrughna served Rama and Bharata respectively with utmost devotion and sincerity. When Lakshmana fainted in the battlefield, Rama lamented, "In this world I might find another mother like Kausalya, a wife like Sita, but definitely not a brother like Lakshmana." A brother should be like this - one who respects elders and brings name and fame to the whole family. It is the unity amongst the brothers that brought reputation to the whole family.

The same was the case with the Pandavas also. The five Pandavas could defeat hundred Kauravas as they stood united. Even though Vali and Sugriva were just two, they fell apart because of lack of unity. Rama restored the kingdom to Sugriva as he completely surrendered to Him. Similar was the case with Ravana, Vibhishana and Kumbhakarna. Any big task can be accomplished if the five fingers are united. Otherwise even a small task becomes extremely difficult. So, everyone should strive for unity.

Spirituality destroys narrow mindedness and confers unity, cooperation and universal peace.

Unity is very essential. Through unity you can understand spirituality. Do not hate anybody. Do not develop ill feelings towards others. Then you can become a true human being. Spiritual practices are just a waste of time if you cannot overcome your selfishness. Do not engage in spiritual activities aspiring for your own liberation as it would amount to selfishness. Work for the redemption of one and all. Let everybody attain divinity and experience divine bliss. You should have such broad feelings. Your welfare lies in the welfare of the society.

Embodiments of Love!

You do not need to undertake any spiritual practices. Experience the innate divinity in everyone by following the path of love. Love is God. Spend your life in selfless service. This is the teaching of Rama.

Lakshmana's Sterling Character

In order to demonstrate to the world the ideal character of Lakshmana, Rama subjected him to a test. When Sita, Rama and Lakshmana were residing on Chitrakoota Mountain, one day Lakshmana went into the forest to fetch some food. Taking this opportunity, Rama decided to test Lakshmana. He requested Sita to play her role in this divine drama. As Lakshmana was returning with food, Sita pretended to be asleep under a tree, keeping her head on the lap of Rama. Rama asked Lakshmana to keep Sita's head on his lap without disturbing her sleep as He had some other important work to attend to.

Rama wanted to observe the feelings of Lakshmana. So, He assumed the form of a parrot and perched on the same tree. Considering Sita as his mother, Lakshmana closed his eyes and went into deep contemplation of Lord Rama. Rama in the form of a parrot started singing:

"It is easy to wakeup someone who is fast asleep, but is it possible for anyone to wakeup a person who is pretending to be asleep?" Sita pretended to be fast asleep and even started snoring! In all respects Sita and Rama was a perfect match for each other. After some time, Rama returned as if from somewhere and 'woke up' Sita. Sita opened her eyes as if from deep sleep and expressed her satisfaction to Rama that she had a sound and undisturbed slept. The Leelas (pranks) of God are mysterious, wonderful and sacred. God tests a devotee in order to shower His grace on him and protect him. Lakshmana fell at Rama's feet and said, "I am your servant. It is my duty to serve you in the way you want me to."

When Sita was being taken away forcibly by Ravana, she bundled all her jewels and dropped them from above. The Vanaras found the jewels and took them to Sugriva. When Rama and Lakshmana met Sugriva, he showed them the jewels and asked if they belonged to Sita. As Rama did not know, He asked Lakshmana to see. Lakshmana replied, "Brother, I don't know whom these earrings and bracelets belong to. But Iam sure that these anklets belong to Mother Sita." On being questioned as to how he could recognize Sita's anklets, Lakshmana said, "It was my practice to prostrate at her lotus feet every morning. While doing so I had noticed Mother Sita's anklets." Rama was pleased with Lakshmana's sincerity and devotion and showered praises on him and said, "He could not find a brother like Lakshmana any where in the world." Later Rama said that it was because of Lakshmana's strength and support that He could defeat Ravana and bring Sita back to Ayodhya.

The Ramayana demonstrates that anything can be achieved through sincerity and devotion. The story of the Ramayana is so enchanting and captivating that one feels like listening to it again and again. Bharatiyas have been singing the story of Rama since ancient times. Everyone should try to understand the essence of the Ramayana. The Ramayana teaches that one should have a good character, one should obey the command of the father and respect the parents, and there should be unity among brothers. If you follow these teachings in letter and spirit, your life itself will become a living Ramayana.

Heart is the Real Temple

Students should understand that God is their best friend. All the worldly friends are lured by your position, power and pelf. Once your position and power are gone, gone are your friends too. God is the only friend in the real sense of the term. The whole world is a book and your conscience is your real Guru. Why trouble yourself going after various worldly Gurus? Follow your conscience and experience divinity. The Principle of the Atma, which reveals the secrets of your mind, is your true Guru. Guru is one who is formless and beyond all attributes.

Gurur-Brahma Gurur- Vishnu
Gurur - Devo Maheswara,
Guru Sakshath Param Brahma
Thasmai Sri Gurave Namah.

Consider God as your mother, father, friend and everything. Take God as your Guru, follow Him and merge in Him. If you have God as your Guru, you can achieve everything in life. Develop love for God and be recipients of His love and grace. Develop friendship with God and the whole world will be under your control. Troubles and turmoil are part and parcel of one's life. Overcome them by chanting the divine name. Be fearless.

Do not restrict God to temples and pilgrimage centers. He is Hridayavasi (indweller of the heart). He is in you, with you, above, you, around you. You do not need to visit various pilgrimage centers. Your heart is the real pilgrimage center. Mira also echoed the same feelings. When her husband asked her to leave the temple premises, she said to Krishna, "None can separate you from me.My heart is your temple." In the Gita Lord Krishna declared: Kshetrajnam Chapi Maam Viddhi (recognise Me as the indweller of all beings). The body is the field and the Atmic Principle is the indweller of all fields. So, the Kshetra (field) and the Kshetrajna (knower of the field) are within you. Bliss is not present in a foreign land; it is present within you. In order to experience bliss, develop love in your heart.

You should pray to God to grant you that which He possesses and you do not. What is that you lack? Peace and bliss. Ask and it shall be granted. Do not ask God for the fulfillment of mean desires. All the worldly things are fleeting and momentary. Only God is immutable, pure, eternal and immortal. So, spend your time in singing the glory of God. By sincere prayer, you can discover your latent divinity.

At the time of his departure to the forest along with Rama and Sita, Sumitra counseled Lakshmana thus:

"Never be under the impression that you are going to the forest. Wherever Rama and Sita are present, that itself is Ayodhya. This Ayodhya without Sita and Rama is a veritable forest. Consider Sita and Rama as your mother and father and serve them to the best of your ability with all love, sincerity, faith and devotion." You cannot find a woman greater than Sumitra in this world. She blessed her son to serve God wholeheartedly. The term Sumitra mean good friend (Su - good, Mitra - friend). Such noble mothers like Sumitra and sons like Lakshmana with total devotion to God are needed today.

Unity is the need of the hour today. It is unity that protects the world. The prosperity and welfare of the society depends upon the individual. Our thoughts are our greatest asset. If the thoughts are sacred, you will have sacred results. Pleasure and pain are the consequences of your thoughts. So, sanctify your thoughts. When thoughts are good and powerful, you can achieve any thing.
<b><span style='color:red'>The Buddhist Kalki</span></b>

The bauddhas have internalized the last incarnation of viShNu, the all-destroying kalki or pramati who is said to annihilate the mlecchas and dasyus and restore the world to the Aryas. The kAlachakra tantra of the unclean upachinAchAra stream gives a highly remarkable account of the end of the yuga. Its parallels to the mainstream Hindu version are unmistakable and appears to have been clearly derived from it [It is even possible that there was a now lost Hindu version which might have been a closer precursor of the version in the kAlachakra tantra]. But the inspiration of the dreaded Islamic violence is very clearly seen and perceived by its author and incorporated in typical prophetic style seen in the purANas (verse 1.150 onwards of the kalAchakra tantra). The nature of Islam was clearly understood by these bauddha authors.

The 25th king of shambhala, will be raudra kalkI or raudra chakrin, wielder of the terrible disk. This raudra kalkI is kR^ishNa himself.

Aadam, Enakh, Ibrahim and five others endowed with dark tamas in the family of asura-nAgas, namely Musa, Isa, the White–Clad One, Muhammad, and Mathani, who is the eighth belonging to utter darkness will arise. The seventh will clearly be born in the city of bhagadatta (Baghdad) in the land of Mecca, where the mighty, merciless structure of the mlecchas, that the demonic manifestation, lives in the world. They wiil kill camels, horses, and cattle, and cook the flesh together with blood. They cook calves with butter and spice, and rice mixed with vegetables, all at once on the fire. Where the men eat that together with dates, and where they drink birds' eggs, that is the place of the Meccan demons.

At the end of the yuga, among those rulers of shambala, in the orderly reckoning of twenty-five reigns, raudra kalkI, the lord of the gods, saluted by the best of gods, shall appear in the lineage of kalkI. For sadhus his peaceful form shall be the giver of ultimate bliss, on the other hand, he shall be the nemesis for the entire assembly the of mlecchas. The great chakrin will be mounted on a mountain horse, with an astra in his hand, and with the radiance of the sun, shall smite all the enemies.

At the time when hand (2) times age (4)* descendents have passed within the lineage of Kalki, the mleccha dharma will definitely be introduced from the land of Mecca. At that time when the vicious lord of the mlecchas, kR^iNmati, is holding sway, at the time of the lord raudra kalkI, saluted by the best of gods, a fierce battle will occur on the abode of the surface of the earth.

The great kalkI shall come out at the end of the yuga, from the city the devas fashioned on kailAsha parvata. He shall smite the mlecchas in battle with his own four-division army, in a furious war raging on the entire surface of the earth. The fierce rudra, the valiant skanda and his brother gaNendra, and hari as well, shall enpower and accompany kalkI. The great gods indra, agni, vAyu, varuNa, yama and the awful goddess nirR^iti will also join kalki in the war. And so shall the mountain horses, the lords of elephants, the descendents of manu in gold chariots, and their warriors with weapons in hand. The mighty lord of the monkey hanumAn shall also join the fight with his hosts. The arrows of the great warriors on kalkI's side will unobstructedly pierce what ever they aim at and thus rain havoc on the mlecchas.

Various asura mAras will come to the aid of the Meccan demons, but the arrows of agni and shaNmukha, the nooses of varuNa and gaNapati, the immense vajra of indra, and other weapons of the gods will destroy them and the mlecchas completely. hanumAn shall smash the great general of the mlecchas who will be riding a horse. Some the weapons used are described as: A waving wind-cloth and a post together with banners are fastened in one ocean–cornered platform. Men pull the machine from the back side, and it goes up from the earth by the rope. Rising up by the wind, it definitely goes in the sky above the fort on a crag. The fire-oil cast from that machine completely incinerates the mleccha army and the entire fort.

Finally, the bearer of the wheel, raudra kalki smote the lord of the Meccan demons, kR^iNmati, with his astra and destroyed him for good. After that raudra-kalki restored the dharma on earth he returned to the abode of bliss from which he came.

*Note the use of the Hindu styled numeral code (like the katapayadi).
Scriptures of Sanathana Dharma

Hinduism is referred to as Sanathana Dharma, the eternal faith. Hinduism is based on the practice of Dharma, the code of life. Hinduism has no founder.

While religion means to bind, Dharma means to hold. What man holds on to is his inner law, which leads from ignorance to Truth. Though reading of the scriptures (saastras) would not directly lead you to self-realization, the teachings of the seers provide a basis and a path for spirituality. Despite being the oldest religion, the truth realized by the seers proves that the truth and path provided by Hinduism is beyond time.

Hinduism is more a way of life than a specific religion. In Hinduism one can find all religions of the world. Various religions like Buddhism, Sikhism emerged from it. The most important aspect of Hinduism is being truthful to oneself. Hinduism has no monopoly on ideas. It is open to all. Hindus believe in one God expressed in different forms. For them, God is timeless and formless entity. Hindus believe in eternal truths and these truths are opened to anyone who seeks them, even if he or she is ignorant of Hindu scriptures or ideas. This religion also professes Non-violence - "Ahimsa Paramo Dharma" - Non violence is the highest duty. True Ahimsa implies curtsey, kindness, hospitality, humanity and love.

Most of the Hindus do not know about their scriptures. They are aware of Ramayana, Mahabharata and Bhagavat Gita only. But we have lot of scriptures. Every Hindu must be aware of his/her scriptures. This is a small attempt to give the reader a brief knowledge about our scriptures.

The primary texts of Sanathana Dharma are


The oldest and the most important scriptures of Sanathana Dharma are the Vedas. Veda means knowledge. Vedas are apauruseya, which means they are not compilations of human knowledge. Vedic knowledge comes from the spiritual world, from Lord the Supreme Personality.

The Vedas are known as the revealed Truths. Vedas are the recordings of the revelations received through transcendental experiences of the Rishis of ancient India.

Vedic knowledge is complete because it is above all doubts and mistakes, and Bhagavad-gita is the essence of all such Vedic knowledge. Out of many standard and authoritative revealed scriptures, the Bhagavad-gita is the best. The Bhagavad-gita however is a part of the epic Mahabharata.

The humans are divided by vedas according to their orders of life namely Brahmacharya, Grihasthashram, Vanaprastha and Sanyasa and vedas teach us how a soul could be purified. To simplify the process and make them more easily performable, Maharshi Vyasa divided the Vedas into four, Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva in order to expand them among men.

1. Rig-Veda

The Rig-Veda Samhita is the grandest and oldest book of the Hindus. Its immortal mantras embody the greatest truths of existence and its priest is called the Hotri. The Rig-veda contains 10,552 verses divided into 64 chapters. Besides that it has got twenty-five branches written by several Rishis. The Rig-veda contains the most sacred Gayatri mantra.

2. Yajur-Veda

Its name is derived from the root word 'yaj' meaning worship. The term for sacrifice i.e. yajna is also derived from here. It primarily deals with the procedural details for performing different yajnas

There are two distinct Yajur Veda Samhitas, the Shukla Yajur Veda or Vajasaneyi Samhita and the Krishna Yajur Veda or Taittireya Samhita. The Krishna or the Taittireya is the older book and the Sukla or the Vajasaneyi is a later revelation to sage Yajnavalkya from the resplendent Sun God. About half of the Yajur-Veda are composed of verses taken from the Rig-Veda. They are arranged according to their importance in various rituals. The remaining part (mainly prose) deals with the formulae for performing the yajna, external as well as internal. The famous Rudra hymns belong to the Krishna Yajur Veda. The Yajur-Veda contains 1875 verses. Besides that it has got one hundred and eight branches.

3. Sama-Veda

The Sama-Veda Samhita is mostly borrowed from the Rig-vedic Samhita, and is meant to be sung by the Udgatri, the Sama-vedic priest, in sacrifices. 'Sama' means peace. Accordingly this Veda contains chants to bring peace to the mind. Many of the hymns of the Rig-Veda are set to musical notes in Sama Veda. Sama Veda is the basis of the seven notes (Sapta Swaras), fundamental to Indian classical music. The listening of the musical chants gives one a sense of universality and a mingling with the divine. The 'udgaata' or beginning ceremony before a yajna is actually a chanting of hymns from Sama Veda to ensure the grace of all the Devas. The Sama-Veda contains approximately 2000 verses. Besides that it has got one thousand branches.

4. Atharva-Veda

This Veda is named after a sage called Atharvan who discovered the mantras contained in it. It is basically a book of magic spells to ward off evil and suffering and to destroy one's enemies. It deals more with the things here and now, than the hereafter, and with the sacrifices which are a means to them. The mantras are in prose as well as verse. There also hymns addressed to devas other than the ones mentioned in the other three Vedas. There are hymns, which deal with creation also. Brahma is the representative of Atharva Veda. The Atharva Veda gives a useful insight into the rich landscape of India at the time of its composition.
The Atharva Veda contains of 5987 verses. Besides that it has got fifty branches.

Yajur-veda and Sama-veda use the hymns of Rig-Veda and Atharva-Veda and rearrange them in a manner suitable for rituals.

In all, the four Vedas have got One thousand one hundred and eighty three (1183) branches. Each Veda consists of four parts to suit the four stages in a man's life- Brahmacharya, Grihasta, Vanaprastha and Sanyasa. The four divisions are Mantra Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads.

The Mantra-Samhitas which are hymns in praise of the Vedic God for acquiring material prosperity and happiness. They are poems comprising prayers, hymns and incantations addressed to various deities. This portion also contains information about the creative process, the universal laws, about the creation and the universe in detail. It is useful to Brahmacharins.


The Brahmanas are explanations of Mantras or rituals, which give guidance to people as to how; the sacrificial rites are to be performed. They are explanations of the method of using the Mantras in Yajnas or other rites. Details for various ceremonies like birth, naming, study, marriage, death are in this portion. The Brahmana portion is suitable for householders (Grihastashram).

Brahmanas of Rig-veda

There are three Rig-vedic Brahmanas.

1. Ithareya Brahmana
2. Sankhayana Brahmana
3. Kausheethaki Brahmana

Brahmanas of Yajur-veda

There are three Yajur-vedic Brahmanas.

1. Shatapadha Brahmana
2. Thaiththareeya Brahmana
3. Maithrayaneeya Brahmana

Brahmanas of Sama-veda

There are nine Sama-vedic Brahmanas.

1. Jaimineeya Brahmana
2. Thandya Brahmana
3. Aarsheya Brahmana
4. Shadvimsadhi Brahmana
5. Chandhokya Brahmana
6. Samavidhana Brahmana
7. Abhootha Brahmana
8. Vamsa Brahmana
9. Samhithopanishathi Brahmana

Brahmanas of Atharva-veda

1. Gopadha Brahmana


The Aranyakas are the forest books, the texts that give philosophical interpretations of the rituals. After a man has finished all his worldly duties ( taking care of parents, marrying off children etc.) he proceeds to the forest to spend the rest of his days in solitude and meditation. The Aranyakas are intended for such people, hence the name. It explains the different kinds of rituals to be performed in forest by people, who go for Vanaprastha.
The Aranyakas are expositions on the inner meaning of the Vedic hymns and sacrifices. The hymns are interpreted symbolically to gain an insight into the reasons for performing yajnas and thus deal with higher metaphysical concepts.

Aranyakas of Rig-veda

There are two Rig-vedic Aranyakas.

1 Ithareya Aranyaka
2 Kausheethaki Aranyaka

Aranyakas of Yajur-veda

There are two Yajur-vedic Aranyakas.

1 Maithrayaneeya Aranyaka
2 Thaiththareeya Aranyaka

There is no Aranyakas for Sama and Atharva vedas.


The Upanishads are the essence of Vedic teaching. They are called Vedantas meaning the concluding portion of the Vedas as well as the ultimate conclusions of Vedic wisdom. Upanishads happen to be the most foremost authorities of the Vedanta system of philosophy that developed in later times in different forms.

They reveal the most subtle and deep spiritual truths and are meant for Sanyasins. The collection of teachings generated by the ascetics who meditated on the mysteries of human existence came to be known as the Upanishads, which literally means "sitting close to" the teacher thereby indicating that the knowledge that it imparts is esoteric. Many, many Upanishads existed ages ago; a lot of them have been lost in the dark backward abysm of time. Only one hundred and eight have been preserved so far some in prose, some in verse. They are:

Upanishads of Rig-veda

There are ten Rig-vedic Upanishads. They are

1 Ithareya Upanishad
2 Kausheethaki Upanishad
3 Nadhabindhu Upanishad
4 Aathmabhodha Upanishad
5 Nirvana Upanishad
6 Mulgala Upanishad
7 Akshamalika Upanishad
8 Tripura Upanishad
9 Sowbhagyalakshmi Upanishad
10 Bhahvrucha Upanishad

Upanishads of Sukla Yajur-veda

There are eighteen Sukla Yajur-vedic Upanishads. They are

1 Isovaasya Upanishad
2 Bruhadharanyaka Upanishad
3 Hamsa Upanishad
4 Paramahamsa Upanishad
5 Subhala Upanishad
6 Mantrika Upanishad
7 Thrisikibrahmana Upanishad
8 Niralamba Upanishad
9 Mandalabrahmana Upanishad
10 Adhwya Upanishad
11 Taraka Upanishad
12 Bhikshuka Upanishad
13 Adhyaatma Upanishad
14 Muktika Upanishad
15 Tarashara Upanishad
16 Yanjavalkya Upanishad
17 Shatyayana Upanishad
18 Turiyatheeya Avadhootha Upanishad

Upanishads of Krishna Yajur-veda

There are thirty two Krishna Yajur-vedic Upanishads. They are

1 Kada Upanishad
2 Thaiththireeya Upanishad
3 Brahma Upanishad
4 Kaivalya Upanishad
5 Swetaswetara Upanishad
6 Garbha Upanishad
7 Mahanarayana Upanishad
8 Amrithabindhu Upanishad
9 Amrithanadha Upanishad
10 Kalagnirudra Upanishad
11 Kshurika Upanishad
12 Sarvasara Upanishad
13 Shukarahasya Upanishad
14 Tejabindhu Upanishad
15 Dhyanabindhu Upanishad
16 Brahmavidhya Upanishad
17 Yogatatva Upanishad
18 Dhakshinamoorthy Upanishad
19 Skanda Upanishad
20 Saareerika Upanishad
21 Yogashika Upanishad
22 Ekakshara Upanishad
23 Akshi Upanishad
24 Avadhootha Upanishad
25 Kadarudra Upanishad
26 Rudrahrudhaya Upanishad
27 Panchabrahma Upanishad
28 Pranagnihotra Upanishad
29 Varaha Upanishad
30 Yogakundalini Upanishad
31 Kalisantarana Upanishad
32 Saraswatheerahasya Upanishad

Upanishads of Sama-veda

There are sixteen Sama-vedic Upanishads. They are

1 Kena Upanishad
2 Chandokya Upanishad
3 Aaruni Upanishad
4 Maitrayanee Upanishad
5 Maitreyee Upanishad
6 Vajrasuchika Upanishad
7 Yogachoodamani Upanishad
8 Vasudeva Upanishad
9 Maha Upanishad
10 Sanyasa Upanishad
11 Avyakta Upanishad
12 Kundika Upanishad
13 Savitri Upanishad
14 Jabhala Upanishad
15 Darsana Upanishad
16 Rudraksha Jabhala Upanishad

Upanishads of Atharva-veda

There are thirty two Atharva-vedic Upanishads.They are

1 Prasna Upanishad
2. Mundaka Upanishad
3. Maandukya Upanishad
4. Atharvasira Upanishad
5. Atharvasikha Upanishad
6. Bruhat Jaabhala Upanishad
7. Sita Upanishad
8. Sarabha Upanishad
9. Mahanarayana Upanishad
10. Ramarahasya Upanishad
11. Ramatapini Upanishad
12. Sandilya Upanishad
13. Paramahamsa Upanishad
14. Annapoorna Upanishad
15. Surya Upanishad
16. Aathma Upanishad
17. Pasuptha Upanishad
18. Parabrahma Upanishad
19. Tripuratapini Upanishad
20. Devi Upanishad
21. Bhavana Upanishad
22. Bhasma Jaabhala Upanishad
23. Ganapati Upanishad
24. Mahakavya Upanishad
25. Gopalatapini Upanishad
26. Sreekrishna Upanishad
27. Hayagriva Upanishad
28. Dhaththathreya Upanishad
29. Garuda Upanishad
30. Narasimhapurvatapini Upanishad
31. Naradapariprajaka Upanishad
32. Narasimha Uththaratapini Upanishad

Besides this 108 Upanishads, so many Upa-Upanishads are also there.


The Vedangas and Upavedas are collections of texts that augment and apply the Vedas as a comprehensive system of sacred living. There are six Vedangas.

1. Siksha (The nose of the Vedas)

Siksha means Vedic phonetics and lays down the rules of phonetics - sounds of syllables, of pronunciation- euphony. It lays down the parameters of Vedic words. Phonetics are very important in Vedic language because a slight change in sound may lead to change in the meaning of a mantra and consequently have undesirable effects on the sacrifice. Siksha explains how the sound of each syllable should be produced, how high or low should be it's pitch and for how much duration (maatra) the sound must last.

2. Nirukta (The ears of the Vedas)

Nirukta is the Vedic dictionary. Nirukta may be regarded as the Vedic equivalent of etymology i.e. the study of words. Nirukta explains the origin of each Sanskrit word in the Vedas. In Sanskrit, names or words are not assigned ad-hoc but there is a systematic way of forming words. Every word has a deep meaning and may sometimes be formed by the combination of two or more nouns. All words are derived from the basic roots or Dhatus. As Nirukta breaks each word into its component roots and analyses its meaning, so it is likened to the ear, which distinguishes speech by breaking words into its component phonemes. It is also regarded as the World’s first Encyclopedia.

3. Vyakarana (The mouth of the Vedas.)

Vyakarana deals with grammar and so is very important. There are many books on Sanskrit grammar, but the most famous and most extensively used is the Vyakarna of Sage Paanini. Paanini's grammar is in the form of aphorisms (Sutras).

4. Chanda Saastra (The feet of the Vedas)

Chanda Saastra deals with metric composition. Any verse has to have a specified 'metre' and number of letters in it, for a good fit. Chanda Saastra lays down the rules for this. It defines the boundaries of metrical composition into metre, rhyme, etc.

5. Kalpa Saastra (The arms of the Vedas)

Kalpa Saastra is a collection of books of Shauwta Sutra , Dharma Sutra , Pithrumedha Sutra , Sulba Sutra , Gruhya Sutra and Prayaschitham. All our customs and rituals are explained in Kalpa saastra.

Kalpa Saastra answers the questions like:

How should a ritual be performed?
What are the duties of the child, student, householder, King ,mendicant etc?
Which ritual involves which mantra, which material and which Deva?
How many priests should be employed for a sacrifice?
What objects should be used in various rituals?, and so on.

The Kalpa Saastra details the vedic rituals to be performed from the time the embryo forms in the womb to birth leading upto the final sacrifice of death. Cremation or Antiyeshti, meaning the last rite is seen as a sacrifice of the whole body to Agni, the fire god. The Namakarana (naming ceremony), the Upanayana (sacred thread investiture ceremony), Vivaaha (marriage) are also described within the Kalpa. The Vedic system of architecture i.e. Vaastu Shastra is also described in Kalpa. The entire Kalpa Saastra weighs more than 250 Kilograms. (i.e., 2.5 quintals)

6. Jyothisha (Astronomy + Astrology) The eyes of the Vedas

Jyothisha includes Ganitham, Kalakriya, Golam, Jatakam, Muhurtham, Prasnam and Nimiththam.
Perhaps the most famous of all Vedangas, it is the science of astrology. Jyotisha gives rules to calculate the positions of the planets and stars at any instant in the future or past. Based on these positions and certain well defined rules, the fate of a person can be reasonably determined provided his/her birthdate, time and place of birth are accurately known. Vedic astrology is based on lunar signs in direct contrast to the solar sign system prevalent in the west. The premise is that the moon being closer to the Earth, extends a greater influence on mankind than the distant Sun.


There are five Upavedas

1. Arththasaastra
Unfolds statecraft. It can be called as the Hindu science of governing by Kings.

2. Dhanur Veda
Discusses military science. Discusses different kinds of weapons and war rules.

3. Gandharva Veda
The science which enlighten music and arts. Discusses different kinds of music, musical instruments and arts.

4. Ayurveda
Deals with medicine , health and longevity.

5. Saapadhyaveda ( Tachchu Saastra )
Deals with the architecture. Vasthu Saastra also comes under this.


Puranas are compiled from related historical facts, which explain the teachings of the four Vedas. The Puranas explain the Vedic truths and are intended for different types of men. All men are not equal. There are men who are good, others who are driven by passion and others who are under the veil of ignorance. The Puranas are so divided that any class of men can take advantage of them and gradually regain their original nature and get out of the hard struggle for existence


There are eighteen Mahapuranas. They are

1. Vishnu Purana
2. Bhavishya Purana
3. Garuda Purana
4. Agni Purana
5. Mahabhagavata Purana
6. Siva Purana
7. Markandeya Purana
8. Linga Purana
9. Brahmavaivarththa Purana
10. Matsya Purana
11. Kurma Purana
12. Varaha Purana
13. Vamana Purana
14. Skanda Purana
15. Brahmaanda Purana
16. Patma Purana
17. Vayu Purana
18. Naradheeya Purana


There are eighteen Upa-puranas. They are

1. Samba Purana
2. Devibhagavata Purana
3. Kalika Purana
4. Lakhunaradheeya Purana
5. Harivamsa Purana
6. Vishnudharmmoththara Purana
7. Kalki Purana
8. Mulgala Purana
9. Aadhi Purana
10. Aathma Purana
11. Brahma Purana
12. Vishnudharma Purana
13. Narasimha Purana
14. Kriyaayoga Purana
15. Surya Purana
16. Bruhat Naradheeya Purana
17. Prushoththama Purana
18. Bruhat Vishnu Purana


Darsana means, sight or vision. In the Vedanta philosophy, the first question is, what is the source of everything? There are philosophers who saw different stages of the original source, and explained philosophy according to their vision. These are known as Darsanas. They are also known as Sad-darsanas (six systems of philosophy).

1. Nyaya Darsana

Nyaya means the science of logic and expediency. It is also known as Tarka Shastra. This was composed by Sage Gautama and contains passages, which establish by means of disputation that God is the creator of this universe. It establishes the existence of God by means of inference.

2. Vaiseshika Darsana

Vaisesika, philosophy of specialised logic, maintains that the combination of atoms is the cause of the cosmic manifestation. It was composed by Maharshi Kanada He was the first philosopher who formulated ideas about the atom in a systematic manner.

Nyaya and Vaiseshika deal mainly with physics, chemistry and other material sciences and include reasoning or logic. Metaphysical studies or search for knowledge of God, however, formed the ultimate aim of the study of these saastras also.

3. Sankhya Darsana

Sankhya, philosophy of analytical study, maintains that the material nature is the cause of the cosmic manifestation. Sage Kapila composed it.

4. Yoga Darsana

Yoga, philosophy of mystic perfections, maintains that universal consciousness is the cause of the cosmic manifestation. It was composed by Padanjali Maharshi. He is the first systematiser of the Yoga school .

5. Purva Meemamsa Darsana

Sage Jaimini composed the sutras for the Purvameemamsa, philosophy of actions and reactions, maintains that fruitive activities are the cause of the cosmic manifestation. This book consists of 12 chapters - 1000 Adhikaranas in all. In these Adhikaranas, selected Vedic verses are examined in details. In the 1000 Adhikaranas a thousand types of problems are taken up and various arguments against an apparent explanation are raised before coming to a conclusion.

6. Uththara Meemamsa Darsana

The Uttarameemamsa deals with Vedanta and is thus close to the philosophy of the Upanishads. Maharshi Veda Vyasa composed Uththara Meemamsa.


Smriti means memory and are writings devised to fix in memory, the practical use of the messages stated or implied in the Vedas. ' Smritis ' embodies the teachings of Divine Incarnations or prophets, saints and sages. It is an explanation of the 'Srutis' ' Srutis ' are the revealed scriptures, as mentioned in the Vedas and ' Smritis ' are the commentaries and derived literatures, based on the messages of the Vedas; Some of the Smritis are in the form of Laws formulated by saints and sages for mankind. There are eighteen important Smritis.They are

1. Usana Smriti
2. Yanjavalkya Smriti
3. Vishnu Smriti
4. Manu Smriti
5. Angeerasa Smriti
6. Yama Smriti
7. Atri Smriti
8. Samvarththa Smriti
9. Bruhatparasara Smriti
10. Bruhaspati Smriti
11. Daksha Smriti
12. Saataatapa Smriti
13. Likhita Smriti
14. Vyasa Smriti
15. Parasara Smriti
16. Sanka Smriti
17. Gautama Smriti
18. Vasishta Smriti


Itihasas are literatures describing historical events pertaining to either a single hero or a few heroic personalities in a lineage: for example, Ramayana describing the pastimes of Sri Ramachandra and Mahabharata describing the pastimes of the Pandavas in the lineage of the Kurus. In these books there are topics on transcendental subjects along with material topics. The whole idea of the Mahabharata culminates in the ultimate instructions of the Bhagavad-gita that one should give up all other engagements and should engage oneself solely and fully in surrendering unto the lotus feet of Krishna. The conclusive teaching of the Ramayana also is to fully surrender and take shelter of Lord Sri Ramachandra.

1. Ramayana

The traditional author of this Epic, is the sage Valmiki. This Epic is regarded as the first poetical work in the world, of purely human origin. The verses have great diffusivity, simplicity and charm. There are totally seven books of this great epic.

2. Mahabharata

This epic is traditionally authored by the sage Vyasa It is a rich collection of many histories and legends. The scene of the poem is the ancient kingdom of the Kurus; and the central story - ' the germ of which is to be found in the Vedas ' - concerns a great dynastic war. A very important portion of the Mahabharata is the Song of the God ( called the Gita ). Bhagavad Gita, as it is called, is the essence of all the messages to mankind contained in the Veda.


Dr.N.GopalaKrishnan, Scientist, CSIR & Hon Director, Indian Institute of Scientific Heritage, Trivandrum, ph 0471- 490149.

Thus the primary texts of Sanathana Dharma includes four Vedas, Sixteen Brahmanas, four Aranyakas, One Hundred and Eight Upanishads, Six Vedangas, five Upavedas, eighteen Mahapuranas, eighteen Upapuranas, six Darsanas, eighteen Smritis and two Ithihasas.

While other religions got only one book, Sanathana Dharma or Hindu Dharma has got huge amounts of books. Please forward this document to everyone you know. Remember, it is your, mine and our duty, privilege and responsibility to learn, teach and spread our Heritage.

Compiled by
A.V. Ajil Kumar
Earlier version of this thread available at..

<b>Where is Lanka of the Ramayana</b>

Brahma Era: 15,55,21,97,29,49,107 (155 trillion years)
Kalpa or Srsti Era: 1,97,29,49,107 (1.9 billion years)
Manvantara Era: 12,05,33,107
Kaliyuga Era: 5107
Vikaram Era: 2062
9th Day of Bright Half of Lunar Month of Caitra
April 17,2005

<b>International Foundation For Vedic Science (www.vedascience.com) is also of the opinion that present day Sri Lanka is not the Lanka of Ramayana.</b>


On this website there is the assertion that Ceylon was Lanka of the Ramayana. The assertion is also made using typical offensive language of mundane scholars regarding Sastras. Today is Ramanavami on this date last year I started reading the Ramayana (full edition). In the Ramayana we learn that Lanka was 100 yoganas from the mainland. Since a yogana is about 8 miles that would mean that it was about 800 miles from the mainland. Much further than current Sri Lanka aka Ceylon.

Also the Suryasiddhanta mentions that the meridian which passes through Ujjain also passes through Lanka. (The Suryasiddhanta and all of the Jyotish literature uses the meridian passing through Ujjain as the reference point just as today the meridian of Greenwich is used for astronomical calculations and time keeping.) Ujjain is 75 degrees 47 minutes east of Greenwich if you look south in the Indian Ocean <b>the closest land would be the Maldive Islands in the Lakshadvip Sea (100,000 Islands sea). So I would suggest that is the actual area of the original Lanka</b> not Ceylon which only recently (1972) renamed itself as Sri Lanka. The actual Lanka is
submerged and only some of its highest points are above the ocean.
In any case the real Lanka was several hundred miles to the South West of current Ceylon-Sri Lanka.

Ceylon has been known by that name for at least 2500 years. It was the name that the Romans, Greeks and Persians knew it by (Greek traders in the Ptolomiac and Roman empires regularly went to South India and even onto China via the well known trade route starting from Alexandria,down the Nile, portage accross to the Red Sea, down the Red Sea and then straight accross the Arabian Sea to modern Kerala. This is how Saint Thomas, disciple of Christ, got to South India and why Kerela has 20% Christians since that time. The many hordes of Roman dinari (gold coins) that have been excavated in the extreme south of India also attest to this fact.

In ancient times it was also called Taprobane (especially by the Greeks) and Serendip, which was derived from Sanskrit for Sinhala Dvipa, the island of Singhalese. The Singalese were orginally from the Kalinga region b(Orissa) and invaded the island some time before 500 BC. It morphed into Ceylon from Serendip.

The English word Serendipity--which is finding something unexpected and useful while searching for something else entirely. For instance, the discovery of the antibacterial properties of penicillin by Alexander Fleming is said to have been a serendipitious discovery--is etymologicaly
derived from its possession by the heroes of the Persian fairy tale "The Three Princes of Serendip".

In any case by what ever name you call it modern Sri Lanka-Ceylon is not the Lanka of the Ramayana because it is much too far to the North East by several hundreds of miles from the location of Lanka indicated in the Ramayana and the astronomical Siddhantas and other Jyotish

Shyamasundara Dasa
Did You Know ?

<b>Did You Know ?</b>

* India gave to the world the days of the week and their names. The names prevalent in India like Ravivaar, Somvaar, Mangalvaar, etc. were adopted by the west in the same sequence and were directly translated to other languages like English where you have Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, etc.

* Gandhi and Nehru objected to the decision of the cabinet and insisted that Somnath Temple should be reconstructed out of public funds, not government funds, while in January 1948 they pressurised Sardar Patel to carry on renovation of the mosques of Delhi at government expense.


The United States adopted ancient Indian catamaran-making technology to construct fast ships which were used with dramatic effect in the Iraq war. Among the equipment the Americans used to win the Iraq war were 100-feet catamaran ships to ferry tanks and ammunition from Qatar to Kuwait. The ships, built with technology adapted from ancient Tamil methods to make catamarans, can travel over 2,500 kms in less than 48 hours, twice the speed of the regular cargo ships, and carry enough equipment to support about 5,000 soldiers. Having a shallow draft, the boats can unload in rudimentary ports, allowing troops to land closer to the fight.

* Researchers believe Sanskrit and computers are a perfect fit. In 1985, Rick Briggs, a researcher for NASA, published a paper on the potential uses of Sanskrit as a machine language. Natural languages are basically too imprecise for use as machine languages, thus programmers have been forced to create artificial languages. However, Briggs hailed Sanskrit as an exception. "Among the accomplishments of the [Sanskrit] grammarians can be reckoned a method for paraphrasing Sanskrit in a manner that is identical not only in essence but in form with current work in Artificial Intelligence. A natural language can serve as an artificial language also, and that much work in AI has been reinventing a wheel millennia old."

* Christmas is not the celebration of the birth date of Christ. Different researchers place different dates for the birth of Christ but there is virtual agreement among scholars that December 25th is not the birth date of Jesus Christ, but an annual pagan festival celebrated in honor of the sun which was too deeply entrenched in popular custom to be set aside by Christian influence. The pagan festival with it's riot and merrymaking was so popular that Christians were glad of an excuse to continue its celebration with little change in spirit and in manner. During the first three centuries we find no trace of any feast for the birth of Christ.

* An intensive research conducted by Zenab Banu of Gujarat on the cause and effect of communal riots since 18th century (which was a topic of her Ph.D. thesis), wherein she had analyzed and documented major Hindu-Muslim riots spread over 250 years, shows that in over 95 % cases the riots were initiated by Muslims. Her thesis has been published in a book entitled 'Politics of Communalism' (1978).

* There are fifty-seven nations in the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Not one is yet a democracy.

* Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, a so-called 'liberal' and 'secular' Muslim, led a campaign against 'Vande Maataram' on the grounds that it was 'anti-Islamic'. He had opposed the partition of India and Jawaharlal Nehru was quick to declare him 'a great nationalist leader', but the Maulana in his book "India Wins Freedom" has discussed the reason for his opposition. He was of the opinion that the creation of a separate Muslim state would divide the Muslim population and India would have fewer number of Muslims, thus dealing a blow to the process of Islamization of India, hence the opposition.

* The last rites of Mahatma Gandhi, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Smt. Indira Gandhi were accompanied by renderings from the Bhagwad Geeta, the Quran and religious books of other religions; but the final rites of Dr. Zakir Hussain, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad and Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad had renderings only from the Quran.

* In 1950, the then Maharaja of Indore, Yashwant Rao Holkar, wanted his son Richard, born of his American wife, to succeed him as the ruler of Indore. However, the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru (along with Sardar Patel and Rajendra Prasad) objected, making it clear that the son of his foreign wife could not succeed him. Nehru couldn't allow foreign blood even as a powerless Maharaja to inherit a title, let alone power!

* St. Francis Xavier, after whom many educational institutions are named in India, feverishly declared, “When I have finished baptising the people, I order them to destory the huts in which they keep their idols; and I have them break the statues of their idols into tiny pieces, since they are now Christians. I could never come to an end describing to you the great consolation which fills my soul when I see idols being destroyed by the hands of those who had been idolaters,” (from The Letters and Instructions of Francis Xavier, 1993, pp 117-8).

* In 2002, Karnataka State received Rs.72 crores as revenue from temples, returned Rs.10 crores for temple maintenance, and granted Rs.50 crores for madrasas and Rs.10 crores for churches. (Daily Pioneer, October 7, 2003.)

* After partition, when the Maharaja of Kashmir was harbouring the idea of retaining Kashmir as an independent kingdom, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel had sent Guru Golwalkar of the RSS to convince the Maharaja to join India. After discussions with Guruji, the Maharaja was convinced and agreed to sign the Instrument of Accession to India.

* During the China war in 1962, the Swayamsevaks of the RSS swung into action mobilising support to the governmental measures in general and to the jawans in particular. Pandit Nehru was so impressed that he invited a Sangh contingent to take part in the Republic Day Parade of 26th January 1963. When, later on, some Congressmen raised their eyebrows over the invitation to Sangh, Pandit Nehru brushed aside the objections saying that all patriotic citizens had been invited to join the parade.

* When the Europeans newly arrived in America in 1492, they took the natives to be devils and for about forty years it was legal to hunt down the natives like animals. It was only in 1530 A.D. that the Pope relented and declared that American Indians were human!

* The concept of Reiki originated in India, but it was rediscovered by Dr. Mikao Usui in Japan in the late 19th century. Dr. Usui was a Shingon Buddhist priest and a physician. He read about an ancient healing art in an 1100 year old Buddhist Manuscript and made a brief synthesis of the essence of this seven level Tantric teaching as Reiki.

* In 1895, eight years before the Wright brothers flew their first plane, Shivkar Bapuji Talpade and his wife gave a thrilling demonstration flight on the Chowpatty beach in Mumbai. Mr. Talpade, an erudite Sanskrit scholar, constructed his aeroplane named 'Marutsakha' based on the description of Vimanas available in the Vedas.

* The theory of the Ion Engine has been credited to Robert Goddard, long recognized as the father of Liquid-fuel Rocketry. It is claimed that in 1906, long before Goddard launched his first modern rocket, his imagination had conceived the idea of an Ion rocket. However, Shivkar Bapuji Talpade used an Ion Engine to take his plane to a height of 1500 ft. in 1895, many years before Goddard.

* A glass-like material which cannot be detected by radar has been developed by Prof Dongre, a research scholar of Benaras Hindu University, based on technology found in an ancient Sanskrit text, Vaimanika Shastra. A plane coated with this unique material cannot be detected using radar.

* Only a few years ago, the Chinese discovered some Sanskrit documents in Lhasa, Tibet and sent them to the University of Chandigarh to be translated. Dr. Ruth Reyna of the university said that the documents contain directions for building interstellar spaceships! The Chinese announced that they were including certain parts of the documents for study in their space program.

* When the city of Mohenjodaro was excavated by archaeologists, they found skeletons just lying in the streets, some of them holding hands, as if some great doom had suddenly overtaken them. These skeletons are among the most radioactive ever found, on a par with those found at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Ancient cities whose brick and stonewalls have literally been vitrified, that is-fused together, can be found in India, Ireland, Scotland, France, Turkey and other places. There is no logical explanation for the vitrification of stone forts and cities, except from an atomic blast.

* The shrouded Qaabaa at Mecca, the holiest shrine for all Muslims of the world, was once a temple containing 360 different deities which were the object of reverence and worship. Acting upon the orders of Allah, the almighty, Prophet Mohammed waged a jihad or holy war against the worshippers of these deities to gain control over Mecca, after which he destroyed the icons and slaughtered the idolaters.

* Neem, turmeric, jamun and cow's urine, traditionally used for medicinal purposes in India, have been patented in the United States.

* The Puranas speak of the creation and destruction of the universe in cycles of 8.64 billion years, that is quite close to currently accepted value regarding the time of the big bang.

* Indian astronomer, Brahmagupta, estimated in the 7th century that the circumference of the earth was 5000 yojanas. A yojana is around 7.2 kms. Calculating on this basis we see that the estimate of 36,000 kms as the earth's circumference comes quite close to the actual circumference known today.

* Indian astronomer, Aryabhatta was the first to have propounded the theory that the earth was a sphere in the 5th century.

* One of the greatest scientists of the 20th century, Erwin Schrodinger, was directly inspired by Vedanta in his creation of quantum mechanics, a theory at the basis of all our advances in chemistry, biochemistry, electronics, and computers.

* The Purusha Hymn of the Rigveda says that the mind is born of the moon. Recently, by research on volunteers, who stayed in underground caves for months without any watches or other cues about time, it was found that the natural cycle for the mind is 24 hours and 50 minutes. The period of the moon is also 24 hours and 50 minutes.

* The Nalanda University once housed 9 million books. It was the centre of education for scholars from all over Asia. Many Greek, Persian and Chinese students studied here. The university was burnt down by pillaging Muslim invaders who overran India in the 11th century.

* The Arabs borrowed so much from India in the field of mathematics that even the subject of mathematics in Arabic came to known as Hindsa which means 'from India' and a mathematician or engineer in Arabic is called Muhandis which means 'an expert in Mathematics'.

* The Gumbaz that we see on mosques all over the world originated as the interlocking dome in the Stupa of the Buddhist architectural tradition of India.

* Those communities among the Hindus who are called Bhangi, Mehtar, Chookad, Hela, Valmik or Halaal Khor, etc. are actually descendants of brave Kshatriyas, who, inspite of many atrocities by tyrannical Muslim rulers, had refused to accept conversion to Islam. The Muslim tyrants, with a view to humiliate them to such an extent that they would forsake their faith and accept Islam, forced them into the work of carrying the night soil of the begums, keeps, relations, courtiers, etc.

* The Gypsies migrated from India to the west many centuries ago. They speak a language called Romany which has many common words with Indian languages and their religion is a modified form of early Hinduism. They seem to have been the Banjara nomads who are still found in India.

* Christianity reached India sometime in the 5th century when a group of Nestorian Christians landed in Malabar for trading purposes and settled down in India. They are known as Syrian Christians and during 1500 years were never once persecuted by the Hindus. Oddly enough the first persecution these peace-loving Christians had to suffer was at the hands of Roman Catholic missionaries in India, who continuously coerced them to pass under the domination of the Pope.

* The oral tradition of Vedic chanting has been declared an intangible heritage of humanity by UNESCO. In a meeting of jury members on November 7, 2003, at Paris, Mr. Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO, declared the chanting of Vedas in India an outstanding example of heritage and form of cultural expressions. The proclamation says that in the age of globalization and modernization when cultural diversity is under pressure, the preservation of oral tradition of Vedic chanting, a unique cultural heritage, has great significance.

* When the World Parliament of Religions passed a resolution a few years ago proclaiming that all religions were various pathways to One Ultimate Reality and called for unity and brotherhood of all religions, the Vatican came out with a prompt rejection of the view and emphatically proclaimed that Roman Catholicism was the only true religion and others could not be accepted to be true.

* Swatantryaveer Savarkar was the first Indian political leader to call for Swadeshi, and the first Indian leader who publicly performed a bonfire of foreign clothes (1906). (many years before Gandhiji)

* In a recent report, UNESCO pointed out that out of 128 countries where Jews lived before Israel was created in 1948, only one, India, did not persecute them and allowed them to prosper and practice Judaism in peace.

* In Goa neither the Shariat nor the Hindu Code applies. To this day the common Portuguese Civil Code applies.

* The Andaman and Nicobar islands were the first part of India to become free from the British rule. In 1943 the Indian National Army freed these islands and renamed them as Swaraj and Shaheed islands.

* Sardar Patel, Swantantryaveer Savarkar and Dr.B.R.Ambedkar had asked Nehru to protest against the Chinese invasion of Tibet. They had warned Nehru that China's take over of Tibet would destroy the only buffer state between China and India and would threaten the Indian borders. The 1962 Chinese attack proved their fears to be correct.

* 'Hindu Kush' means Hindu slaughter. The Indian name for Hindu Kush mountain range was 'Paariyaatra Parvat'. Until 1000 A.D. the area of Hindu Kush was a full part of Hindu cradle. The name 'Hindu Kush' was given by the muslim conquerors indicating the Hindu genocide that took place in this region.

* Gandhiji's ashes were immersed in all the major rivers of the world like Nile, Volga, Thames, etc. except the Indus in Pakistan. The Pakistan government refused to immerse his ashes in the Indus, saying they didn't want to pollute it with the ashes of a kafir.

* Nathuram Godse's ashes are kept in an urn in his brother Gopal Godse's house. It was his dying wish that his ashes be immersed in the river Indus when India stands undivided again.

* The percentage of Hindus in Pakistan and Bangladesh after partition in 1947 was 17 and 25 respectively. Today their percentage is almost nil in Pakistan and 10.5 in Bangladesh.

* The so called Akbar, The Great - whose rule is said to have been secular and tolerant of the Hindu faith - had a victory tower erected with the heads of the captured and surrendered army of Hemu after the second battle of Panipat. Later, Akbar again slaughtered more than 30,000 unarmed captive Hindu peasants after the fall of Chittod on February 24, 1568.

* Islam is the fastest growing religion in the world and also in North America.

* The original name for 'Lahore' is 'Lavapura' and for Kusoor is 'Kushpura'. These cities were originally founded by Lava and Kush, respectively.

* Chess originated in India. It was known to Indians as Chaturnaga. It was taken to Persia in the sixth century where it came to be known as Chatrang, which according to the Arabic phonetic system became Shatranj.

* The Sanskrit term 'Yogakshema' in the Rigveda meant some kind of insurance, which was practised by the Aryans in India nearly 5000 years ago. Manu, the ancient lawgiver, enjoined that a special charge be made on goods carried from one town to another, to ensure their safe carriage until handed over to the consignee at destination.

* According to official figures, 28,825,000 Indians starved to death between 1854 and 1901. The authority's carelessness and lack of foresight accentuated the misery caused by famines.

* The World's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The campus accommodated 10,500 students who came from as far as Babylonia, Greece, Syria, Arabia, and China and offered over sixty different courses in various fields, such as science, mathematics, medicine, politics, warfare, astrology, astronomy, music, religion, and philosophy.

* The Grand Anicut, Kallanai, located on Cauvery River in Tamil Nadu, is the oldest dam in the world that is still in use today. This masonry dam was built in the 2nd century by Chola king Karikalan. It was remodeled and fitted with sluice gates in 1899-1902.

* Christianity always associated bathing with vulgarity, lascivious thoughts and bathing in public baths, rivers and lakes, even during summer months, as sinful. St. Agnes never took a bath. St. Marget never washed herself. Pope Clement III issued an edict forbidding bathing or even wetting once face on Sunday. Since 18th century nuns were asked to take bath with their robes on. In 1736, in Baden, Germany the authorities issued a warning to students against the vulgar, dangerous and shocking practice of bathing.

* Baudhayana gave the 'Pythagoras theorem' centuries before the Greeks in 800 BC.

* Pingala (400 BC) invented the binary number system which is the basic of computer operations.

* Pakistan proudly mentions the great Sanskrit grammarian Panini, who was born at Shalatula near Attock in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan some time between the 7th and the 4th centuries B.C., as its national hero. Many postal stamps sport Panini's pictures.

* The Caspian sea, which in Vedic times was called Kasyapa Mira, has got its name from Rishi Kashyap.

* The art of Navigation was born in the river Sindhu 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word 'Navgatih'. The word navy is also derived from Sanskrit 'Nou'.

* USA based IEEE has proved what has been a century old suspicion in the world scientific community that the pioneer of wireless communication was Prof. Jagdeesh Bose and not Marconi.
While the text has some corruption and the translation imperfect- it is still of interest

hayagrIva uvAcha:

kirichakra-rathendrasya pa~ncha-parva-samAshritAH
devatAshcha shR^iNu prAj~na nAma yachChR^iNvatAM jayaH //

Listen to the divine names of the deities present in the five levels of the Kiri Chakra car of (Varahi) Devi. By simply listening to these divine names, one shall obtain victory.

prathamaM parva bindvAkhyaM saMprAptA daNDanAyikA
sA tatra jagad-uddaNDa-kaNTaka-vrAtaghasmarI //

The first landing of this chariot is the great bindu. Varahi the commander-in chief is present in this Bindu. Staying here, she destroys all the thorns that bother the existence.

nAnA-vidhAbhir-jvAlAbhir-nartayantI jayashriyam //

With various weapons, she is forever in charge of victory.

daMShTrA-bAla-mR^igA~NkAMshu-vibhAvana-vibhAvarI //

She is piercing the demons with her sharp teeth. She has a creeper like body with a blue complexion that is comparable to a group of rain clouds.

kirichakra-rathendrasya sAla~NkArAyate sadA
potriNI putritA-sheSha-vishvAvartakadaMbikA //

Her blue body seems like the dark night in which her half-moon-like teeth shine bright. The great goddess has the entire world as her child. She enhances the beauty of the Kiri Chakra chariot, on which she is seated.

tasyaiva ratha-nAbhasya dvitIyaM parva saMshritAH
jR^iMbhinI mohinI chaiva staMbhinI tisra eva hi
utphulla-dADimI-prakhyaM sarva-dAnava-mardanAH //

There are three goddesses seated on the second landing of this chariot. They are: Jrimbhini, Mohini and Stambhini. These goddesses have a complexion like that of the blooming Dadimi (pomegranate) flower. They are capable of eliminating the entire race of the demons.

musalaM cha halaM hAlApAtraM maNigaNarpitam
jvalan-mANikya-valayair bibhrANAH pANi-pallavaiH //

Holding weapons like Musala, hala, bowl of wine and snake, they are decorated with bangles made of ruby.

ati-tIkShNa-karAlAkShyo jvAlAbhir-daityasainikAn
dahantya iva niHsha~NkaM sevante sUkarAnanAm //

They are capable of burning the demons from the sparks that emanate from their sharp, terrifying eyes. They are busy serving Sri Varahi without any doubt.

kirichakra-rathendrasya tR^itIyaM parva saMshritAH
andhinyAdyAH pa~ncha devyo devI-yantra-kR^itAspadAH //

The deities residing in the third landing of the chariot are: Andhini, Rundhini, Stambhini, Mohini and Jhrimbhini. These are associated with the Mantra of Sri Varahi Devi.

kaThoreNATTahAsena bhindantyo bhuvanatrayam
jvAlA iva tu kalpagner-a~NganA-veShamAshritAH //

Their form seems to be the very personification of the flames of the final fire of destruction. Their thunderous laughter is sufficient to pierce the three worlds.

bhaNDAsurasya sarveShAM sainyAnAM rudhira-plutim
lilikShamANA jihvAbhir-lelihAnAbhir-ujjvalAH //

They have stretched their tongues to drink the blood of Bhandasura's army. Their tongues are emitting flames.

sevanteM satataM daNDanAthAm-uddaNDa-vikramAm
kirichakra-rathendrasya chaturthaM parva saMshritAH //

They serve Varahi of great valor constantly. There six deities residing in the fourth landing of the Kirichakra.

brahmAdyAH pa~nchamI-varjyA aShTamIr-avarjitA api
ShaDeva devyaH ShaT-chakra-jvalaj-jvAlAkalevarAH //

Brahmi, Maaheshwari, Kaumari, Vaishnavi, Indrani and Chamunda in the six Chakras.

mahatA vikramaugheNa vibantya iva dAnavAn
Aj~nayA daNDanAthAyAstaM pradesham-upAsate //

These great goddesses with blazing forms reside as per the order of Commander-in-chief Varahi.

tasyaiva parvaNo .adhastAt-tvaritAH sthAnam-AshritAH
yakShiNI sha~NkhinI chaiva lAkinI vAkinI tathA //

Below this landing, present are the deities Yakshini, Shankini, Lakini, Vakini Rakini.

shAkinI DAkinI chaiva tAsAm-aikya-svarUpiNI
hAkinI saptamI-tyetAsh-chaNDa-dordaNDa-vikramAH //

Shakini and Dakini. The seventh goddess Hakini is the congregate of the rest.These goddesses are extremely terrible.

pibantya iva bhUtAni pibantya iva medinIm
tvachaM raktaM tathA mAMsaM medo .asthi cha virodhinAm //

They have fearful faces and are busy drinking the blood, skin, flesh, bones, and fat of the enemies.

majjAnam-atha shukraM cha pibantayo vikaTAnanAH
niShThuraiH siMhanAdaish-cha pUrayantyo disho dasha //

These goddesses with terrifying faces drink semen and bone marrow of enemies and utter terrible leonine roars that fill the ten quarters.

dhAtunAthA iti proktA aNimAdyaShTa-siddhidAH
mohane mAraNe chaiva staMbhane tADane tathA //

These goddesses known as the Dhatunathas (the deities of the seven Dhatus in the body) grant the eight siddhis to the worshippers. They are busy in enchanting, killing, immobilizing, beating

bhakShaNe duShTa-daityAnAm-AmUlaM cha nikR^intane
paNDitAH khaNDitAsheSha-vipado bhaktishAliShu //

And swallowing the evil demons they are also well versed in destroying all the dangers that bother the brahmins and the devoted.

dhAtunAthA itiproktAH sarva-dhAtuShu saMsthitAH
saptApi vAridhIn-UrmimAlA-saMchuMbitAMbarAn //

These goddesses are present in all bodily substances and are powerful enough to drink the waters of the seven great oceans.

kShaNardhenaiva niShpAtuM niShpanna-bahusAhasAH
shakaTAkAra-dantAshcha bhaya~Nkara-vilochanAH //

With a fraction of a second they can fell the enemies and display manifold powers. Their eyes are round and large like the wheels of a cart.

svasvAminI-drohakR^itAM svakIya-samayadruhAm
vaidika-drohaNA deva-drohiNAM vIra-vairiNAm //

They are ever ready to destroy people who offend or act against Varahi, the Vedas, the system of Samayachara, devas, and vIrasAdhana..

yaj~na-drohakR^itAM duShTa-daityAnAM bhakShaNe samAH
nityameva cha sevante potriNIM daNDanAyikAm //

They eat up haters of Yajna and evil daityas and continuously serve their commander protriNI.

tasyaiva parvaNaH pArshve dvitIye divya-mandire
krodhinI staMbhinI khyAte vartete devate ubhe //

On either side of the same landing, there are two Shaktis called Krodhini and Stambhini.

chAmare vIjayantyau cha lola-ka~NkaNa-dorlate
deva-dviShAM chamU-rakta-hAlApAnamahoddhate //

Decorated with loose bangles, they fan Sri Dandanatha. They are intoxicated with the blood of the demons and have a smiling face.

sadA vighUrNamAnAkShyau sadA prahasitAnane
atha tasya rathendrasya kirichakrAshritasya cha //

With intoxicated eyes and ever mirthful in laughter they are present in that great car the kirichakra.

halaM cha musalaM chaiva devatA-rUpamAsthitam //

On either side of the Kiri Chakra chariot, weapons called Hala and Musala endued with divine might.

svakIya-mukuTasthAne svakIyAyudha-vigraham
AbibhrANaM jagaShighasmaraM vibudhaiH smR^itam //

In place of crown, they are decorated with their own weapons.

etad-Ayudhayugmena lalitA daNDanAyikA
khaNDayiShyati saMgrAmaM viSha~NgaM nAmadAnavam //

It is with these weapons that Varahi the commander of Lalita's armies slaughters a demon called Vishanga.

tasyaiva parvaNo daNDanAthAyA agra-sImani
varttamAno mahAbhImaH siMho nAdair-dhvanan-nabhaH //
Right in front of Dandanathaa (Varahi) is a deity named Chandocchanda. His thunderous roar echoes all through the sky.

daMShTrA-kaTakaTAtkAra badhirI-kR^itadi~N-mukhaH
chaNDochchaNDa iti khyAtash-chatur-hastas-trilochanaH //

The sound he makes with his sharp teeth deafens the world. He has four hands and three eyes.

shUla-khaDga-pretapAshAn-dadhAno dIptavigrahaH
sadA saMsevate devIM pashyan-neva hi potriNIm //

He holds trident, sword and Pretapasha in his hands. With his sight fixed on Varahi and her goddess, he is busy serving Varahi.

kirichakra-rathendrasya ShaShTaM parva samAshritAH
vArttAlyAdyA aShTa devyo dikShvaShTAsU-pavishrutAH //

Vartali and the eight other goddesses are present in the fifth landing of the kiri chakra car.

aShTa-nAga-sphurad-bhUShA anaShTabalatejasaH //

They are decorated with eight mountains and serpents and their eight shining bodies have indestructible vigor and power.

sevante lalitAM devyo daNDanAthAm-aharnisham //

Capable of burning the race of demons, they are busy serving Varahi the commander of Lalita's army.

tA-sAmAkhyAsh-cha vikhyAtAH samAkarNaya kuMbhaja
vArtAlI chaiva vArAhI sA vArAhamukhI parA //

All of similar form and strenght their names are: Vartali, Varahi, Varahamukhi

andhinI rodhinI chaiva jR^iMbhiNI chaiva mohinI
staMbhinIti ripu-kShobha-staMbhanochchATana-kShamAH //

Andhini, Rundhini, Jrimbhini, Mohini and Stambhini. They are well versed in agitating the enemies and eradicating them.

tAsAM cha parvaNo vAmabhAge satata-saMsthitiH
daNDanAthopavAhyastu kAsaro dhUsarAkR^itiH //

On the left side of the same landing, a smoke-colored buffalo is present, which is a vehicle of Sri Dandanatha.

ardha-kroshAyataH shR^i~Nga-dvitaye krosha-vigrahaH
khaDga-vanniShThurair-lomajAtaiH saMvR^ita-vigrahaH //

Its horns are as long as half a Kroshas. Its body is about one Krosha. Its body is covered with hair, which are sharp like the sword.

nIlA~njanA-chalaprakhyo vikaTonnata-ruShTa-bhUH //

It has a tail that resembles the staff of Yama, the god of death. Its back, which is scary and tall, resembles a mountain of collyrium.

prabhUtoShmala-nishvAsa-prasarA-kaMpitAMbudhiH //

Its breath is capable of agitating the seven oceans.

gharghara-dhvaninA kAla-mahiShaM vihasanniva
varttate khuravikShipta-puShkalA-vartavAridaH //

The gharghara noise it makes seems to deride Mahisha, Yama's vehicle. By simply thumping its hooves, it is able to scatter the clouds in the sky.

tasyaiva parvaNo .adhastAch-chitrasthAna-kR^itAlayAH
indrAdayo .anekabhedA dishAmaShTaka-devatAH //

Below the same landing, Indra and the other celestials are present on raised platforms.

lalitAyAM kAryasiddhiM vij~nApayitum-AgatAH
indrash-chApsarasash-chaiva sa chatuSh-ShaShTiko-TayaH //

They are present here to allow the success of Lalita rites and to facilitate the protection of the world. Indra, sixty-four crores of divine damsels and celestials.

siddha agnish-cha sAdhyAsh-cha vishvedevAs-tathApare
vishvakarmA mayash-chaiva mAtarash-cha balonnatAH //

Siddhas, fire-god, Sadhyas, Vishwedevas, Vishwakarma and Maya (sculptors), Matridevatas. present there. In this circle of celestials, Indra,

rudrAsh-cha parichArAsh-cha rudrAsh-chaiva pishAchakAH
kranda~nchi-rakShasAM nAthA rAkShasA bahavas-tathA //

Rudras and their group, Pishachas, Nirriti and his Rakshas.

mitrAsh-cha tatra gandharvAH sadA gAnavishAradAH
vishvAvasu-prabhR^itayo vikhyAtAs-tat-purogamAH //

Mitras, Vishwavasu and the other Gandharvas, various groups of celestials,

tathA bhUta-gaNAsh-chAnye varuNo vAsavaH pare
vidyAdharAH kinnarAshcha mAruteshvara eva cha //

Bhuta hordes, Varuna, eight Vasus, Vidyadharas, Kinnaras, Vayu

tathA chitrarathash-chaiva rathakAraka kArakAH
tuMburur-nArado yakShaH somo-yakSheshvarastathA //

Chitraratha- the creator of forests, Tumburu, Narada, Yakshas headed by Kubera, Soma

devaish-cha bhagavAMs-tatra govindaH kamalApatiH
IshAnashcha jagach-chakra-bhakShakaH shUla-bhIShaNaH //

The gods Govinda lord of Kamala and Ishana with the terrible trident, destroyer of the world,

brahmA chaivAshvinI-putro vaidya-vidyAvishAradau
dhanvantarish-cha bhagavAnathAnye gaNanAyakAH //

Brahma and the Ashvins the lords of medicine, Dhanvantari and Gananayakas - all of them are of them are present there.

kaTakANDagaladdAna saMtarpita-madhuvratAH
ananto vAsukis-takShaH karkoTaH padma eva cha //

There are the snakes with shining decorations, Vasuki, Takshaka, Karkota, Padma and Ananta.

mahApadmaH sha~NkhapAlo gulikaH subalas-tathA
ete nAgeshvarAsh-chaiva nAgakoTi-bhirAvR^itAH //

There is Mahapadma, Shankapala and Gulika of great strength, the lords of snakes with crores of snakes.

evaM-prakArA bahavo devatAstatra jAgrati
pUrvAdi-dishamArabhya paritaH kR^ita-mandirAH //

tatraiva devatAsh-chakre chakrAkArA maruddishaH
Ashritya kila vartante tadadhiShThAtR^idevatAH //

Thus is the devata chakra with chakra lords and winds and directions along with the ruling gods turning in its entirity.

jR^iMbhiNI staMbhinI chaiva mohinI tisra eva cha
tasyaiva parvaNaH prAnte kirichakrasya bhAsvataH //

Three goddesses Jhrimbhini, Stambhini and Mohini are present in the fifth landing of this radiant chariot.

kapAlaM cha gadAM bibhrad-Urdhva-kesho mahAvapuH
pAtAla-tala-jaMbAla-bahulAkAra-kAlimA //

In the region of the same landing, Kshetrapala is present holding skull and mace in his hands. He has his hair tied upwards and has a large body. He is dark like the moss at the bottom of the nether worlds.

bhindanDamarukadhvAnai rodasIkandarodaram //

His thunderous laughter is like the Vajrayudha, capable of slicing the entire universe. He is constantly agitating the earth and sky by sounding his Damaruka (hand drum).

phUtkArItripurAyuktaM phaNipAshaM kare vahan
kShetrapAlaH sadA bhAti sevamAnaH kiTIshvarIm //

In the form of noose, he is holding a serpent with three heads, in his hands. Kshetrapala is always serving Sri Varahi Devi.

tasyaiva cha samIpasthastasyA vAhanakesarI
yamA ruhya pravavR^ite bhaNDAsuravadhaiShiNI //

Her vehicle, the great lion, is also present nearby as the goddess and mount prepare to slay the demon bhaNDa.

prAguktameva deveshIvAhasiMhasya lakShaNam
tasyaiva parvaNo .adhastAddaNDanAthAsamatviShaH //

Below this region, there are a thousand Shaktis, resembling Sri Dandanatha in from and complexion and sporting the same weapons as Sri Varahi.

shamyAH krodhAnanAshchandrarekhottaMsitakuntalAH //

They have long, sharp canines and have a bluish-black complexion.

halaM cha musalaM haste ghUrNayantyo muhurmuhuH
lalitAdrohiNAM shyAmAdrohiNAM svAminIdruhAm //

They hold Hala and Musala in their hands. They fill the skulls held in their hands with the blood of all those who fight Lalita, Shyamala or Varahi.

raktasrotobhirutkUlaiH pUrayantyaH kapAlakam
nijabhaktadrohakR^itA mantramAlAvibhUShaNAH //

They decorate themselves with the intestines of all those who betray or offend the devotees of the goddess.

svagoShThIsamAyAkShepakAriNAM muNDamaNDalaiH
akhaNDaraktavichChardairbibhratyo vakShasi krajaH //

sahasraM devatAH proktAH sevamAnAH kiTIshvarIm //

tAsAM nAmAni sarvAsAM daNDinyAH kuMbhasaMbhava
sahasranAmAdhyAye tu vakShyante nAdhunA punaH //

atha tAsAM devatAnAM kolAsyAnAM samIpataH
vAhanaM kR^iShNasAra~Ngo daNDinyAH samaye sthitaH //

Also nearby is another vehicle of the boar-faced one, the Krishna Saranga.
kroshArdhArddhAyataH shR^i~Nge tadardhArdhAyato mukhe

kroshapramANApAdashcha sadA choddhR^itavAladhiH //
Its horns are about half a Krosha, face is about ¾th Krosha and its legs are about a Krosha each. Its tail is always raised.

udare dhavalachChAyo hu~NkAreNa mahIyasA
hasanmArutavAhasya hariNasya parAkramam //

It has a white belly.

tasyaiva parvaNo deshe varttate vAhanottamam
kirichakrarathendrasya sthitastatraiva parvaNi //

This wonderful vehicle is also present in the fifth landing of the Kiri Chakra chariot.

varttate madirAsiMdhurdevatArUpamAsthitA
mANikyagirivachChoNaM haste pishitapiNDakam //

In the same landing, Sura Samudra (the ocean of liquor or wine) is also present in the form of a deity. Like a mountain of ruby, it has a red complexion and is holding a lump of meat in his hands.

yadAyadA bhaNDadaityaH saMgrAme saMpravartate
yuddhasveda manuprAptAH shaktayaH syuH pipAsitAH //

During the battle, whenever the Shaktis experience fatigue, Sura Samudra assumes various forms and distributes Sura to them to banish their fatigue.

dadhAnA ghUrNamA nAkShI hemAMbhojasragAvR^itA
madashaktyA samAshliShTA dhR^itaraktasarojayA //

Decorated with golden ornaments, he is in the embrace of Mada Shakti, who holds a red lotus in her hands.

tadAtadA surAsiMdhurAtmAnaM bahudhA kShipan
raNe khedaM devatAnAma~njasApAkariShyati //

His wonderful role is clear in the course of the great .

tadapyadbhutame varShe bhaviShyati na saMshayaH
tadA shroShyasi saMgrAme kathyamAnaM mayA mudA //

tasyaiva parvaNo .adhastAdaShTadikShvagha eva hi
uparyapi kR^itAvAsA hetukAdyA dasha smR^itAH //

mahAnto bhairavashreShThAH khyAtA vipulavikramAH
uddIptAyuta tejobhirddivA dIpitabhAnavaH //

In the eight directions of this landing, ten great Bhairavas are present. They are very famous and powerful. They seem to brighten the sun with their own brightness.

kalpAntakAle daNDinyA Aj~nayA vishvaghasmarAH
atyudagraprakR^itayo radadaShTauShThasaMpuTAH //

During the end of the creative cycle, they destroy the world as per the orders of Sri Varahi.

hetukastripurArishcha tR^itIyashchAgnibhairavaH //

Holding tridents, they seem to pierce the skies. Their names are: Hetuka, Tripurari, Agni.

yamajihvaikapAdau cha tathA kAlakarAlakau
bhImarUpo hATakeshastathaivAchalanAmavAn //

Yamajihva, Ekapada, Kaala, Karaala, Bhimarupa, Haatakesha and Achala Bhairavas.

ete dashaiva vikhyAtA dashakoTibhaTAnvitAH
tasyaiva kirichakrasya vartante parvasImani //

Along with ten crore attendants, they reside in the fifth landing of the Kiri Chakra chariot.

evaM hi daNDanAthAyAH kirichakrasya devatAH
jR^iMbhiNyAdyachalendrAntAH proktAstrailokyapAvanAH //

I have described to you, all the divinities residing in this chariot, from Jrimbhini to Achala Bhairava.

tatratyairdevatAvR^indairbahavastatra saMgare
dAnavA mArayiShyante pAsyante raktavR^iShTayaH //

All these deities shall kill demons and drink their blood in the battle.

itthaM bahuvidhatrANaM parvasthairdevatAgaNaiH
kirichakraM daNDanetryA ratharatnaM chachAla ha //

In this way, with all these Shaktis, the great Kiri Chakra chariot of Sri Dandanatha Varahi proceeded further towards the battlefield.

I am trying to remember a sloka my dad used to sing while taking shower or while giving us shower. It named all rivers of India. It went "ganga sindhu saraswati ca yamuna, godavari narmada, kaveri saryu mahedra tenaya, gata gaya gandaki, chippra vetravati... " and so it went. Does anybody know the sloka ?

Thanks boss..
<!--QuoteBegin-rajesh_g+May 8 2005, 03:06 AM-->QUOTE(rajesh_g @ May 8 2005, 03:06 AM)<!--QuoteEBegin--> Guroos,

I am trying to remember a sloka my dad used to sing while taking shower or while giving us shower. It named all rivers of India. It went "ganga sindhu saraswati ca yamuna, godavari narmada, kaveri saryu mahedra tenaya, gata gaya gandaki, chippra vetravati... " and so it went. Does anybody know the sloka ?

Thanks boss.. <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
The one I know is:
<b> " Gange cha Yamune chaiva Godavari Saraswati,
Narmade Sindhu Kaveri jalesmin sannidhim kuru"</b>

I do not know the version with Sarayu, Chippra. Would be great to hear.
Sunder guroo,

My grandpa used to sing this and then my dad. I used to know this when i was young but somehow managed to forget the sloka. Now whenever I give shower to my kid that sloka still comes in bits and pieces but not the whole sloka. Hopefully someone will remember .. <!--emo&Sad--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/sad.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='sad.gif' /><!--endemo-->


I have been searching on the web but no luck so far. Meanwhile I found this interesting writeup. Not sure about its veracity but it does seem interesting..

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->References to Tamil - Dynasties, Countries, in Mahabharatha

Topic started by virarajendra on Thu Feb 3 8:44:56 2005. [Full View]

The original Sanskrit Mahabharatha written by Sage - Viyasa, has many references on the Tamil Royal Dynasties and on the Tamil Countries of South India, and to the other geographical locations within, that were known during the period of the Mahabharatha events, which I trust will be of much interest to the research - scholars and students of Tamil History and append below same to their benefit.

I have selected the version of Mahabharatha translated into English Prose by “Mr Kisari Mohan Ganguli” from the original Sanskrit Text of Sage Viysa, and published by Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers (Pvt) Ltd, New Delhi, India, from which the following have been extracted.


[1] ".......Dhritarashtra (i.ee.Thiritarasra) said, ‘Hear O Sanjaya the celestial feeats of Vasudeva feats that Govinda achieved and the like of which no otheer person hath ever been able to achieve......The mighty Krishna also slew the valiant king of Chedis.......all these he vanquished in battle. The Avantis......the Cholas, the Pandyas......as also Sakas, and the Yavanas with followers were all vanquished by him ........’


From the above it is noted that Krishna defeated the Cholas and Pandyas in a battle prior to Baratha war.

[2] "........When that host was being thus struck and slain by heroic warriors, the Parthas headed by Vrikodara advance against us. They consisted of Dhrishtayumna and Sikhandin, and the five sons of Draupadi, and the Prabhadrakes, and Satyaki, and Chekitana with the Dravida forces, and the Pandyas, the Cholas, and the Keralas, surrounded by a mighty array, all possessed of broad chests, long arms, tall statures an large eyes. Decked with ornaments, possessed of red teeth, endued with the prowess of infuriate elephants, attired in robes of diverse colours, smeared with powere scents, armed with swords and nooses, capable of restraining mightty elephants, companions in death, and never eserting one other, equipped with quivers, bearing bows adorne with long locks, an agreeable in speech were the combatants of the infantry files led by Sayaki, belonging to Andhra tribe, retinue with fierce forms and great energy. Other brave warriors such as the Chedis, the Panchalas, the Kaikayas, the Karushas, the Kosalas, the Kanchis, and the Maghadhas also rushed forward........"


From the above it is very clear Pandyas, Cholas, Keralas who were the Cheras, the Kanchi undoubtedly the Thondaimandala kings whose capital was at Kanchi. all fought on the side of the Pandavas.

[3] ".......I behold the Ganga, the Satudru, the Sita, the Yamuna, and the Kausiki, the Charmanwati, the Vetravati, the Chandrabaga, the Saraswati, the Sindhu, the Vipasa, and the Godavari, the Vaswokasara, the Nalini and the Narmada, the Tamara, and the Venna also of delightful current and sacred waters, the Suvenna, the Krishna-venna, the Irama,and the Mahanadi, the Vitasti, O great king and that large river Cavery, the one also O tiger ! among men the Visalya and the Kimpuna also......"


From the above it is noted that in the days of Mahabaratha the river Cavery river would have been very wide with more flow of water as the pronoun “large river” is only used to river Cavery, when many of the other rivers of India was being referred simply as rivers in Mahabaratha. The above also describes of the warrirors from the Tamil countries and of their forces ,valour and armoury.

[4] "Markandeya said `O bull of the Bharata race even Rama suffered unparalled misery, for the evil minded Ravana king of Rakshasas, having recourse to deceit and overpowering the vulture Jatayu forcibly carried away his wife Sita from his asylum in the woods. Indeed Rama with the help of Sugriva brought her back, constructing a bridge across the sea, and consuming Lanka with his keen-edged arrows........"


From the above we note Markandeya in explaing the sufferings undergone by kings prior to Pandavas refers to the Rama and Ravana story being the Ramayana. Hence it is very clear Mahabaratha war took place after tthe Ramayana story.

[5] ".......then going to the south Karna vanquished the mighty charioteers and in Dakshinatya the Suta's son entered into conflict with Rukmi.......Having met with Rukmi, Karna repaired to Pandya and the mountain Sri. And by fighting he made Karala(Kerala ??) king Nila, Venudari's son and other best of kings living in the southern direction pay tribute....."


From the above we note Karna who was with the Kauravas went to Pandya country and the Kerala country down the southern region of India and exacted tributes from them.

[6] "......The river Indus, the five rivers (of the Punjab) the Sone, the Devika the Saraswati, the Ganga, the Satakumba, the Sarayu, the Ganaki, the Charmanwati, the Mahi, the Medha, the Medhatithi the three rivers Tamravati the Vetravati and the Kausiki, the Tamasa the Narmada, the Godavari, the Vena the Upavena, the Bhima, the Vadawa the Bharati the Suprayoga, the Kaveri, the Murmura the Tungavenna, the Krishnavenna and the Kapila these rivers O Bharatha ! are said to be the mothers of the fires......."


Here too reference is made to the river Kaveri flowing through the Chola

[7] Krishnavenna ”.......Kshatriyas assembled in that amphitheatre, each desirous of winning of winning the daughter of Drupatha those princes Karna, Duryodhana, Salwa, Salya, Aswatthaman, Kratha, Sunitha, Vakra, the ruler of Kalinga, and Banga, Pandiya Paundra, the ruler of Videha, the chief of the Yavanas, and many other sons and grandsons of kings, sovereigns of territories with eyes like lotus petals, one after another began to exhibit prowess for (winning) that maiden of unrivalled beauty.....”


From the above it is noted that the Pandya king and the Yavana king were among many others who exhibited their prowess to win the princess Draupathi at the Suyavaram festivity.

[8] "........O king there are also four oceans, the river Bhagirathee, the Kalindi, the Vidisa, the Venwa, the Narmada of rapid current, the Vipasa, the Satadu, the Chandrabhaga, the Saraswati, the Iravati, the Vitasta, the Sindu, the Devanadi, the Godavari, Krishnavenwa, and that queen of rivers the Kaveri......."


Here too it is evident that during the days of Mahabaratha the river Kaveri which flowed through the Chola country was held in high esteem by the North Indians among all other rivers of India.

[9] ".......the son of Pandu (Sahadeva)........the hero brought under his subjection and exacted tributes from Paundrayas and the Dravidas along with the Udrakeralas and the Andhras and the Talavanas the Kalingas and the Ushtrakarnikas and also the delightful city of Atavi and that of Yavanas......."


From he above we note one of the Pandava brothers namely Sahadeva exaced tributes from Dravidas and the kings of north Kerala.

[10] ".......O bull of the Bharata race having heard of king Yudhishthura's sacrifice hundreds of other Kshatriyas acquainted with the nature of the sacrifice with joyous hearts came there from various countries,........the kings of Vanga and Kalinga, and Akastha and Kuntala, and the kings of Malavas and the Andhrakas and the Dravidas and the Singhalas and the king of Kashmira........"


We note from the above to attend the Yuthistra's sacrifice (Yaga)
among many who came were the Dravidas and the Singhalas of Sri Lanka too have came.

[11] ".....and Vinda and Anuvinda of Avant Pandya......"


A reference is made to a Pandiya king

[12] ".......Duryodhana said O sinless one listen to me as I describe that large mass of wealth consisting of various kinds of tribute presented unto Yudhishthira by the kings of the earth......the kings of Chola and Pandya though they brought numberless jars of gold filled with fragrant sandal juice from the hills of Malaya, and loads of sandal and the aloe wood from the Dardduras hills and many gems of great brilliancy and fine cloths inlaid with gold didnot obtain permission to enter, and the king of the Singhalas gave those best of sea-born gems called the lapis lazuli and heaps of pearls also and hundreds of coverlets for elephants. And numberless dark-coloured men with the ends of their eyes red as copper attired in cloths decked with gems waited at the gate with those presents......"


From the above we note the complete description of all items the Cholas the Pandyas and the Sinhalas from Sri Lanka brought to king Yuthistra as present on the occasion of the great Yaga conducted by him.

[13] ".......and even Krishna himself.......addressing Yudhishthira said That prosperity which the sons of Pritha had acquired at Indraprastha and which unobtainable by other kings was beheld by me at the Rajasuya sacrifice at which besides I saw all kings even those of the Vangas and Angas and Paundras and Odras and Cholas and Dravidas and Andhakas and the chiefs of many islands and countries on the sea-board as also of frontier states including the rulers of the Sinhalas, the barbarous Mlecchas, the natives of Lanka, and all the kings of the west by hundreds, and all the chiefs of the sea-coast, and the kings of the Pahlavas and the Daradas and the various tribes of the Kiratas and Yavanas and Sakras and the Harahunas and Chinas ........"


Krishna himself personally saw the Cholas, Dravidas, and the Sinhalas being present at the Yaga sacrifice which he confirmed to Yuthistra.

[14] "........Proceeding next to the mountain Rishabha in Pandya worshipped by the gods, one obtains the merit of the Vajpeya sacrifice and rejoices in heaven. One should next proceed to the river Kaveri, frequented by Apsaras. Bathing there O monarch ! and obtaineth the merit of giving away a thousand kine. Touching next the waters of the tirtha called Kanya on the shores of the sea one is cleansed from every sin. Proceeding next to Gokarna celebrated over the three worlds and which is situate O best of kings ! in the midst of the deep (sea ??? - Trincomalee of Sri Lanka???)and referenced by all the worlds........worship the lord of Uma, one should worship Isana, fasting there for three nights. By this he acquireth the merit of the horse-sacrifce and the status of Gnapatya by staying there for twelve nights one's soul is clensed of all sins........"


Here we note the description of the mountain in the Pandya country, about the river Kaveri, the thirtha the Kanyakumari, and Gokarna it seems to refer to the modern Thirukkoneswaram in north-east Sri Lanka, a Shiva shrine.

[15] "......Dhaumya continued, Listen O Bharata I shall now narrate to thee in detail according to my knowledge the sacred tirthas of the south......O Yudhishthira in the country of the Pandyas are the tirthas named Agastya and Varuna ! and O bull among men there amongst the Pandavas is the thirtha called Kumaris. Listen O son of Kunti I shall now describe Tamraparni. In that asylum the gods had undergone penances impelled by the desire of obtaining salvation. In that region also is the lake of Gokarna which is celebrated over the three worlds hath an abundance of cool waters and is sacred auspicious and capable O child of producing great merit. That lake is extremely difficult of access to men of unpurified souls. Near to that thirtha is the sacred asylum of Agastya's disciple the mountain Devasabha which abounds in trees and grass and friuts and roots. And there also is the Vaiduryya mountain which is delightful abounding in gems capable of bestowing great merit. There on that mountain is the asylum of Agastya abounding in friuts roots and water.......'


Here a description is given on the sacred Thirthas of the Pandya country the Agastya the Varuna the Gokarna of the mountains Devasabha and Vaidurya that were known during the Mahabaratha days.

[16] "........Radha's son of the Suta caste, an those mighty car-warriors who were his brothers,an the Kaikeyas, the Mallavas, the Madrakas the Dravidas of fierce prowress, the Yaudheyas, the Lalittyas, the Kshudrakas, the Usinaras, the Tundikeras, the Savitriputras, the Easterners, the Northerners, the Westerners and the southerners, O sire, have all been slain by Savyasachin......."


Here the great valour of the Dravidas of this period is referred to by Viyasa.

[17] "........Being of such low origin, how can they be conversant with the duties ordained in the scriptures? The Karashakas, the Mahishakas, the Kalingas, the Keralas, the Karktakas, the Virakas, and other peoples of no religion one should always avoid....'


This statement cannot be accepted as during this period the Keralas who were the Cheras had Vedic rituals practiced in their country.

[18] ".......The Dravida, the Andhaka and the Niishada foot-soldiers, urged on by Satyaki, once more rushed towards Karna in that battle from desire of slaying him......."


The above too confirms Dravidas fought against Karna of the Kaurava side.

[19] "........The mighty Pandya that foremost of all wielders of weapons has been slain in battle by the Pandavas, what can it be but destiny ?......"


Here we note the Pandya as one the greatest among warriors killed in the war.

[20] ".......like one perfectly withdrawn from the world is a real Yogin of the Bhikshu order....."


From the above further indication is given that the Mahabaratha took place after the birth of Buddha.

[21] ".........Vasudeva's son Krishna ......It was he that slew king Pandya by striking his breast against his, and moved down the Kalingas in battle. Burnt by him the city of Varanasi remained for many years without a king......"


The above confirms that the Pandya king who participated in the Baratha war was killed by Krishna the son of Vasudeva.

[22] "Vasudeva said........Thou O Karna hast been born in this way. Thou art therefore morally the son of Pandu......O thou of mighty arms with thy brothers the Pandavas with yapas and homas and auspicious rites of diverse kinds performed in thy honour. Let the Dravidas with the Kuntalas, the Andhras an the Talacharas, Shuchupas, and the Venupas all walk before thee......."


Dravidas are mentined here again.

[23] "...........and the king of Magadha Jayatsena of great strength brought with him for Yudhishthira an Akshauhini of troops. And similarly Pandya who dwelt on the coast -land near the sea, came accompanied by troops of various kinds to Yudhishthira the king of kings....."


From the above it is clear the Pandyas whose kingdom was adjacent to the sea in the south of India too came with large forces to asist the Pandava king Yuthistra.

[24] ".........O son of Kunti art indulging in similar bragging, be a man1........O Partha thou wishest in vain to conquer !........why art thou not able to realise the might of this vast army of the assembled monarchs......the Dravidas, the Andhras and the Kanchis, this host of many nations ready for battle......."


The might of the forces of Dravidas and Kanchis are mentioned here. Kanchis probably refers to Thondaiman kings.

[25] "........The mighty Sarangadhwaja, endued with wealth of energy, the king of the Pandyas, on seeds of the hue of the moon's rays and decked with armour set with stones of lapis lazuli advanced upon Drona stretching his excellent bow......”


Here the Pandiyan King is mentioned by the name Saranga-dhwaja who was of great valour, and gives a description of his armour fitted with pearls (lapis lazuli).

[26] "Sanjaya said listen to me O king (Thiratharastra).......to the names of the provinces as I mention them. They are.......the Keralas......the Andhras.......There are other kingdoms O bull of Bharatha's race, in the south. They are the Dravidas, the Keralas (repeated again)......the Karanatakas......the Cholas......"


Here the southern kingdoms of India namely the Kerala (the Cheras), Andhara, Dravidas, Karnatakas and the Cholas are mentioned. These are presenly called by a general term as the Dravidian States. Hence it is clear that the Sanjaya who was daily advicing the king Thiratharastra - father of Duriyodana and the sage Viyasa who wrote the Mahabaratha epic after the event, knew the Dravidian states of South India.

[27] ".......It is in consequence of he absencee of Brahmaanas from among them that the Sakas, the Yavanas, the Kamvojas and other Kshatriya tribes have fallen and degraded into thee status of Sudras. The Dravidas, the Kalingas, the Pulandas, he Usinaras, the Kolisarpas, the Mahishakas and other Kshatriyas havee in consequence of the absence of Brahmanas from among their midst become degraded nto Sudras...."


Dravidas have been mentioned here again.

[28] ".........the great river Lohita, Tamra, Aruna, Vetravathi, Parnasa, Gautami, the Godavari, Vena, Krishnavena, Dwija, Drishadvati, Kaveri, Vankhu, Mandakini Prayaga, Prabhasa........"


River Kaveri is mentioned again.

[29] ".........Then, O bull in Bharata's race, Nandini alarmed at the sight of Viswamitra's troops.......from her tail she brought forth an army of Palhavas, and from her udders an army of Dravidas and Sakas and from her womb an army of Yavanas and from her urine an army of Kanchis and from her sides an army of Savaras. And from the froth of her mouth came out hosts of Paundras and Kiratas, Yavanas, and Sinhalas and the barbarous tribes of Khasas and Chivukas and Pulindas and Chinas and Hunas and Keralas........"


Keralas (Cheras), Kanchis(Thondaimans), and Dravidas are mentioned here again.

The End

Above link has list of Mbh xlation by Sri Ganguli in ascii text format.
<!--QuoteBegin-rajesh_g+May 8 2005, 02:04 AM-->QUOTE(rajesh_g @ May 8 2005, 02:04 AM)<!--QuoteEBegin--> Sunder guroo,

My grandpa used to sing this and then my dad. I used to know this when i was young but somehow managed to forget the sloka. Now whenever I give shower to my kid that sloka still comes in bits and pieces but not the whole sloka. Hopefully someone will remember .. <!--emo&Sad--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/sad.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='sad.gif' /><!--endemo-->

In some communities, towards the end of bath (usually with last splash) they say '<i>Kashi Ganga Bhaghirati</i>'. What's the origin of this? And significance?
The adi parvan of the mahAbhArata provides a remarkable "fossilized" sUktaM to the ashvins. It comes in the 3rd chapter of the adi parvan known as the pauShya section (1.3.60 in the critical Poona edition of the mahAbhArata). This section is a particularly interesting in terms of retaining some of the archaic structures of the epic, probably coming unadulterated from the original form of the jaya epic. Its frame narrates the tale of how janamejaya, the kuru emperor, and conqueror of takShashIla came to perform his infamous sarpa yaGYa to avenge the killing of his father parIkShit by the nAga chief. From this frame bud off many archaic tales, one of which is the tale of trial of the sage upamanyu of the clan of the vasiShThas. In this tale, upamanyu as a young student in the ashrama of his teacher Ayodo dhaumya was particularly well-fed in his appearance. dhaumya cuts off his means of food, namely from the alms received in the city or from the cows he took to graze, by instructing him not to eat or drink any of those things. In this state dhaumya asked upamanyu to go and graze his cows. upamanyu without any food eats the leaves of the arka plant and as a consequence goes blind and falls into a pit while crawling about. Upon seeing his absence at sunset that day, dhaumya and his students set out in search of upamanyu and call out to him in the pastures. They hear him crying out from a pit and mention his blindness. dhaumya asks him to invoke the ashvins. He immediately composes a series of R^ichas with which he praises the ashvins. As a result they are pleased and give him an apUpa cake. upamanyu states that he will eat the cake only after offering it to his teacher. They urge upamanyu to do so without offering him, but he refuses. Pleased with his devotion they relieve him of his blindness and the twin gods also give him a denture of gold, unlike the steel denture they had given his teacher dhaumya. As a result dhaumya states that upamanyu has passed his trial and blesses him to be a great scholar of the vedas and the dharmashAstras.

This ashvina sUktaM of upamanyu (UAS) is a rather remarkable hymn in many respects:
1) It is unlike most other material in the mahAbhArata actually very close to the vedic metaphors and style, using a triShTubh based meter that is typical of vedic. For example the use of the term dAsapatnI i.e one powered by the demonic dAsa or vala is clearly a vedic usage not encountered elsewhere in later Sanskrit.

2) However, in its language it shows late features closer to the epic Sanskrit, particularly in the dvandva forms ending in –au as against the vedic forms with –A (e.g. nAsatyA or ashvinA). Use of aruNa instead of uShA is also atypical with respect to the vedic formulations.

3) It alludes to several mythological motifs of astronomical provenance that are common in the veda but rarely found in those particular forms in the later Hindu mythologies. These include the important motif of the regeneration of the sun and dawns, which is strikingly expressed in multiple forms in this hymn as in the vedic hymns. These expressions include the ashvins leading forth the dawns, setting free the quail grabbed by the eagle, bursting of the mountain stronghold of vala to set free the days and waters and the swallowing of the embryo and its re-birth. Also present are the motifs of the wheel of time with 720 spokes (720 days and nights), with 12 spokes (12 months) and 6 seasons on the rim of the wheel. These are very similar to the metaphors used by dIrghatamA auchAthya of the clan of the a~Ngiras in hymn RV 1.165. Another metaphor used in the UAS is that of the 360 cows bearing one calf (the sun), which in turn equated with the gharma offering to the ashvins with the uktha chant in the pravargya rite.

The whole setting of the upamanyu tale involves a mythography that recapitulates the sun regeneration myth often seen in the R^igveda. upamanyu, like other R^igvedic characters saved by the ashvins, namely chyavAna (buried in a termite hill), parAvR^ija and dIrghatamA, had gone blind, and like antaka and atri, other protégés of the ashvins, had fallen in a pit. This is an allegory to sun being lost in winter and is made more direct by the mention that quest for upamanyu, who had fallen in the pit begins after the sun had set. Further his denture of gold given by the ashvins is also a cryptic allegory for the returning sunshine.

The UAS in not found in any surviving saMhitA of the veda and upamanyu is far removed in age from the hoary hymn composers of the R^ig and atharvaN. Instead, it appears that it represents an intermediate hymn, a late vedic composition in the epic period. This suggests that hymn composition in the R^igvedic style continued well into the epic period. It is thus a rare sample of the class of “Vedic” compositions that happened in the period of composition of the original jaya and is one of the survivals of the actual religious structures of the jaya period, which are hidden under the heavily pauranicized extant mahAbhArata. We will also reinforce this point with another short hymn, the indra stuti of utanka the bhArgava in the same section of the mahAbhArata.

The frame tale of UAS also has a structure resembling the mythological fragments of the bR^ihad-devata of shaunaka and brAhmaNa texts, especially like those in the jaiminIya brAhmaNa. This suggests that a similar core set of ancestral mythological frame tales were reused both in the generation of brAhmaNa texts and the itihAsa. These are likely to represent the original itihAsa-purANa. The frame of the UAS suggests that it is a case where an actual history has been adapted to fit an influential pre-existing mythological motif. The weakening or disappearance of the sun in winter and its regeneration, along with the dawns and the release of the frozen waters, was a striking motif acquired in the northern homeland of the Indo-Europeans. Given the strong impression it left on the Aryans, it was reused in various contexts of act regeneration by the ashvins and other gods. This ancient memory was well-preserved in the language of myth and found its way in the narrative of upamanyu’s trial and revival.

We provide below a translation and commentary on the UAS.

prapUrvagau pUrvajau chitrabhAnU girA vA sha.nsAmi tapanAvanantau .
divyau suparNau virAjau vimAnAvadhikShiyantau bhuvanAni vishvA .. 60..

You have existed before the emergence of the sun, the first-born beings, of beautiful luster. I desire your help with this chant, oh blazing ones who are infinite. You are the course of existence what pervades existence, the heavenly birds of beauteous feather and are in everything and pervade the universe.

hiraNmayau shakunI sAmparAyau nAsatyau dasrau sunasau vaijayantau .
shukra.n vayantau tarasA suvemAvabhi vyayantAvasita.n vivasvat .. 61..

You are golden birds, you are the future of existence, the truth, with good noses and victorious in battle. Having generated the sun, you weave the wondrous cloth of the year by means of the white thread [of the day] and the black thread [of the night].

grastA.n suparNasya balena vartikAm.h amu~nchatAm.h ashvinau saubhagAya .
tAvatsuvR^ittAvanamanta mAyayA sattamA gA aruNA udAvahan .. 62..

Oh ashvin twins, endowed with auspiciousness, you set free the quail seized by the the strong grip of the eagle. Oh leaders indeed you are of good [chariot] wheels and indeed un-deceivable, with your powers you go leading the dawns.

ShaShTishcha gAvastrishatAsh cha dhenava eka.n vatsam.h suvate ta.n duhanti .
nAnA goShThA vihitA ekadohanAs tAvashvinau duhato gharmamukthyam.h .. 63..

Sixty cows and three hundred cows suckle one calf between them (1). The various cowpens together yield one milking, indeed this is the hot milk offering [gharma in the pravargya pot] with the uktha chant milked by the ashvins.

ekAm.h nAbhi.n saptashatA arAH shritAH pradhiShvanyA viMshatirarpitA arAH .
anemi chakram.h parivartate .ajaram.h mAyAshvinau samanakti charShaNI .. 64..

There is one nave with 700 spokes fixed, also fixed to it are 20 more spokes (2). This spoked wheel, turns endlessly, you ashvins have set them together [spokes] in motion.

eka.n chakra.n vartate dvAdashAram.h pradhi ShaNNAbhimekAkShamamR^itasya dhAraNam.h.
yasmindevA adhi vishve viShaktAs tAvashvinau mu~nchato mA viShIdatam.h.. 65..

The one wheel with twelve spokes, and the circumference with the six [season] rotates around the one axle without an end (3). Upon this the gods are all stationed, Oh ashvins free me from the influence of the toxin.

ashvinAv-indram-amR^ita.n vR^ittabhUyau tirodhattAm-ashvinau dAsapatnI .
bhittvA girimashvinau gAmudAcharantau tadvR^iShTamahnA prathitA valasya .. 66..

Oh immortal ashvins and indra, you twins who generate the rotations, oh ashvins remove those powered by the demonic dasas. Oh ashvins, burst the mountain stronghold of the demon vala, and go fort to bring out the waters and spread out the day light.

yuvA.n disho janayatho dashAgre samAnam.h mUrdhni rathayA viyanti .
tAsA.n yAtamR^iShayo.anuprayAnti devA manuShyAH kShitimAcharanti .. 67..

In the beginning, you twin youths generated [space] with ten directions; then you set the chariot moving in the [sky] above (4). The R^iShis, according to the course of the same [sun], perform their sacrifices, and the gods and men, accordingly occupy their respective stations.

yuvA.n varNAnvikurutho vishvarUpA.ns te.adhikShiyanti bhuvanAni vishvA .
te bhAnavo. apyanusR^itAsh charanti devA manuShyAH kShitimAcharanti .. 68..

Youths! From the [basic] colors, you have produced all the various forms; it is from these objects that the entire universe is filled. Ordained by these rays of [color] the gods and men occupy their respective stations.

tau nAsatyAv-ashvinAv-Amahe vAm.h sraja.n cha yAm.h bibhR^ithaH puShkarasya .
tau nAsatyAv-amR^itAv-R^itAvR^idhAv R^ite devAs-tat-prapadena sUte .. 69..

You nAsatyas, ashvins I worship you two, who wear garlands and bear lotus flowers. You nasAtyas, the immortal ones, the upholders of the R^ita, you impel the R^ita through which the devas attain their [stations].

mukhena garbha.n labhatAm.h yuvAnau gatAsuretatprapadena sUte .
sadyo jAto mAtaramatti garbhastAvashvinau mu~nchatho jIvase gAH .. 70..

The embryo has been taken through the mouth, oh youths impel this one who has expired to obtain [his station]. The mother, eater of the embryo, has brought it out (5); Oh ashvins release me and bring to life.

(1) 360 cows are the days of the year giving birth to the calf, the sun. The allegory here is thus: At the end of 360 days, the year, the sun has declined or disappeared at the winter solstice. The sun is then born in the new year as the calf. In the same R^ik the pravargya gharma, which represent the sun is also mentioned.
(2) 720 days and nights of the year are allude to here.
(3) The twelve fold division of the year- the 12 vedic months, and the 6 seasons are allude to here.
(4) An allusion to the sun’s chariot.
(5) The metaphor suggests the embryo, implying the sun, is being eaten and born again at the year beginning.
The indra stuti is another hymn in the pauShya section of the adiparavan of the mahAbhArata (1.3.150-1.3.153 in the critical Poona edition of the mahAbhArata) which appears to be a composition of the "intermediate period". However it bears certain distinctive features that differentiate if from the ashvina stuti and suggest that it is even closer to the transitional period than the former. It appears in the same frame story as the ashvina stuti of upamanyu: veda of the bhArgava clan was a student of Ayodo dhaumya. After he had gone through his own trial he was granted mastery over the veda and the dharmasutras by Ayodo dhaumya. He then founded his own school and had his own student also of the bhArgava clan, utta~Nka. Once the kShatriyas pauShya and janamejaya invited veda to serve as the brahmA priest in their sacrifice. veda left, instructing utta~Nka to take full care of his household. When he was away veda’s wife moved by amorous arousal asked utta~Nka to have sex with her, but he firmly refused. veda on his return was pleased with the conduct of utta~Nka and graduated him, and asked to proceed on his own. He insisted that he would need to pay veda his parting fee though veda asked him to take it easy. Pressed thus veda asked utta~Nka to ask his wife for whatever she wanted and provide that as the fee. She demanded the earrings of the queen of pauShya. So utta~Nka went on his quest. On the way he saw a gigantic bull and mighty man tending it. The man ordered utta~Nka to eat the dung of the bull and drink its urine. utta~Nka refused but the mighty man commanded utta~Nka to do stating that his own teacher had done the same (1). After partaking of the unclean material, utta~Nka washed his mouth, purified himself and went to pauShya and asked him for his queen’s earrings. The kShatriya asked utta~Nka to go and ask her directly in her apartment. He went there but the queen was not in sight. He came back and asked pauShya why that was so. The king told him that he was impure due to improper purification after his meal and the queen did not give audience to unclean souls. So utta~Nka again rigorously purified himself and went to the queen and made the request for her earrings that were desired by veda’s wife. She gladly gave that to him but stated that he would have to safe guard them from takShaka the nAga who also desired them. The king then asked him to have shrAddha lunch before he left as he was a learned brahmin. It turned out that the lunch was cold and defiled by the hair of a woman. Getting furious utta~Nka cursed the king with blindness. The pauShya was taken aback by the curse and in retaliated by cursing the brahmin with sterility. utta~Nka objected by stating that it was king who had offended him first and showed him the hair and cold food. The king accepted that there had been a problem with the food, so the brahmin stated that pauShya’s blindness would eventually be cured. The king was unable to withdraw his curse but utta~Nka stated that he would eventually smother the curse with his own brahman power as he was not on the wrong.

utta~Nka then started off with the earrings, on the way while he was having his bath when a vagabond came and stole the earrings. utta~Nka chased him with utmost speed after having worshiped the devas and just as he caught he changed his form to that of the snake takShaka and started burrowing through a hole. He began pursuing the snake by digging into the hole with a hoe, but failed to make much progress. So he invoked indra for aid, who sent his vajra into utta~Nka’s hoe and it started drilling a hole behind the serpent. Finally he reached the sarpa loka where he saw the wonderful underground world of the sarpas with enormous palaces and terraces. Here he worshiped dR^itarAShTra airAvata the lord of all nAgas with the sarpa AnuShTubh invocations and asked for the earrings but they did not give it to him. Dejected he looked around and saw a peculiar sight. Two dames were weaving a cloth in fine loom with black and white threads. It was run by a wheel, with twelve spokes, turned by six boys. And he also saw a being with a great horse. He immediately invoked indra with the indra stuti. The being with the horse then said I am pleased with you praise, ask me what you want. utta~Nka sought victory over the serpents. The being asked utta~Nka to blow into the horse. On doing so flames issued forth from all the orifices of the horse and threatened to burn the loka of the sarpas. Fearing destruction takShaka handed over the earrings to utta~Nka. Just then utta~Nka realized that the auspicious moment for his teacher’s wife to wear the earrings had come and it would take him a long time to get back to her. He asked the being how he could return. The being gave him his great horse and asked him to ride it back. In a moment the horse bore him back to veda’s abode. veda’s wife was about to lay a spell on him for not getting the earrings, when he arrived with them just in time and gave her the gift. Pleased with him she instead gave him a boon of complete success.

On being asked by veda about the cause for his delay, he narrated the entire tale. veda explained to him that the mighty man with the enormous bull was indra. The two dames weaving the cloth were dhAtA and vidhAtA and the threads were the days and nights. The wheel was the year with the 12 months and the six boys the seasons. The being was indra who had also borne veda aid in the past and the horse was agni. The dung and urine was actually ambrosia which had allowed utta~Nka to live while in the loka of the sarpas. veda then bade him to make his own way in the world.

The indra stuti of utta~Nka (UIS) has the following interesting features:

1) It uses the old vedic style in some respects such as the phrase “vajrasya bhartA” which is encountered right from the archaic nivids recited in the shrauta ritual.

2) In terms of the allegories for the wheel of time the UIS resembles the (UAS) and the sUktaM RV1.146, suggesting that like the UAS it is clearly based on an astronomical allegory. The main allegory here is that of the year and the hymn provides the vedic formulation of how linear direction time (conceived as a cloth woven with days and nights) emerges from a harmonic process of the celestial cycles (compared to the harmonic movement of the loom).

3) The meter is clearly centered on aNuShtubh and is close the classical shloka of epic literature. In this sense it is atypical with respect to a vedic sUktaM.

4) The invocation in the form of a salutation is seen in the last line of the hymn. While the salutation formulae are relatively common in the yajur texts like “namo astu sarpebhyo” or the namaka AnuvAkas of the shatarudriya chant, the phrases seen in the last line of the UIS is rare or even absent in the vedic texts. However it is very common in the itihAsa-purANa where the terms like jagadIshvara or trilokeshvara are very common in the praise of most deities.

Thus the UIS appears to be a sample of a “transitional” text where the old vedic metaphors are used in the context of an old narrative similar to the brAhmaNa narratives, but new elements typical of the Pauranic corpus are already emerging.

The mythographic frame of the UIS is far more complex than the UAS. At the face of it, like the latter hymn, the UIS also has a clear astronomical underpinning as suggested by the year allegory. While the theft of the earrings and their recovery many be interpreted as a form of a solar regeneration myth there is hardly any emphasis on it here unlike the repeated emphasis in the frame myth of the UAS. This, taken together with the more complex frame, suggests that there is a more complex astronomical imagery embedded in the language of this myth with the stolen earrings. A few elements which emerge from this language are described below.

Firstly, it is most likely that the earrings, as bright objects, do have a solar connection to them. Most importantly the name of the king in the tale is pauShya (vR^iddhi form of puShya) and the thief of the earrings is the sarpa (takShaka) can be linked to the nakShatras puShya (associated with the M44 cluster) and sarpa (Aslesha) are next to each other. The summer solstice, and accordingly the archaic new year full moon lay between these constellations in the end of the vedic period and the immediate post-mahAbhArata era (1300-1200 BC). The loss, theft or disappearance of bright objects, like fire, and gold are typically associated with myths signifying the precession of the axis with the sun (the bright object emerging often elsewhere) . Thus, it appears like the earrings of pauShya’s wife appear to be sun slipping to the new point between the snake’s head (the nakShatra pushya is the head of the serpentine constellation Hydra) puShya (M44 and surrounding stars in the constellation of Cancer) during the summer solstice. Here it was recovered by utta~Nka with indra and agni’s aid. Further evidence for this is offered by the lines from the sarpa chant of utta~Nka as he entered nAga-loka.

surUpAshcha virUpAshcha tathA kalmASha-kuNDalAH .
Adityavan-nAka-pR^iShThe rejur-airAvatodbhavAH ..140..

Of beautiful form, of various forms with speckled ear-rings are the serpents. They shine in the roof of the sky like the sun, snakes born of airAvata.

bahUni nAga-vartmAni ga~NgAyAstIra uttare .
ichChetko.arkAMshu senAyA.n chartumairAvata.n vinA .. 141..\\

On the northern banks of the ga~NgA are many stations of serpents. Who except airAvata would desire to move in the burning rays of the Sun?

Here the serpents are mentioned as shining with the sun in roof of the sky and dhR^itarAShTra airAvata, the lord of the serpents is mentioned as moving in the burning rays of the sun. These clearly indicate that serpent lord airAvata is celestial and represents the constellation of Hydra whose head is Aslesha with the summer solstice sun (presided by the vedic sarpa). This also explains what is meant by the north bank of the ga~NgA: the celestial ga~NgA is the Milky Way, just to the north of which lies the constellation of Hydra.

Now there are other more obscure motifs in the myth that are also suggestive of astronomical connections or links to other myths:

At the very beginning of the tale of utta~Nka is the mention of the mention of the illicit sexual advance made by veda’s wife to utta~Nka. Such illicit or incestuous sexual relationships are mentioned in other precessional myths of vedic and itihasa-purANa origin. 1) The precessional myth associated with kR^ittika and the birth of kumAra has the wives of 6 of the 7 R^iShis engaging in an illicit dalliance with agni. 2) The myth associated with rohiNi has prajApati making an incestuous advance on his own daughter. 3) In the classical precessional myth of the churning of the ocean there is the illicit advance of rudra towards mohinI. 4) In the vR^iShAkapi hymn, correctly interpreted by Tilak as a precessional myth, vR^ishAkapi (the virile ape) makes and illicit advance towards indrANi. For which indrANi punishes him by making a dog (Canis Major) bite him. These analogies suggest that the illicit sexual advance is a motif in the precessional which probably stands as a metaphor for the break in the old order or the longing for a new relationship, previously forbidden.

Another strange motif occurs in two independent of utta~Nka tales (1) is the consumption of filth that normally causes the brahmin to fall to ritual impurity. In both cases filth happens to be a concealed form of ambrosia. The exact implications of this concealed truth are not certain, but it could imply that the truth is always concealed. The temporary blindness of the king and the sterility of utta~Nka could be a metaphor of the solar decline at the winter solstice embedded within the larger frame. However, it could also signify the mythological “chaos” often associated with the precessional change of the coordinates of the year. Finally, there is the motif of the fire of equine form within water briefly alluded to as “garbham-apAM” - the horse of indra, which is agni. The connection of this equine fire within water to the astronomical myth of precession needs further exploration.

Another peculiar feature of the UIS is the black garment of indra. Some commentators have taken this to mean the color of the night sky [with the thousand eyes of indra being the stars] or the thunder clouds. It is interesting to note the connection with the samavedic udgAtA priest learning the rahasya gAnaM, the great shakvarI sAman, during which he wears black clothes. The shakvarI is said to be an embodiment of the vajra and the udgAtA wearing black clothes comes from the forest to the sacrificial arena, chanting it. This is the rite of bringing of the vajra and is supposed to be followed by a thunderstorm.

A translation of the indra stuti is provided below:

trINy-arpitAn-yatra shatAni madhye ShaShTishcha nitya.n charati dhruve .asmin .
chakre chatur-viMshati parva yoge ShaD yat-kumArAH parivartayanti ..150..

Around the axis set with the 300 and 60 [spokes] the [wheel] perpetually turns. The six young boys turn the wheel marked with 24 divisions (2) occurring as pairs.

tantra.n cheda.n vishvarUpaM yuvatyau vayatas-tantUn-satata.n vartayantyau .
kR^iShNAnsitAMsh chaiva vivartayantyau bhUtAnyajasraM bhuvanAni chaiva ..151..

These two dames of universal form are weaving without intermission a cloth with threads. With black and white [threads] they weave ushering into existence the manifold worlds and the entities within them.

vajrasya bhartA bhuvanasya goptA vR^itrasya hantA namuchernihantA .
kR^iShNe vasAno vasane mahAtmA satyAnR^ite yo vivinakti loke ..152..

Oh bearer of the vajra, the protector of the universe, you are the slayer of vR^itra and the slayer Namuchi. Oh illustrious one, who wears the black cloth and displays inviolable and violable laws of the universe.

yo vAjina.n garbham-apAM purANaM vaishvAnara.n vAhanam-abhyupetaH .
namaH sadAsmai jagadIshvarAya lokatrayeshAya purandarAya ..153..

That horse which was born from the depths of water in the ancient past, [which is] the fiery vaishvAnara, is furnished as your horse. I salute you, the supreme lord of the universe, the lord of the three worlds, and the destroyer of forts.

(1) In another tale utta~Nka is offered ambrosia by indra in the form of the urine of a niShAda in a desert.

(2) The 24 divisions on the wheel of time are the 24 fortnights that occur as pairs corresponding to each month.
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1000 names of Vishnu

Opening Prayer :

Shaantakaarambhujangashayanam Padmanaabham suresham
Vishvaadhaaram gagana-sacristanMegha-varnam shubha-angam

With peaceful demeanorResting on the world-serpent i.e. the energy running the
universe, or Prana

Withthe lotus-navel Beloved of the gods
Supporter of the world Who looks infinite & magnificentlike the sky
With the color of cloudsEvery part of whose body is auspicious

Lakshmee-kaantam kamala-nayanamYogibhir-dhyaana-gamyam
Vande-vishnumbhava-bhaya-haram Sarva-lokaika-naatham

Who glows with theradiance of Lakshmi, or Glory With eyes like the lotus
Whom yogis strive to reach in their deepest states ofmeditation
I bow to that Vishnu Whotakes away(eliminates) all fears from the minds of
devotees as soon as theyarise To He, who is the Master & Supporter of all worlds

OM Sri Vedavyasa rishihi

Anushtup Chandhaha

Vishwaroopo Mahavishnudevata

Om Vishvam Vishnuvashatkaro bhuta bhavya bhavat prabhuh
Bhutakrudbhutabhrud bhavo bhutatma bhuta bhavana (1)

Vishvam: the Universe.
Vishnur: He who pervades every thing.
Vashatkara: For whom the sacrificial versus are uttered in the yagyas.
Bhuta-bhavya-bhavat-prabhuh: The one who is the master and beyond the
past,present and the future.
Bhutakrud: The creator and destroyer of all existences in the universe.
Bhutabhrud: One who supports or sustains or governs the universe.
Bhava: Pure existence.
Bhutatma: The essence of all beings.
Bhuta-bhavanah: He who originates and develops all Elements.

Putatma paramatma cha muktanam parama gatih
Avyayah purusha sakshi kshetrajno~kshara eva cha ..2

Putatma: One whose nature ispurity/who is purity
Paramatma cha: He who is the supreme one and the Atman.
Muktanam parama gatih: The highest goal of the liberated ones.
Avyayah: One for whom there is no decay.
Purusha: One who abides in the body or pura.
Sakshi: One who witnesses everything
Kshetrajno: The knower of the field or body.
Akshara eva cha: He who is without destruction

Yogo yogavidam neta pradhana-purushesvarah
Narasimha-vapu shriman kesavah purushottamah ..3

Yogo: One attainable throughYoga.
Yogavidam neta: The master of those who are established in the
Pradhana-purushesvarah: The master of pradhana or Prakruti and Purusha or Jiva.
Narasimha-vapu: One in whom the bodies of a man and a lion are combined.
Shirman: One on whose chest the goddess Shri always dwells.
Kesavah: One whose Kesa or locks are beautiful
Purushottamah: The greatest among all Purushas

Sarvah sarvah sivah sthanur-bhutadir-nidhir-avyayah
Sambhavo bhavano bharta prabhavah prabhur-isvarah ..4

Sarvah: The omniscient sourceof all existence.
Sarvah: Destroyer.
Sivah: One pure.
Sthanur: One who is steady, immovable and changeless.
Bhutadir: Source of all elements or existing things.
Avyayah nidhir: The changeless and indestructible Being in whom the
wholeuniverse becomes merged and remains in seminal condition at the time of
Pralayaor cosmic dissolution.
Sambhavo: One born out of His own will as incarnation.
Bhavano: One who generates the fruits or Karmas of all Jivas for them to enjoy.
Bharta: One who supports the universe as its substratum.
Prabhavah: One from whom all the great elements have their birth. Or one who
hasexalted births as incarnations.
Prabhur: One who is an adept in all rites.
Ishvarah: One who has unlimited lordliness or power over all things.

Svayambhuh sambhur-adityah pushkaraksho mahasvanah
Anandi-nidhano dhata vidhata dhaturuttamah ..5

Svayambhuh: One who exists byHimself, uncaused by any other.
Sambhur: One who bestows happiness on devotees.
Adityah: The golden-hued person in the sun’s orb. Pushkaraksho: One who haseyes
resembling the petals of Pushkara or lotus.
Mahasvanah: One from whom comes the great sound – the Veda. Anandi-nidhano:The
one existence that has neither birth nor death.
Dhata: One who is the support of the universe.
Vidhata: He who generates Karmas and their fruits.
Dhaturuttamah: The ultimate support of every thing.

Aprameyohrishikesah padma-nabho~mara-prabhuh
Visvakarma manustvashta sthavishtah sthaviro-dhruvah ..6

Aprameyo: One who is notmeasurable or understandable by any of the accepted
means of knowledge likesense, perception, inference etc.
Hrishikesah: The master of the senses or He under whose control the
Padma-nabho: He in whose navel (nabhi) the lotus (padma), the source of
theuniverse, stands.
Amara-prabhuh: The master of Amaras or the deathless ones, i.e. the Devas.
Visvakarma: He whose Karma (work) has resulted in all that exists (Vishvam) orHe
whose power of creation is unique and wonderful.
Manu: He who thinks.
Stvashta: He who makes all beings shrunken (Tanukarana) at the time of
Sthavishtah: He who excels in everything in bulk or substantiality.
Sthaviro-dhruvah: Eternal One, being the most ancient. It is taken as a
singlephrase, the name along with its qualification.

Agrahyah sasvatah krishno lohitakshah pratardanah
Prabhutas-trikakubdhama pavitram mangalam param ..7

Agrahyah: One who cannot begrasped by the organs or knowledge or conceived by
the mind.
Sasvatah: One who exists at all times.
Krishno: The existence-Knowledge-Bliss.
Lihitakshah: One whose eyes are tinged red.
Pratardanah: Destroyer of all at the time of cosmic dissolution.
Prabhutas: Great because of unique qualities like omnipotence, omniscience etc.
Trikakubdhama: He who is the support (dharma) of the three regions above,
belowand in the middle.
Pavitram: That which purifies everything.
Mangalam param: Supremely auspicious.

Isanah pranadah prano jyeshthah sreshthah prajapatih
Hiranyagarbho bhugarbho madhavo madhusudanah .. 8

Isanah: He who controls andregulates everything.
Pranadah: One who bestows or activates the Prana, the vital energy.
Prano: The Supreme Being.
Jyeshthah: The eldest of all; for there is nothing before Him.
Sreshthah: One deserving the highest praise.
Prajapatih: The master of all living beings, because He is Ishvara.
Hiranyagarbho: One who is Atman of even Brahma the creator.
Bhugarbho: One who has got the world within Himself.
Madhavo: The Consort of Ma or Mahalakshmi or one who is fit to be known
Madhusudanah: The destroyer of the demon Madhu.

Ishvarovikrami dhanvi medhavi vikramah kramah
Anuttamo duradharsah krutajnah krutiratmavan ..9

Ishvara: The Omnipotent Being.
Vikrami: The courageous One.
Dhanvi: One armed with bow.
Medhavi: He who has great intelligence capable of grasping all texts.
Vikramah: He who crosses (Karmana) i.e. transcends samsara. Or one who has
Vih,bird i.e. Garuda as His mount.
Kramah: Vishnu is called Kramah, because He is the cause of Kramana or
crossingof the ocean of samsara by devotees, or because from Him all Krama
ormanifestation of the universe, has taken place.
Anuttamo: He than whom there is none greater.
Duradharsah: One whom none (Asuras) can overcome.
Krutajnah: One who knows everything about what has been done (Kruta) by
Jivas.Also one who is pleased even with those who offer such simple offerings
asleaves, flowers, fruits and water.
Krutir: The word means what is achieved through all human efforts or works.
Atmavan: One established in his own greatness i.e. requiring no other
supportthan Himself.

Suresah sharanam sharma vishvaretah prajabhavah
Ahah samvasaro vyalah pratyayah sarvadarshanah …10

Suresah: Thelord of the Suras or Devas. It can also mean the greatest of those
who bestowgood.
Saranam: One who removes the sorrows of those in distress.
Sharma: One who is of the nature of supreme bliss.
Vishvaretah: The seed of the universe.
Prajabhavah: He from whom all beings have originated.
Ahah: Luminous one.
Samvasaro: As Time is a from of Vishnu, He is called Samvasara or a year.
Vyalah: Being ungraspable like a serpent, He is called Vyalah.
Pratyayah: One who is of the nature of Pratiti or Prajna (consciousness)
Sarvadarshanah: One with eyes everywhere. As the Lord has assumed all forms,
theeye-sight of all beings is His.

Ajah sarveshvarah siddhah siddhih sarvadir acyutah
Vrushakapir ameyatma sarva-yoga-vinihshrutah …11

Ajah: One whohas no birth.
Sarveshvarah: The Lord of all Lords or the supreme Lord.
Siddhah: One ever established in one’s own nature. Siddhih: One who is of
thenature of Consciousness in all.
Sarvadih: One who is the first cause of all elements.
Achyutah: One who never lost and will never lose his inherent nature and powers.
Vrushakapir: One who shwers all objects of desire.
Ameyatma: One whose form or nature cannot be measured and determined.
Sarva-yoga-vinihshrutah: One who stands aside completely from all bondage.

Vasurvasumanah satyah samatma sammitah samah
Amoghah pundarikaksho vrusha-karma vrushakrutih …12

Vasur: One inwhom all beings dwell and one who dwells in all beings.
Vasumanah: The term Vasu means wealth or riches. Here it indicates greatness.
Soit means one possessed of a great mind i.e. a mind free from attachments,
angerand other evil qualities.
Satyah: One whose nature is Truth.
Samatma: One whose mind is Sama, without partiality or anger and thus the
sametowards all beings.
Sammitah: This name and the previous (samatma) occurring together, can be
splitin two ways – as samatma + sammitah and as samatma + asammitah. Samah:
Oneunpertubed at all times.
Amoghah: One whose worship will never go in vain, but will bear ample fruits.
Pundarikaksho: One who has pervaded, i.e. is realized in, the lotus of theheart.
Or One whose eyes resemble the petals of a lotus.
Vrushakarma: One whose actions are according to vrushas i.e. Dharma.
Vrushakrutih: One who takes form for the sake of Vrushas or Dharma.

Rudrobahushira babhrur vishva-yonih shuchi sravah
Amrutah shashvata-sthanur vararoho maha-tapah …13

Rudro: One whomakes all beings cry at the time of cosmic dissolution.
Bahushira: One with innumerable heads.
Babhrur: One who governs the world.
Vishvayonih: One who is the cause of the world.
Shuchi sravah:: One whose names and glories are very holy and purifying to
Amrutah: One who is deathless.
Shashvata-sthanur: One who is both eternal and firmly established, unchanging.
Vararoho: He whose lap gives the highest blessings.
Mahatapah: The austerity connected with creation, which is of the nature
ofknowledge is of great potency.
Sarvagah sarva-vid-bhanur vishvaksheno janardanah
Vedo vedavid avyango vedango vedavit kavih..14
Sarvagah: One who pervades everything, being of the nature of their
Sarva-vid-bhanur: One who is omniscient and illumines everything.
Vishvaksheno: He before whom all Asura armies get scattered.
Janardanah: One who inflicts suffering on evil men.
Vedah: He who is of the form of the Veda.
Vedavid: One who knows the Veda and its meaning.
Avyango: One who is self-fulfilled by knowledge and other great attributes andis
free from every defect.
Vedango: He to whom the Vedas stand as organs.
Vedavit: One who knows all the Vedas.
Kavih: One who sees everything.

Lokadhyakshah suradhyaksho dharmadhyakshah krutakrutah
Chaturatma chaturvyuhas chaturdamstras chatur-bhujah ..15
Lokadhyakshah: He whowitnesses the whole universe.
Suradhyaksho: One who is the overlord of the protecting Divinities of
Dharmadhyakshah: One who directly sees the merits (Dharma) and demerits
(Adharma)of beings by bestwing their due rewards on all beings.
Krutakrutah: One who is an effect in the form of the worlds and also anon-effect
as their cause.
Chaturatma: One who for the sake of creation, sustentation and
dissolutionassumes forms.
Chaturvyuhas: One who adopts a fourfold manifestation.
Chaturdamstras: One with four fangs in His Incarnation as Nisimha.
Chaturbhujah: One with four arms.

Bhrajishnur-bhojanam bhokta sahishnur jagad-adhijah
Anagho vijayo jeta vishva-yonih punar-vasuh ..16

Bhrajishnur: One who is pureluminosity.
Bhojanam: Prakruti or Maya is called Bhojanam or what is enjoyed by the Lord.
Bhokta: As he, purusha, enjoys the prakruti, He is called the enjoyer or Bhokta.
Sahishnur: As He suppresses Asuras like Kiranyaksha, He is Sahishnu.
Jagad-adhijah: One who manifested as Hiranyagarbha by Himself at the beginningof
Anagho: The sinless one.
Vijayo: One who has mastery over the whole universe by virtue of his six
specialexcellences like omnipotence, omniscience etc. known as Bhagas.
Jeta: One who is naturally victorious over beings, i.e. superior to all beings.
Vishva-yonih: The source of the universe.
Punar-vasuh: One who dwells again and again in the bodies as the Jivas.

Upendro vamanah pramshur amoghah suchir urjitah
Atindrah samgrahah sargo dhrutatma niyamo yamah ..17
Upendro: One born as theyounger brother of Indra.
Vamanah: One who, in the form of Vamana (dwarf), went begging to Bali.
Pramshur: One of great height.
Amoghah: One whose acts do not go in vain.
Suchir: One who purifies those who adore and praise Him.
Urjitah: One of infinite strength.
Atindrah: One who is superior to Indra by His inherent attributes
likeomnipotence, omniscience etc.
Samgrahah: One who is of the subtle form of the universe to be created.
Dhrutatma: One who is ever in His inherent form or nature, without
thetransformation involved in birth and death.
Niyamo: One who appoints His creatures in particular stations.
Yamah: One who regulates all, remaining within them.

Vedyo vaidyah sada-yogi viraha madhavo madhuh
Atindriyo mahamayo mahotsaho mahabalah ..18
Vedyo: One who has to be knownby those who aspire for Mokshas.
Vaidhyah: One who knows all Vidyas or branches of knowledge.
Sada-yogi: One who is ever experienceble, being ever existent.
Viraha: One who destroys heroic Asuras for the protection of Dharma.
Madhavo: One who is the Lord or Master of Ma or knowledge.
Madhuh: Honey, because the Lord gives joy, just like honey.
Atindriyo: One who is not knowable by the senses.
Mahamayo: One who can cause illusion even over other great illusionists.
Mahotsaho: One who is ever busy in the work of creation, sustentation
Mahabalah: The strongest among all who have strength.

Mahabuddirmahaviryo mahasaktir mahadyutih
Anirdesyavapuh shriman ameyatma mahadridhruk ..19
Mahabuddir: The wisest amongthe wise.
Mahaviryo: The most powerful one, because Ignorance which is the cause ofSamsara
is His great power.
Mahasaktir: One with great resources of strength and skill.
Mahadyutih: One who is intensely brilliant both within and without.
Anirdesyavapuh: One who cannot be indicated to another as: `He is this’,because
He cannot be objectively known. Shriman: One endowed with greatness ofevery
Ameyatma: The Spirit with intelligence that cannot be measured by any one.
Mahadridhruk: One who held up the great mountain `Mandara’ at the time of
thechurning of the Milk Ocean and also Govardhana in his Krishna incarnation.

Maheshvaso mahibharta shrinivasah satam gatih
Aniruddhah suranando govindo govidam patih ..20

Maheshvaso: Oneequipped with the great bow.
Mahibharta: One who held up the earth submerged in Pralaya waters.
Shrinivasah: One on whose chest the Goddess Shri, eternal in nature, dwells.
Satam gatih: One who bestows the highest destiny attainable, to all holy men.
Aniruddhah: One who has never been obstructed by any one or anything
frommanifesting in various forms.
Suranando: One who bestows joy on all divinities.
Govindo: Gau means words. Thou pervadest all words, giving them power.
Thereforesages call the Govinda.
Govindam patih: Gau means words. One who knows them is Govid. He who is
themaster of words is indicated by this name.

Marichir-damanohamsah suparno bhujagottamah
Hiranya-nabha sutapah padmanabhah prajapatih ..21

Marchir: The supreme power and impressiveness seen in persons endowed with

Damano: One who in the form of Yama inflicts punishments on those who tread
thepath of unrighteousness.

Hamsah: One who removes the fear of Samsara from those who practise the sense
ofidentity with Him.

Suparnah: One who has two wings in the shape of Dharma and Adharma.

Bhujagottamah: One who is the greatest among those who move on Bhujas or
arms,that is, serpents. The great serpents like Ananta and Vasuki are the powers
ofVishnu, so he has come to have this name.

Sutapah: One who performs rigorous austerities at Badarikashrama as Nara

Padmanabhah: One whose navel is beautifully shaped like lotus.

Prajapatih: The father of all beings, who are His children.

Amrutyuh sarva-druk simhah sandhata sandhiman sthirah
Ajo durmarshanah shasta vishrutatma surariha ..22

Amrutyuh: One who is without death or its cause.

Sarva-druk: One who sees the Karmas of all Jivas through His inherent wisdom.

Simhah: One who does Himsa or destruction.

Sandhata: One who unites the Jivas with the fruits of their actions.

Sandhiman: One who is Himself the enjoyer of the fruits of actions.

Sthirah: One who is always of the same nature.

Ajo: The root `Aj’ has got as meanings both `go’ and `throw’. So the namemeans
One who goes into the hearts of devotees or One who throws the evil Asurasto a
distance, i.e. destroys them.

Durmarshanah: One whose might the Asuras cannot bear.

Shasta: One who instructs and directs all through the scriptures.

Vishrutatma: One who is specially known through signifying terms like
Truth,Knowledge etc.

Surariha: One who destroys the enemies of Suras or Devas.

Gurur gurutamo dhama satyah satya-parakramah
Nimisho animishah sragvi vachaspatir udaradhih ..23

Gurur: One who is the teacher of all forms of knowledge.

Gurutamo: One who gives the knowledge of Brahman even to divinities like Brahma.

Dhama: It means brilliance.

Satyah: One who is embodied as virtue of truth specially.

Satya-parakamah: One of unfailing valour.

Nimisho: One whose eye-lids are closed in Yoga-nidra.

Animishah: One who is ever awake.

Sragvi: One who has on Him the necklace called Vaijayanti, which is strung
withthe subtle aspects of the five elements.

Vachaspatir-udaradhih: Being the master of Vak or word i.e. knowledge, He
iscalled so. As his intellect perceives everything, He is Udaradhih. Both
theseepithets together constitute one name.

Agranir gramanih shriman nyayo neta samiranah
Sahsra-murdha vishvatma sahasraksha sahasrapat ..24

Agranir: One who leads all liberation-seekers to the highest status.

Gramanih: One who has the command over Bhutagrama or the collectivity of

Shriman: One more resplendent than everything.

Nyayo: The consistency which runs through all ways of knowing and which leadsone
to the truth of Non-duality.

Neta: One who moves this world of becoming.

Samiranah: One who in the form of breath keeps all living beings functioning.

Sahasramurdha: One with a thousand, i.e. innumerable, heads.

Vishvatma: The soul of the universe.

Sahasraksha: One with a thousand or innumerable eyes.

Sahasrapat: One with a thousand, i.e. innumerable legs.

Avrtano nivrutatma samvrutah sampramardanah
Ahah samvartako vahnir anilo dharani-dharah ..25

Avartano: One who whirls round and round the Samsara-chakra, the wheel ofSamsara
or worldy existence.

Nivrutatma: One whose being is free or untouched by the bondage of Samsara.

Samvrutah: One who is covered by all-covering Avidya or ignorance.

Sampramardanah: One who delivers destructive blows on all beings through
HisVibhutis (power manifestation like Rudra, Yama etc.).

Ahah samvartako: The Lord who, as the sun, regulates the succession of day

Vahnir: One who as fire carries the offerings made to the Devas in sacrifices.

Anilo: One who has no fixed residence.

Dhanani dharah: One who supports the worlds, Adisesha, elephants of the

Suprasadah prasannatma vishva-dhrug vishva-bhug vibhuh
Sat-karta sat-krutah sadhur jahnur narayano narah ..26

Suprasadah: One whose Prasada or mercy is uniquely wonderful, because He
givessalvation to Sisupala and others who try to harm Him.

Prasannatma: One whose mind is never contaminated by Rajas or Tamas.

Vishva-dhrug: One who holds the universe by his power.

Vishva-bhug: One who eats up or enjoys or protects the worlds.

Vibhuh: One who becomes many from Hiranyagarbha downwards.

Satkarta: One who offers benefits.

Sat-krutah: One who is adored even by those who deserve adoration.

Sadhur: One who acts according to justice.

Jahnuh: One who dissolves all beings in oneself at the time of dissolution.

Narayanah: Nara means Atman. Narayana, that is, one having His residence in

Narah: He directs everything, the eternal Paramatma is called Nara”.

Asankhyeyo prameyatmavisistah shishtakruch chucih
Siddharthah siddha-sankalpah siddhidah siddhisadhanah ..27

Asankhyeyo: One who has no Sankhya or differences of name and form.

Aprameyatma: One whose nature cannot be grasped by any of the means ofknowledge.

Visistah: One who excels everything.

Shishtakrch: Shihstam means commandment. So, one who commands everything. Or
onewho protects shishtas or good men.

Siddharthah: One whose object is always fulfilled.

Siddha-sankalpah: One whose resolutions are always fulfilled.

Siddhidah: One who bestows Siddhi or fulfillment on all who practisedisciplines,
in accordance with their eligibility.

Siddhisadhanah: One who brings fulfillment to works that deserve the same.

Vrushahi vrushabho vishnur vrushaparva vrushodarah
Vardhano vardhamanascha viviktah shruti-sagarah ..28

Vrushahi: Vrusha means dharma or merit.

Vrushabho: One who showers on the devotees all that they pray for.

Vishnur: One who pervades everything.

Vrushaparva: One who has given as steps (Parvas), observances of the nature
ofDharma, to those who want to attain the supreme state.

Vrushodarah: One whose abdomen showers offspring.

Vardhamanascha: One who multiplies in the form of the universe.

Viviktah: One who is untouched and unaffected.

Shruti-sagarah: One to whom all the shruti or Vedic words and sentences flow.

Subhujo durdharo vagmi mahendro vasodo vasuh
Naikarupo bruhad-rupah shipivishtah prakashana ..29

Subhujo: One possessing excellent arms that protect the worlds.

Durdharo: One who holds up the universe – a work which none else can do.

Vagmi: One from whom the words constituting the Veda come out.

Mahendro: The great Lord, that is, the Supreme Being, who is the God of allgods.

Vasudo: One who bestows riches.

Vasuh: One who is himselftheVasu.

Naikarupo: One who is without an exclusive form.

Bruhad-rupah: One who has adopted mysterious forms like that of a Boar.

Shipivishtah: Shipi means cow. One who resides in cows as Yagya.

Prakashana: One who illumines everthing.

Ojas tejo dyuti-dharah prakashatma pratapanah
Vruddhah spahstaksharo mantras chandramshur bhaskaradyutih ..30

Ojas tejo duti-dharah: Ojas means inherent vitality. Tejas means puissance
andsuch qualities. Dyuti means radiance. So the word means one who possesses
allthese qualities.

Prakashatma: One whose form is radiant.

Pratapanah: One who warms the world through the power manifestations like

Vruddhah: One who is rich in excellences like Dharma, Gyana (knowledge),Vairagya
(renunciation) etc.

Spashstaksharo: He is so called because Omkara, the manifesting sound of
theLord, is Spashta or high pitched.

Mantras: One who manifests as the Mantras of the Rk, Sama, Yajus etc., or onewho
is known through Mantras.

Chandramshur: He is called `Chandramshu’ or moonlight because just as
themoon-light gives relief to men burnt in the heat of the sun, He gives relief
andshelter to those who are subjected to the heat of Samsara.

Amrtamshu dbhavo bhanuh shashabinduh sureshvarah
Aushadham jagatah setuh satya-dharma-prarakramah ..31

Amrtamshu dbhavo: TheParamatman from whom Amrutamshu or the Moon originated at
the time of thechurning of the Milk-ocean.

Bhanuh: One who shines.

Shashabinduh: The word means one who has the mark of the hare, that is the Moon.

Sureshvarah: One who is the Lord of all Devas and those who do good.

Aushadham: One who is the Aushadha or medicine for the great disease of Samsara.

Jagatah setuh: One who is the aid to go across the ocean of Samsara.

Satya-dharma-parakramah: One whose excellences like righteousness,
omniscience,puissance, etc. are all true.

Bhuta-bhavya-bhavan-nathah pavanah pavano analah
Kamaha kamakrut kantah kamah kamapradah prabhuh ..32

Bhuta-bhavya-bhavan-nathah:One who is the master for all the beings of the past,
future and present.

Pavanah: One who is the purifier.

Pavanah: One who causes movement.

Analah: The Jivatma is called Anala because it recognizes Ana or Prana

Kamaha: One who destroys the desire-nature in seekers after liberation.

Kamakrut: One who fulfils the wants of pure minded devotees.

Kantah: One who is extremely beautiful.

Kamah: One who is sought after by those who desire to attain the four
supremevalues of life.

Kamapradah: One who liberally fulfils the desires of devotees.

Prabhuh: One who surpasses all.

Yugadikrud yugavarto naikamayo mahashanah
Adrushyo vyakta-rupascha sahasrajid anantajit ..33

Yugadikrud: One who is the cause of periods of time like Yuga.

Yugavarto: One who as time causes the repetition of the four Yugas beginningwith
Satya Yuga.

Naikamayo: One who can assume numerous forms of Maya, not one only.

Mahashanah: One who consumes everything at the end of a Kalpa.

Adrushyo: One who cannot be grasped by any of the five organs of knowledge.

Vyakta-rupascha: He is so called because His gross form as universe can
beclearly perceived.

Sahasrajid: One who is victorious over innumerable enemies of the Devas

Anantajit: One who, being endowed with all powers, is victorious at all
timesover everything.

Ishtovishistah shishtestah sikhandi nahusho vrushah
Krodhaha krodhakrut karta vishva-bahur mahidharah ..34

Ishto: One who is dear to all because He is of the nature of supreme Bliss.

Avishistah: One who resides within all.

Shishtestah: One who is dear to shishta or Knowing Ones.

Sikhandi: Sikhanda means feather of a peacock. One who used it as a
decorationfor His crown when he adopted the form of a cowherd (Gopa).

Nahusho: One who binds all beings by Maya the root `nah’ means bondage.

Vrushah: One who is of the form of Dharma.

Krodhaha: One who eradicates anger in virtuous people.

Krodhakrut karta: One who generates Krodha or anger in evil people.

Vishva-bahur: One who is the support of all or one who has got all beings as

Mahidharah: Mahi means both earth and worship. So the name means one whosupports
the earth or receives all forms of worship.

Achyutah prathitah pranah pranado vasavanujah
Apam-nidhir adhishthanam apramattah pratishtitah ..35

Achyutah: One who is without the six transformations beginning with birth.

Prathitah: One who is famous because of His works like creation of the

Pranah: One who as Hiranyagarbha endows all beings with Prana.

Pranado: One who bestows Prana, that is, strength, on Devas and Asuras and
alsodestroys them by withdrawing it.

Vasavanujah: One who was born as younger brother of Indra (Vasava) in
Hisincarnation as Vamana.

Apam-nidhir: The word means collectivity of water or the ocean.

Adhishthanam: The seat or support for everything.

Apramattah: One who is always vigilant in awarding the fruits of actions tothose
who are entiled to them.

Pratishtitah: One who is supported and established in His own greatness.

Skandah skanda-dharo dhuryo varado vayuvahanah
Vashudevo bruhad-bhanur adidevah purandarah ..36

Skandah: One who drives everything as air.

Skanda-dharo: One who supports Skanda or the righteous path.

Dhuryo: One who bears the weight of the burden of all beings in the form ofbirth

Varado: One who gives boons.

Vayuvahanah: One who vibrates the seven Vayus or atmospheres beginning

Vashudevo: One who is both Vasu and Deva.

Bruhad-bhanur: The great brilliance.

Adidevah: The Divinity who is the source of all Devas.

Purandarah: One who destroys the cities of the enemies of Devas.

Ashokas-taranas-tarah surah saurir janeshvarah
Anukulah shatavartah padmi padma-nibhekshanah ..37

Ashokas: One without the six defects – sorrow, infatuation, hunger, thirst,birth
and death.

Taranas: One who uplifts beings from the ocean of samsara.

Tarah: One who liberates beings from the fear of residence in the womb,
birth,old age, death etc.

Surah: One of great prowess, that is, who fulfils the four supreme
satisfactionsof life – Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha.

Saurih: One who as Krishna as the son of Sura, that is Vasudeva.

Janeshvarah: The Lord of all beings.

Anukulah: One who, being the Atman of all beings, is favorable to all, for noone
will act against oneself.

Shatavartah: One who has had several Avataras or incarnations.

Padmi: One having Padma or lotus in his hands.

Padma-nibhekshanah: One with eyes resembling lotus.

Padmanabho aravindakshah padmagarbhah sarirabhrut
Mahardhir ruddho vruddhatma mahaksho garuda-dhvajah ..38

Padmanabho: One who resides in the Nabhi or the central part of the heart-lotus.

Aravindakshah: One whose eyes resemble Aravinda or the Lotus.

Padmagarbhah: One who is fit to be worshipped in the middle of the heart-lotus.

Sarirabhrut: One who supports the bodies of beings, strengthening them in
theform of Anna (Food) and Prana.

Mahardhir: One who has enormous Ruddhi or prosperity.
Ruddho: One who is seen as standing in the form of the world.

Vruddhatma: One whose Atma or body is Vruddha or ancient.

Mahaksho: One who has got two or many glorious eyes.

Garuda-dhvajah: One who has got Garuda as his flag.

Atulah sarabho bhimah samayagno havirharih
Sarvalakshana lakshanyo lakshmivan samitinjayah ..39

Atulah: One who cannot be compared to anything else.

Sarabho: The body is called `Sara’ as it is perishable.

Bhimah: One of whom everyone is afraid.

Samayajno: One who knows the time for creation, sustentation and dissolution.

Havir-harih: One who takes the portion of offerings (Havis) in Yajnas.

Sarvalakshana-lakshanyo: The supreme knowledge obtained through all criteria
ofknowledge i.e. Paramatma.

Lakshmivan: One on whose chest the Goddess Lakshmi is always residing.

Samitinjayah: One who is vicotious in Samiti or war.

Viksharo rohito margo hetur-damodarah sahah
Mahidharo mahabhago vegavan amitashanah ..40

Viksharo: One who is without Kshara or desruction.

Rohito: One who assumed the form of a kind of fish called Rohita.

Margah: One who is sought after by persons seeking Moksha or Liberation.

Hetur: One who is both the instrumental and the material cause of the universe.

Damodarah: One who has very benevolent mind because of disciplines

Sahah: One who subordinates everything.

Mahidharo: One who props up the earth in the form of mountain.

Mahabhago: He who, taking a body by His own will, enjoys supreme felicities.

Vegavan: One of tremendous speed.

Amitashanah: He who consumes all the worlds at the time of Dissolution.

Udbhavah kshobhano devanshrigarbhah parameshvarah
Karanam kaaranam karta vikarta gahano guhah ..41

Udbhavah: One who is the material cause of creation.

Kshobhano: One who at the time of creation entered into the Purusha and
Prakrutiand caused agitation.

Devan: `Divyati’ means sports oneself through creation and other

Shrigarbhah: One in whose abdomen (Garbha) Shri or His unique manifestation
asSamsara has its existence.

Parameshvarah: `Parama’ means the supreme. `Ishvarah’ means one who holdsway
over all beings.

Karanam: He who is the most important factor in the generation of this universe.

Kaaranam: He who is the most important factor in the generation of thisuniverse.

Karta: One who is free and is therefore one’s own master.

Vikarta: One who makes this unique universe.

Gahanah: One whose nature, greatness and actions cannot be known by anybody.

Guhah: One who hides one’s own nature with the help of His power of Maya.

Vyavasayo vyavasthanah samsthanah sthanado dhruvah
Parardhih parama-spashtas tushtah pushtah subhekshanah ..42

Vyavasayo: One who is wholly of the nature of knowledge.

Vyavasthanah: He in whom the orderly regulation of the universe rests.

Samsthanah: One in whom all beings dwell in the states of dissolution.

Sthanado: One who gives their particular status to persons like Dhruva
accordingto their Karma.

Dhruva: One who is indestructible.

Parardhih: One who possesses lordliness of this most exalted type.

Parama-spashtas: One in whom `Para’ or supremely glorious `Ma’ or Lakshmidwells.
Or one who is the greatest of all beings without any other’s help.

Tushtah: One who is of the nature of supreme.

Pushtah: One who in fills everything.

Subhekshanah: One whose Ikshanam or vision bestows good on all beings that
is,gives liberation to those who want Moksha and enjoyments to those who are
afterit, and also cuts asunder the knots of the heart by eliminating all doubts.

Ramo viramo virato margo neyo nayonayah
Virah shaktimatam shreshtho dharmo dharma-vid uttamah ..43

Ramo: The eternally blissful on in whom the Yogis find delight.

Viramo: One in whom the Virama or end of all beings takes place.

Virato: One in whom the desire for enjoyments has ceased.

Margo: That path by knowing which the liberation-seeking ascetics attain

Neyo: One who directs or leads the Jiva to the Supreme Being through

Nayo: One who leads, that is, who is the leader in the form of

Anayah: One for whom there is no leader.

Virah: One who is valorous.

Shaktimatam-shreshtho: One who is the most powerful among all powerful
beingslike Brahma.

Dharmah: One who supports all beings.

Dharma-viduttamah: The greatest of knower of Dharma. He is called so because
allthe scriptures consisting of Shrutis and Smrutis form His commandments.

Vaikunthah purushah pranah pranadah pranavah pruthuh
Hiranya-garbhah shatrughno vyapto vayur adhokshajah ..44

Vaikunthah: The bringing together of the diversified categories is Vikuntha.
Hewho is the agent of it is Vaikunthah.

Purushah: One who existed before everything.

Pranah: One who lives as Kshetrajana (knower in the body) or one who functionsin
the form of vital force called Prana.

Pranadah: One who destroys the Prana of beings at the time of Pralaya.

Pranavah: One who is praised or to whom prostration is made with Om.

Pruthuh: One who has expanded himself as the world.

Hiranya-garbhah: He who was the cause of the golden-coloured egg out of
whichBrahma was born.

Shatrughno: One who destroys the enemies of the Devas.

Vyaptah: One who as the cause pervades all effects.

Vayur: One who is the cause of smell.

Adhokshajah: He is Adhokshaja because he undergoes no degeneration from
Hisoriginal nature.

Rituh sudarshanah kalah parameshti parigrahah
Ugrah samvatsaro daksho vishramo vishva-dakshinah ..45

Rituh: One who is of the nature of Kala (time) which is indicated by the
wordRitu or season.

Sudarshanah: One whose Darshana or vision that is knowledge, bestows the
mostauspicious fruit Moksha.

Kalah: One who measures and sets a limit to everything.

Parameshti: One who dwells in his supreme greatness in the sky of the heart.

Parigrahah: One who, being everywhere, is grasped on all sides by those who
seekrefuge in Him. Or one who grasps or receives the offerings made by devotees.

Ugrah: One who is the cause of fear even to beings like Sun.

Samvatsaro: One in whom all beings reside.

Daksho: One who augments in the form of the world.

Vishramah: One who bestows Vishrama or liberation to aspirants who seek
relieffrom the ocean of Samsara with its waves of various tribulations in the
from ofHunger, Thirst etc., and difficulties like Avidya, pride, infatuation

Vishvadakshinah: One who is more skilled (Daksha) than every one. Or One who
isproficient in everything.

Vistarah sthavara-sthanuh pramanam bijam avyayam
Arthonartho mahakosho mahabhogo mahadhanah ..46

Vistarah: One in whom all the worlds have attained manifestation.

Sthavara-sthanuh: One who is firmly established is Sthavara, and in whom
longlasting entities like earth are established in Sthanu. The Lord is both

Pramanam: One who is of the nature of pure consciousness.

Bijamavyayam: One who is the seed or cause of Samsara without Himself
undergoingany change.

Arthah: One who is sought (Arthita) by all, as He is of the nature of bliss.

anarthah: One who, being self-fulfilled, has no other Artha or end to seek.

Mahakosho: One who has got as His covering the great Koshas like
Annamaya,Pranamaya etc.

Mahabhogo: One who has Bliss as the great source of enjoyment.

Mahadhanah: One who has got the whole universe as the wealth (Dhana) for

Anirvinnah sthavishthobhur dharma-yupo maha-makhah
Nakshatra-nemir nakshatri kshamah kshamah samihanah ..47

Anirvinnah: One who is never heedless, because He is ever self-fulfilled.

Sthavishtah: One of huge proportions, because He is in the form of cosmicperson.

Abhuh: One without birth. Or one has no existence.

Dharma Yupah: The sacrificial post for Dharmas, that is, one to whom all
theforms of Dharma, which are His own form of worship, are attached, just as
asacrificial animal is attached to a Yupa or a sacrificial post.

Maha-makhah: One by offering sacrifices to whom, those sacrifices deserve to
becalled great, because they well give the fruit of Nirvana.

Nakshatra nemir: The heart of all nakshatras.

Nakshatri: He is in the form of the nakshatra, Moon.

Kshamah: One who is clever in everything.

Kshamah: One who remains in the state of pure self after all the modificationsof
the mind have dwindled.

Samihanah: One who exerts well for creation etc.

Yajna ijyo mahejyas chakratuh satram satamgatih
Sarvadarshi vimuktatma sarvagyo gynanam-uttamam ..48

Yajnah: One who is all-knowing.

Ijayah: One who is fit to be worshipped in sacrifices.

Mahejyascha: He who, of all deities worshipped, is alone capable of giving
theblessing of liberation.

Kratuh: A Yajna in which there is a sacrificial post is Kratu.

Satram: One who is of the nature of ordained Dharma.

Satamgatih: One who is the sole support for holy men who are seekers of Moksha.

Sarvadarshi: One who by His inborn insight is able to see all good and
evilactions of living beings.

Vimuktatma: One who is naturally free.

Sarvagyo: One who is all and also the knower of all.

Gynanam uttamam: That consciousness which is superior to all,
birthless,unlimited by time and space and the cause of all achievements.

Suvratah sumukhah sukshmah sughoshah sukhadah suhrut
Manoharo jita-krodho virabahur vidaranah ..49

Suvratah: One who has take the magnanimous vow to save all refuge-seekers.

Sumukhah: One with a pleasant face.

Sukshmah: One who is subtle because He is without any gross causes like

Sughoshah: One whose auspicious sound is the Veda. Or one who has got a deep
andsonorous sound like the clouds.

Sukhadah: One who gives happiness to good people.

Suhrut: One who helps without looking for any return.

Manoharo: One who attracts the mind by His incomparable blissful nature.

Jitakrodho: One who has overcome anger.

Virabahur: One whose arms are capable of heroic deeds as demonstrated in
hisdestruction of Asuras for establishing Vedic Dharma.

Vidaranah: One who destroys those who live contrary to Dharma.

Svapanahsvavasho vyapi naikatma naika-karma-krut
Vatsaro vatsalo vatsi ratna-garbho dhaneshvarah ..50

Svapanah: One who enfolds the Jivas in the sleep of Ajnana.

Svavasho: One who is dominated by oneself and not anything else, as He is
thecause of the whole cosmic process.

Vyapi: One who interpenetrates everything like Akasha.

Naikatma: One who manifests in different forms as the subsidiary agenciescausing
the various cosmic processes.

Naika-karma-krut: One who engages in innumerable activities in the process
ofcreation, sustentation etc.

Vatsaro: One in whom everything dwells.

Vatsalo: One who has love for His devotees.

Vatsi: One who protects those who are dear to Him.

Ratna-garbho: The Ocean is so called because gems are found in its depths. Asthe
Lord has taken the form of the ocean, He is called by this name.

Dhaneshvarah: One who is the Lord of all wealth.

Dharmagubdharmakrud dharmi sad-asatksharam aksharam
Avigyata sahashramsur vidhata kruta-lakshanah ..51

Dharmagub: One who protects Dharma.

Dharmakrud: Though above. Dharma and Adharma, He performs Dharma in order tokeep
up the traditions in respect of it.

Dharmi: One who upholds Dharma.

Sad: The Parabrahman who is of the nature of truth.

Asat: As the Aparabrahma has manifested as the world He is called Asat
(nothaving reality).

Ksharam: All beings subjected to change.

Aksharam: The changeless one.

Avigyata: One who is without the attributes of a Jiva or vigyata like sense
ofagency etc.

Sahashramshur: One with numerous rays, that is the Sun.

Vidhata: One who is the unique support of all agencies like Ananta who bear
thewhole universe.

Krutalakshanah: One who is of the nature of conscousness.

Gabhasti-nemih sattvasthah simho bhuta-maheshvarah
Adidevo mahadevo devesho devabhrud-guruh ..52

Gabhasti-nemih: He who dwellsin the middle of Gabhasti or rays as the Sun.

Sattvasthah: One who dwells specially in sattvaguna, which is luminous bynature.

Simho: One who ahs irresistible power like a lion.

Bhuta-maheshvarah: The supreme Lord of all beings.

Adidevo: He who is the first of all beings.

Mahadevo: One whose greatness consists in His supreme self-knowledge.

Devesah: One who is the lord of all Devas, being the most important among them.

Devabhrud-guruh: Indra who governs the Devas is Devabhrut. The Lord is even
thatIndra’s controller (Guru).

Uttarogopatir gopta gyanagamyah puratanah
Sharira-bhuta-bhrud bhokta kapindro bhuridakshinah ..53

Uttaro: One who is Uttirna orliberated from Samsara.

Gopatir: Krishna who tends the cattle in the form of a Gopa. One who is
themaster of the earth.

Gopta: One who is the protector of all beings.

Gyanagamyah: The Lord cannot be known through Karma or a combination of Karmaand

Puratanah: One who is not limited by time and who existed before anything else.

Sharira-bhuta-bhrud: One who is the master of the five Bhutas (elements) ofwhich
the body is made.

Bhokta: One who protects. Or one who is the enjoyer of infinite bliss.

Kapindro: Kapi means Varah (boar). The word means, the Lord who is Indra andalso
one who manifested as Varaha or the Boar in one of the incarnations. Or
itsignifies His Rama incarnation in which He played the role of the master of

Bhuridakshinah: One to whom numerous Dakshinas or votive offerings are made

Somapoamrutapah somah purujit purushottamah
Vinayo jayah satyasandho dasharhah satvatampatih ..54

Somapo: One who drinks theSoma in all Yagyas in the form of the Devata (Deit).

Amrutapah: One who drinks the drink of immortal Bliss which is of one’s

Somah: One who as the moon invigorates the plants.

Purujit: One who gains victory over numerous people.

Purushottamah: As His form is of cosmic dimension He is Puru or great, and as
Heis the most important of all, He is Sattama.

Vinayo: One who inflicts Vinaya or punishment on evil ones.

Jayah: One who is victorious over all beings.

Satyasandho: One whose `Sandha’ or resolve becomes always true.

Dasharhah: Dasha means charitable offering. Therefore, He to whom
charitableofferings deserve to be made.

Satvatampatih: `Satvatam’ is the name of a Tantra. So the one who gave it outor
commented upon it.

Jivo vinayita-sakshi mukundo amita vikramah
Ambhonidhir anantatma mahodadhishayonatakah ..55

Jivo: One who as the Kshetragya or knower of the field or the body, isassociated
with the Pranas.

Vinayita-sakshi: One who witnesses the Vinayita or worshipful attitude of

Mukundo: One who bestows Mukti or Liberation.

Amita vikramah: One whose three strides were limitless.

Ambhonidhir: One in whom the Ambas or all beings from Devas down dwell.

Anantatma: One who cannot be determined by space, time and causation.

Mahodadhi-sayah: One who lies in the water of Cosmic Dissolution into which
allentities in the universe have been dissolved.

Antakah: One who brings about the end of all beings.

Ajo maharhah svabhavyo jitamitrah pramodanah
Anando nandano nandah satya-dharma trivikramah ..56

Ajo: ` A’ means Mahavishnu. So the word means one who is born of Vishnu i.e.Kama

Maharhah: One who is fit for worship.

Svabhavyah: Being eternally perfect He is naturally without a beginning.

Jitamitrah: One who has conquered the inner enemies like attachment, anger
etc.as also external enemies like Ravana, Kumbhakarna etc.

Pramodanah: One who is always joyous as He is absorbed in immortal Bliss.

Anando: One whose form is Ananda or Bliss.

Nandano: One who gives delight.

Nandah: One endowed with all perfections.

Satya-dharma: One whose knowledge and other attributes are true.

Trivikramah: One whose three strides covered the whole world.

Maharshih kapilacharyah krutagyo medini-patih
Tripadas tridashadhyaksho mahashrungah krutantakrut ..57

Maharshih Kapilacharyah: Kapila is called Maharshi because he was master of
allthe Vedas.

Krutagyo: Kruta means the world because it is of the nature of an effect.

Medinipatih: One who is the Lord of the earth.

Tripadas: One having three strides.

Tridashadhyaksho: One who is the witness of the three states of waking, dreamand
sleep, which spring from the influence of the Gunas.

Mahashrungah: One with a great antenna.

Krutantakrut: One who brings about the destruction of the Kruta or themanifested
condition of the universe.

Mahavaraho goivindah sushenah kanakangadi
Guhyo gabhiro gahano guptas chakra-gadadharah ..58

Mahavaraho: The great Cosmic Boar.

Govindah: `Go’ means Words, that is the Vedic sentences. He who is known bythem
is Govindah.

Sushenah: One who has got about Him an armed guard in the shape of His

Kanakangadi: One who has Angadas (armlets) made of gold.

Guhyo: One who is to be known by the Guhya or the esoteric knowledge conveyed
bythe Upanishads. Or one who is hidden in the Guha or heart.

Gabhiro: One who is of profound majesty because of attributes like
omniscience,lordliness, strength, prowess etc.

Gahano: One who could be entered into only with great difficulty. One who is
thewitness of the three states of waking, dreams and sleep as also their

Guptas: One who is not an object of words, thought etc.

Chakra-gada-dharah: One who has discus and Gada in hand.

Vedhah svango ajitah krishno drudhah sankarshano acyutah
Varuno vaaruno vrukshah pushkaraksho mahamanah ..59

Vedhah: One who does Vidhana or regulation.

Svango: One who is oneself the participant in accomplishing works.

Ajitah: One who has not been conquered by anyone in His various incarnations.

Krishno: One who is known as Krishna-dvaipayana.

Drudhah: One whose nature and capacity know no decay.

Sankarshano Acyutah: Sankarshana is one who attracts to oneself all beings atthe
time of cosmic Dissolution and Acyuta is one who knows no fall from His
realnature. They form one word with the first as the qualification – Acyuta who

Varuno: The evening sun is called Varuna, because he withdraws his rays

Vaaruno: Vasishta or Agastya, the sons of Varuna.

Vrukshah: One who is unshakable like a tree.

Pushkaraksho: One who shines as the light of consciousness when meditated uponin
the lotus of the heart. Or one who has eyes resembling the lotus.

Mahamanah: One who fulfils the three functions of creation, sustentation
anddissolution of the universe by the mind alone.

Bhagavan bhagahanandi vanamali halayudhah
Adityo jyotir-adityah sahishnur gatisattamah ..60

Bhagavan: The origin, dissolution, the bondage and salvation of
creatures,knowledge, ignorance – one who knows all these is Bhagavan.

Bhagaha: One who withdraws the Bhagas, beginning with lordliness, into Himselfat
the time of dissolution.

Anandi: One whose nature is Ananda (bliss).

Vanamali: One who wears the floral wreath (Vanamala) called Vaijayanti,
whichconsists of the categories of five Elements.

Halayudhah: One who in His incarnation as Balabhadra had Hala or ploughshare
asHis weapon.

Adityo: One who was born of Aditi in His incarnation as Vamana.

Jyotir-adityah: One who dwells in the brilliance of the sun’s orb.

Sahishnur: One who puts up with the contraries like heat and cold.

Gatisattamah: One who is the ultimate resort and support of all, and thegreatest
of all beings.

Divah-spruk sarva-drug vyaso vachaspatir ayonijah ..61
Sudhanva: One who has got as His weapon the bow named Saranga of
Khanda-parashur: The battle-axe that destroys enemies.
Daruno: One who is harsh and merciless to those who are on the evil path.
Dravinapradah: One who bestows the desired wealth on devotees.
Divah-spruk: One who touches the heavens.
Sarva-drug vyaso: One whose comprehension includes everything in its ambit.
Vachaspatir ayonijah: The Lord is Vachaspati because He is the master of
alllearning. He is Ayonija because He was not born of a mother. This forms a
nounin combination with the attribute.

Trisama samagah sama nirvanam bheshajam bhishak
Sanyasakrut chamah santo nishtha shantih parayanam ..62

Trisama: One who is praised bythe chanters of Sama-gana through the three Samas
known as Devavratam.
Samagah: One who chants the Sama-gana.
Sama: Among the Vedas, I am Sama Veda.
Nirvanam: That in which all miseries cease and which is of the nature of
Bheshajam: The medicine for the disease of Samsara.
Bhishak: The Lord is called Bhishak or physician.
Sanyasakrut: One who instituted the fourth Ashrama of Sanyasa for the
attainmentof Moksha.
Chamah: One who has ordained the pacification of the mind as the most
importantdiscipline for Sannyasins (ascetics).
Santo: The peaceful, being without interest in pleasures of the world.
Nishtha: One in whom all beings remain in abeyance at the time of Pralaya.
Santih: One in whom there is complete erasing of Avidya or ignorance. That
Parayanam: The state, which is the highest and from which there is no return
tolower states.

Shubhangah shantidah srashta kumudah kuvalesayah
Gohito gopatir gopta vrushabhaksho vrushapriyah ..63

Shubhangah: One with ahandsome form.
Shantidah: One who bestows shanti, that is, a state of freedom from
attachment,antagonism, etc.
Srashta: One who brought forth everything at the start of the creative cycle.
Kumudah: ‘Ku’ means the earth. One who delights in it.
Kuvalesayah: ‘Ku’ means earth. That which surrounds it is water, so‘K

"Gurur Brahma Gurur Vishnu
Gurur Devoh Maheshwar;
Gurur Shakshat Parambramha
Tashmai Shri Gurur Veh Namah"

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