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What DNA Says About Aryan Invasion Theory-1

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What DNA Says About Aryan Invasion Theory-1
Article:
http://www.lankalibrary.com/geo/dera2.html

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->There is palynological (pollen) evidence from the Horton Plains for <b>herding (?Bos indicus)</b> and the incipient <b>management of barley and oats</b> by <b>>15,000 BC</b> and by herding and the farming of barley and oats by 8,000 BC (Premathilake 2000). <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Finally, a paradigm shift...

Brain Culture
Monday September 19 2005 11:49 IST
Dr Vilayanur S Ramachandran

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Little did he realize that if Aryabhatta or Kalidasa had visited England in the early first millennium AD, they would have said the same thing about Macaulay’s ancestors, little realizing that the descendants of these very same <b>albino savages </b>would one day give birth to Shakespeare and Newton. <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->My goal is to undermine WASP ideas on racial inequality on their own terms, using their own arguments. My point is that extraordinary achievement correlates much more highly with ‘‘nose size genes’’ than with <b>albinism genes!</b>
<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

Pesonally, I prefer the term "albino mutants" to "albino savages". Both of these terms encapsulate Oppenheimer's paradigm shift about world populations. The basic regional populations are temporally related to each other by evolution and not miscegenations of pure original races.

I think it is pretty much settled that mutant albinism was a late derived trait originating in the Zagros of Persia-armenia-kurdistan with backflow trajectory into North Africa (Berbers) and further extreme selection as these original Indic populations moved into N. Europe. Oppenheimer has the evidence that Berbers are derived not from the original L3 (african), but from a late derived backflow from a mature S. Asian population which settled in the Zagros/Levant. Euro albinos must be seen in the same light in what was a parallel more northerly migration from the Zagros/Levant (separate from the Berbers). Given the Independent Berber migration, we must theoretically conclude that Central Asians are derived from an independent C. Asian EXPANSION (not trajectory) from the Zagros/Indus, (and not from some mysterious euro back-back-migration). The more empirical evidence:

1. Anthropologist mallory ties the dental patterns in tarim Basin as Harrapan-derived indodont.
2. Kak derives the clovis skull as indodont. Thus, the mammoth hunter component in Native Americans must be specifically Indian (not E Euro), and C Asia must be seen as a staging area for successive Indus/zAGROS trajectories into siberia and beyond.
3. Oppenheimer backs up Kak with genetic evidence for a C3 trajectory from Indus through C. Asia into siberia into beringia before LGM. There is a split in C. Asia with one branch heading into Siberia- the other into E europe. Haplo X is the counterpart to C3. This scenario is repeated at various time depths.

Conclusion: Central Asians are local expansions from the SOUTH (Zagros) into the pamirs with a separate Southern mongoloid component that came up the brahmaputra.

Confirmation: <img src='http://bmc.ub.uni-potsdam.de/1471-2156-5-26/F5.gif' border='0' alt='user posted image' />http://bmc.ub.uni-potsdam.de/1471-2156-5-26/F5.htm

Again, the southern origins of albinism and its extreme northern transformation is mirrored in the east where the original neoteny of the Southern Mongoloids was amplified by selective criteria as these southern populations moved up into brutal northern desert plains. We also we see the same-type albino selection operating in these more unique mongoloid populations.
<img src='http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Study/Maldives/Images/globe_map_india.gif' border='0' alt='user posted image' />

notice that from point of view from the Northwest passage, finland is directly above India and not to the west. If the eurocentric maps were corrected, alot of the mental blocks to accepting oppenheimer's theory would resolve. From the asian perspective, europe is a cul de sac, as quotted by oppenheimer.
This globe image make sense.
The article by Dr Vilayanur S Ramachandran is a <b>must read</b> for all of us.

Dhu
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Conclusion: Central Asians are local expansions from the SOUTH (Zagros) into the pamirs with a separate Southern mongoloid component that came up the brahmaputra.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

In short, as you said early, black became brown which then became white and yellow.
I think the goal must now be to make Oppenheimer's empirical models more intuitive. I was very pleased to see the term albino savages used in Dr. Ramachandran's article.

The Ainu of Japan represent a case of convergent evolution. On the basis of genetics, Oppenheimer derives them as an immediate branch off the original relict populations that migrated up the pacific coast from SEA. The latitude of Japan is same as that of the Aral Sea. Okinawa is same as Kashmir.
http://southasia.oneworld.net/article/view/88629/1/

Sri Lanka's History: In Danger of Disappearing
Champika Liyanaarachchi
22 June 2004

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->One of the most priceless relics here is a female body remains in Bulathsinhala, in Kalutara district in the Western province, which testifies to the consumption of rice, maize and salt.

This body remains embedded in a rock dates back to <b>30,500 BC </b>and is considered the world's oldest proof of consumption of <b>rice, maize and salt.</b> <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->While geometric tool kits are believed to have first been used by the Europeans in 12,500 BC, similar tools dating back to as early as 28,500 BC were found in two caves in lowlying wetlands in the Sabaragamuwa province. <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Dr Shiran Deraniyagala, declared that unless the authorities take immediate action to save the caves, important historical evidence will soon be gone.

He alleged there was an <b>orchestrated move to destroy archeological sites </b>to remove precious artefacts.

........

Venerable Ellawala Medananda ...The scholar monk alleges there is a <b>planned campaign by anti-Buddhist elements to destroy evidence of the existence of the Buddhist civilization. </b><!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Some reinforcement for Kak's assessment of the Ainu and Kennewik as specifically Indic:

http://sambali.blogspot.com/2005/07/news...jomon.html In the Wake of the Jomon

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->A report posted on a U.S. government Web site on the findings of every kind of physical examination except a DNA analysis, which was not possible, concludes that "Kennewick appears to have strongest morphological affinities with populations in Polynesia and southern Asia, and not with American Indians or Europeans in the reference samples."<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

Both Ainu and Kennewick (tierra del fuego) moved out S. Asia/SEA at 50-40K
At same time Basque (R1b) moved into europe thru the levant corridor with sumerian intermediates-remnants (40K).
Both of these two varied streams are descended from Dravidian base.
At 20-30K C Asia began being colonized from India- by this time, dravid had transformed into sanskrit base. ( http://www.datanumeric.com/dravidian/ ) Last such long distance colonization was at 12K as indicated by the sri lankan microlith evidence and haplo J (which was postneolithic) - both post LGM. Europe received M17 (R1A) from Indus region - M173, M17's predecessor - also Indic origin, had contributed to basque lineage at 30K.
The fact that Basque, Pelasgian, Etruscan, Cretan, etc can be tied to a specific genetic movement out of india at 40K reinforces the 10-20-30K dates for Sanskrit base movement to C Asia. If identity for basque was maintained at 40K, same should certainly apply for Indic at 20-10 K. Independent confirmation is Rig Vedic astronomical evidence at 10K
Last specific movement was Parsi/Armenian/Kurd/Sindoi/Ionianminor At 2-3 K with SSVC expansion.

Neolithic start in NW at 12 K with serious interior antecedents at 30 K unequivocally precludes a dramatic AIT reversal after 10K. and before 10K all movements were out of india per oppenheimer!! Basque can be specifically tied at 40 K. same should be the case with indic base at 20 K-

At 20-10K mongoloid replacement of Ainu type occurs in East
paternal I (Inos) is an "early entrant to europe" (p 146). there is a "predominance of Inos in Ukraine and the Balkans" No levant predecessors. only transcaucasus.

There is no I component in S. Asia. All other euro paternal lineages such as M17, M173, J are firmly rooted in S Asia at various timedepths.

If there was a euro influx into India, why is the only indigineous euro clan (I) not found in India?
Ainu, Kennewik, and "Oceanic Negroid" explain Siberian and C Asian types - premongoloid replacement at 10K. (Manansala)
very strong evidence that Tarim populations were harappan-derived. This corroborates Oppenheimer's picture of S Asians moving into C Asia and performing a "T" split towrds the european and kamchatka culdesacs. Of course, these would have corresponded to the undifferentiated AInu types moving up from SEA.

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->AAPA 2004

East of Eden, west of Cathay: An investigation of Bronze Age interactions along the Great Silk Road.

B.E. Hemphill.

The Great Silk Road has long been known as a conduit for contacts between East and West. Until recently, these interactions were believed to date no earlier than the second century B.C. However, recent discoveries in the Tarim Basin of Xinjiang (western China) suggest that initial contact may have occurred during the first half of the second millennium B.C. The site of Yanbulaq has been offered as empirical evidence for direct physical contact between Eastern and Western populations, due to architectural, agricultural, and metallurgical practices like those from the West, ceramic vessels like those from the East, and human remains identified as encompassing both Europoid and Mongoloid physical types.

Eight cranial measurements from 30 Aeneolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age and modern samples, encompassing 1505 adults from the Russian steppe, China, Central Asia, Iran, Tibet, Nepal and the Indus Valley were compared to test whether those inhabitants of Yanbulaq identified as Europoid and Mongoloid exhibit closest phenetic affinities to Russian steppe and Chinese samples, respectively. Differences between samples were compared with Mahalanobis generalized distance (d2), and patterns of phenetic affinity were assessed with cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling, and principal coordinates analysis.

Results indicate that, despite identification as Europoid and Mongoloid, inhabitants of Yanbulaq exhibit closest affinities to one another. No one recovered from Yanbulaq exhibits affinity to Russian steppe samples. Rather, the people of Yanbulaq possess <b>closest affinities to other Bronze Age Tarim Basin dwellers, </b><b>intermediate affinities to residents of the Indus Valley, </b>and only distant affinities to Chinese and Tibetan samples<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

Oppenheimer also rules out a typological origin for C Asians; they are second only to South Asians in diversity and thus intimately derived from S Asia:

Oppenhiemer page 191:
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Nowhere outside of Africa do we find such deep diversity [as in South Asia] except, to a much lesser extent, in Central and North Asia.  This picture of Central Asia as another transition zone between East and West is borne out in the rich mixture of European and Asian maternal mtDNA line also found in that region, suggesting that one of the primary splits after the arrival in India was to travel north up the Indus to Central Asia<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->.

BAsically, we see two parallel intensifications:

1. the undifferentiated type out of india into C asia and N. Asia
2. Mongoloid type out of SEA into Siberia.
the latest on horse genetics:

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->--- In IndiaArchaeology@yahoogroups.com, "S.Kalyanaraman" wrote: >
>

> > Any photographs, Paul, of the southern Asian horse of neolithic
> times? Any scientific reports on the ribs, lumbar vertebrae of this
> horse?
>

A complete description of Equus sivalensis can be found in:

FALCONER H. and Cautley, Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis, Being the Fossil Zoology of the Siwalik Highlands in the North of India, 1849, London.

<i>A Pliocene horse skeleton with 17 rib pairs. </i>

Although sivalensis is declared to have gone extinct this is based on a sparse data negative argument. For example, there are those who believe that <b>the latter Equus namadicus is related or indistinguishable from Equus sivalensis. </b>

The following pdf is of a dated work but it demonstrates that some researchers found remnants of E. sivalensis is various modern breeds:

http://www.curlesnewstead.org.uk/pdfs/cu...ndices.pdf

The article has some good discussion on sivalensis dentition and cranial shape with images.

"Recently Mr. Lydekker has pointed out that some Arabs have the face bent downwards on the cranium, the premaxillae long, the first premolars large, and the anterior pillar of the upper molars unusually short.

"In other words, Lydekker now realises that all the modern breeds are not characterised by longpillared molars, and says that <b>there is a probability that Barbs, Arabs, and Thoroughbreds are descended from Equus sivalensis." </b>

This contention is based on some isolated preservation of E. sivalensis traits. However, rather <b>fully-sivalensis types have been described from Neolithic strata (8000-4000 BCE) at Lemery, Batangas in the Philippines together with dog remains. </b>

PATERNO, Judith, "The Indigenous Horse," Filipinas Journal of Science and Culture 4, 1981.

ALBA, Elenita, "Archaeological evidences of animals as trade goods: A preliminary survey," National Museum Papers v. 4, 1994.

Alba mentions that these E. sivalensis features are still found in horses of the so-called "Sulu Horse" and its relatives in Borneo, Sumatra and Malacca.

The next pdf has some good discussion and photos on E. sivalensis dentition:

http://www.mnhn.fr/publication/geodiv/g00n2a7.pdf

Notice the profiles in the ancient images of Indian and Indonesian horses:

<i>From Konarak
 
From Sangeang

From Sanchi </i>

The <b>horses of Southeast Asia, both mainland and insular, show great tropical adaptability.</b> For example, there are <b>"wild" forest horses in Sumba and Timor.</b> This is likely evidence of <b>very long residence in such type of climate.</b> <b>These horses also show some of the highest mtDNA diversity in the world. </b>

Regards,
Paul Kekai Manansala
http://sambali.blogspot.com/

Original post: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/IndiaArcha...ssage/2360<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
http://www.americanscientist.org/template/...=aaacx93NqpBxAe
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->... a <b>craniometric study by B. E. Hemphill </b>published in 2000 (after Genes, Peoples, and Languages had presumably gone to press) indicates that the <b>Tarim Basin populations </b>had a more complex ancestry than was initially supposed. The <b>earliest groups had their closest affinities with populations from the Indus Valley, </b>and the later ones exhibited affinities with peoples of the Oxus River Valley of south-central Asia, with both groups being considerably divergent from one another. These results argue against a Russian steppe origin for the Tarim Basin peoples... <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Craniometric investigation of the Bronze Age settlement of Xinjiang
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
©2003
Brian E. Hemphill 1, J.P. Mallory


<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Indus Valley samples are identified as sharing slightly closer affinity to samples from Iran and Turkmenistan than to Bactrian samples. Affinities among Indus Valley samples are rather diffuse. In fact, the <b>early sample from western China, Qäwrighul (QAW), is identified as possessing closer affinities to the two samples from Harappa (HAR and CEMH) than exhibited by the third Indus Valley sample, Timargarha (TMG). </b>The remaining samples form a loose cluster composed of sedentary agricultural groups from Iran (TH2, TH3, and SHS) and Turkmenistan (GKS, ALT, and KAR), as well as steppe samples from the Caucasus (SAMB) and Tajikistan (TMM).
..

<b>Turkmenian samples from Geoksyur (GKS) and Altyn depe (ALT) serve as a phenetic link between Indus Valley samples (HAR, TMG, and CEMH) that feature the closest affinities to one another. </b>In a departure from the results obtained by WPGMA analysis, the sample from Kara depe (KAR) occupies a unique position among Turkmenian samples by exhibiting much closer affinities to Iranian samples (especially TH3 and SHS) than to samples from Bactria.
..

An examination of this array confirms the patterns of interregional affinities identified by neighbor-joining cluster analysis (Fig. 3). Hainan (HAI) reflects the most divergent sample. The two later western Chinese samples, Krorän (KRO) and Alwighul (ALW), feature the closest affinities to Sapalli (SAP), the earliest of the Bactrian samples. Two of the samples from Turkmenistan (Altyn depe (ALT) and Geoksyur (GKS)) span the phenetic space between Iranian samples and Bactrian samples, with Geoksyur exhibiting closer phenetic affinities to Bactrians (especially the latest sample, Molali (MOL)), while Altyn depe shares closer phenetic affinities to Iranians. The steppe Bronze Age sample from the Caucasus (SAMB) represents a phenetic outlier to all other samples, exhibiting only a very distant affinity to the sample from Altyn depe. <b>Indus Valley samples share rather close affinities to one another but are strongly segregated from all other samples, except the early western Chinese sample from Qäwrighul (QAW).</b>
..

Once again, the two later western Chinese samples, Krorän (KRO) and Alwighul (ALW), exhibit the closest affinities to the earliest Bactrian sample, Sapalli (SAP). Bactrian samples (SAP, DJR, KUZ, and MOL) exhibit the closest affinities to one another. The two Turkmenian samples from Geoksyur and Altyn depe occupy an intermediate phenetic position between Bactrians and northern Iranians, in which the former (GKS) shares the closest affinities with the latest Bactrian sample (MOL), while the latter (ALT) shares the closest affinities with the earlier northern Iranian sample (TH2). <b>Indus Valley samples (HAR, CEMH, and TMG) are located in the lower left of this array and, once again, the earliest western Chinese sample, Qäwrighul (QAW), is identified as possessing closer affinities to Indus Valley samples than to samples from any other region. </b>Standing somewhat in contrast to results obtained by other analyses, principal coordinates analysis identifies an especially close affinity between the Late Bronze-Early Iron Age sample from the Swat Valley of Pakistan (TMG) and the early northern Iranian sample (TH2). As with other analyses, this array also indicates that the Turkmenian sample from Kara depe (KAR) is strongly separated from other sedentary Turkmenistan samples, but unlike other analyses, principal coordinates analysis indicates that this sample possesses no close affinities with any of the other samples considered.
..

Nevertheless, <b>there is no support for the hypothesis that steppe populations contributed significantly to Bronze Age populations of the Tarim Basin. </b>Despite numerous similarities between Afanasievo and Andronovo artifacts and Bronze Age artifacts from Xinjiang (Bunker, [1998]; Chen and Hiebert, [1995]; Kuzmina, [1998]; Mei and Shell, [1998]; Peng, [1998]), <b>all analyses of phenetic relationships consistently reveal a profound phenetic separation between steppe samples and the samples from the Tarim Basin (Qäwrighul, Alwighul, and Krorän). </b>Further, neither of the later Tarim Basin samples from Alwighul or Krorän appears phenetically closer to the Han Chinese sample from Hainan, thereby indicating an absence of East Asian influence in these samples.
..

Second, none of the Tarim Basin samples, not even those that postdate 1200 B.C., exhibit any phenetic affinities to any of the steppe samples included in this analysis.
..

<b>The absence of close affinities to outside populations renders it unlikely that the human remains recovered from Qäwrighul represent the unadmixed remains of colonists from the Afanasievo or Andronovo cultures of the steppelands, or inhabitants of the urban centers of the Oxus civilization of Bactria.</b>..

The results, however, <b>fail to demonstrate even a low-level phenetic affinity between Qäwrighul and either steppe samples or samples from Oxus civilization urban centers. </b>Not only is there <b>no evidence for substantial immigration into the Tarim Basin by populations of these two adjacent regions; it also appears unlikely that either steppe populations or Oxus civilization populations served as a source of any significant gene flow commensurate with the appearance of the Bronze Age occupation of Qäwrighul. </b>..

The second alternative explanation to account for the human remains from Qäwrighul is that they are the product of emigration from a source area other than the Russo-Kazakh steppelands or Oxus civilization urban centers. While t<b>he results obtained indicate that there is no evidence that gene flow from either steppe or Oxus civilization populations led to the establishment of the Qäwrighul population, all analyses, except neighbor-joining cluster analysis (Fig. 3), disclose a low-level affinity between the Qäwrighul and Indus Valley samples. </b>Such affinities could be i<b>ndicative of some early interaction between the populations of these two regions. The implications of such early interaction are potentially profound.</b>

In a reversal of mainstream thought on a western Asian homeland (Urheimat) and eastward dispersal of Indo-European languages into Central Asia and India (Burrow, [1973]; Gamkrelidze and Ivanov, [1990]; Mallory, [1989]; Renfrew, [1988]), there is a body of scholars who have vigorously argued for an Indo-European homeland in the Indus Valley of India and Pakistan (surveyed at length in Bryant, [2001]), or that Indo-European languages disseminated from a locus somewhere in the vicinity of ancient Bactria-Sogdiana (Nichols, [1997], p. 137; see also Sargent, [1997]). If true, the dispersal of these Indo-European languages may have been accompanied by immigration and some gene flow from the Indus Valley homeland to the various historical seats of the Indo-European languages. In this way, Tocharian languages found in the Tarim Basin would be attributed to the influx of populations from Bactria whose ultimate derivation may be traced to the Indus Valley of India and Pakistan.
..<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

as usual, the hard facts are not allowed to speak for themselves and get overruled by various prejudiced notions. same is the case here also.

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->..<b>all results indicate that these later inhabitants of the Tarim Basin manifest a unique affinity to Bactrians.</b><!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

In summary, the SSVC ethnics migrated directly to the Tarim area. There was subsequent overlay of local Afghanis ("Bactrians") around this SSVC nucleus. The later afghani overlay also corresponded with a move north into the Oxus basin.
Hemphill:

http://img475.imageshack.us/img475/1059/india29bl.png
<img src='http://img475.imageshack.us/img475/1059/india29bl.png' border='0' alt='user posted image' />

QAW is the earliest Tarim element which, as anyone can see, clusters very closely with Harappa. The later KRO and ALW cluster together with "Bactrians"- that is, with the local Afghanis. As usual, the Steppe Jokers are nowhere to be seen. I would think that the riffraff russians would likewise pale infront of the magnificence of the historical bactro-persian culture.

To resurrect a euro line for QAW, Hemphill offers the specious argument that QAW should cluster beyond the Bactrian samples since Bactria is interposed between Tarim and Harappa. Of course, the empirical fact that QAW clusters v closely with Harappa while KRO and ALW cluster with local afghans just underlines the reality of a very dramatic movement out of the SSVC.

http://img468.imageshack.us/img468/9449/india3ci.png
<img src='http://img468.imageshack.us/img468/9449/india3ci.png' border='0' alt='user posted image' />
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Journal of Human Evolution
The super-eruption of Toba, did it cause a human bottleneck?

F. J. Gathorne-Hardy et al.

In summary, we have not been able to find any evidence to support the hypothesis that the Toba super-eruption of 73.5 Ka caused a bottleneck in the human population. The direct effects of the eruption were fairly localised, and at the time probably had a negligible effect on any human population in Asia, let alone Africa. Genetic evidence indicates that the Pleistocene human population bottleneck was not hour-glass shaped, but rather an up-side down bottle with a long neck. Modern humans at that time were adaptable, mobile, and technologically well-equipped, and it is likely that they could have dealt with the short-term environmental effects of the Toba event. Finally, we have found no evidence for associated animal decline or extinction, even in environmentally-sensitive species. <b>We conclude that it is unlikely that the Toba super-eruption caused a human, animal or plant population bottleneck. </b><!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

Nonetheless, Toba does explain the sharp genetic fault line between Bengal and Burma. Oppenheimer notes that most of the Mongoloid elements in India are Sunda refugia, as well as more distant refugia from Tibet, and are all speaking east asian languages. This fact firmly anchors Indic with Indic racial types (indeed with bengalis) at the earliest time depths.
Parkinsons is a motor disorder than is unknown in India. Many Indian physicians see their first Parkinsons patient only after traveling to the West, having encountered shuffling gaits and pill-rolling behaviors only in their textbooks. Haplo J is associated with a decreased risk for PD. Haplo J/T is known to originate out of India.

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Mitochondrial polymorphisms significantly reduce the risk of Parkinson disease.

van der Walt JM, Nicodemus KK, ...

Mitochondrial (mt) impairment, particularly within complex I of the electron transport system, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). More than half of mitochondrially encoded polypeptides form part of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH) complex I enzyme. To test the hypothesis that mtDNA variation contributes to PD expression, we genotyped 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that define the European mtDNA haplogroups in 609 white patients with PD and 340 unaffected white control subjects. Overall, <b>individuals classified as haplogroup J </b>(odds ratio [OR] 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.91; P=.02) or K (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.30-0.90; P=.02) d<b>emonstrated a significant decrease in risk of PD versus individuals carrying the most common haplogroup, H. </b>Furthermore, a specific SNP that defines these two haplogroups, 10398G, is strongly associated with this protective effect (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.39-0.73; P=.0001). SNP 10398G causes a nonconservative amino acid change from threonine to alanine within the NADH dehydrogenase 3 (ND3) of complex I. After stratification by sex, this decrease in risk appeared stronger in women than in men (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27-0.71; P=.0009). In addition, SNP 9055A of ATP6 demonstrated a protective effect for women (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22-0.93; P=.03). Our results suggest that ND3 is an important factor in PD susceptibility among white individuals and could help explain the role of complex I in PD expression.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->mtDNA haplogroup cluster UKJT reduces the risk of Parkinson's

Ann Neurol. 57(4): 564-567

Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup cluster UKJT reduces the risk of PD.

Pyle A et al

There is increasing evidence that genetic variants of mitochondrial DNA have an important role in the cause of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. We determined the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup of 455 Parkinson's disease cases, 185 Alzheimer's disease cases, and 447 healthy English control subjects. T<b>he UKJT haplogroup cluster was associated with a 22% reduction in population-attributable risk for Parkinson's disease. </b>There was no association between individual haplogroups or the UKJT cluster and Alzheimer's disease, confirming that the association with Parkinson's disease was disease specific and not a general effect seen in all neurodegenerative diseases.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

K and U (europa) are also firmly anchored in India. infact JT is post neolithic. euro entry of K is just prior to that.

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->www.flonnet.com/fl1909/19090780.htm
Dissecting Parkinsons

ASHA KRISHNAKUMAR

According to Professor N.H. Wadia, Director, Department of Neurology, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, studies show that the prevalence of Parkinson's disease is the lowest among Nigerians, followed by Chinese, Japanese, Afro-Americans and Indians. The prevalence rate is higher in Western countries. For example, the incidence of the disease among Italians is 11 times higher than among the Chinese. The prevalence of Parkinson's disease varies across communities too. For instance, in India, the incidence of the disease is higher among Parsis. [drift?]

..In India, the crude age-adjusted prevalence rate of Parkinson's disease per 100,000 population is 14 in northern India, 27 in the south and 16 in the east, while it is 363 for Parsis in Mumbai. The rate is 100 to 200 in the U.K.

According to Uday Mutane, Assistant Professor, Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, who analysed neurons in 84 brains from brain banks in London and Bangalore, the loss of pigmented melanin cells in the Substantia nigra is 40 per cent lesser among Indians. The reasons are not clear.

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On the question of indigenous "wild horse" the following site has dome interesting info:

http://nrce.nic.in/eqindia.htm

<b>1. Kathiawari Horses </b>
The superintendent of Gaekwar Contingent in 1880 suggested that the Kathiawari breed may have sprung from the wild horses of Kathiawar (a sort of Quagga, Bombay Gazette, Kathiawari, foot note, page 97). The breeding tract of the breed is Saurashtra province of Gujarat which comprises of Rajkot, Bhavnagar, Surendranagar Junagarh and Amreli districts of Gujarat.


Isn't it possible that other parts of India also had indigenous horses in the past? Nowadays in Himachal we only have tattoos <!--emo&Big Grin--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/biggrin.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='biggrin.gif' /><!--endemo-->
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Parkinson's disease cases, 185 Alzheimer's disease <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Even Alzheimer's disease is very rare in India.
Well, a senile witzel would definitely be an improvement.

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin--><b>the loss of pigmented melanin cells in the Substantia nigra is 40 per cent lesser among Indians. The reasons are not clear. </b><!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

Indeed, the albinos seem to lose the pigments in their brains as well.


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