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Sanatana Dharma - Aka Hinduism (2nd Bin)
Not sure whether what follows falls strictly under bhakti and devotion per se but here it goes. My wife doesnt know the whole song so might be using some incorrect words and might even miss some stanzas altogether. Its a popular lullaby that women in gujarat sing to make kids go to sleep.. I am just writing the first para in gujarati while xlation of what i remember. Here goes.. (hopefully I am not completely killing the spirit of the lullaby)..

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->aabh maan ugel chandalo ne Jijabai ne avyaa baal,
baluda ne maat hichole, dhan dhan dungaraa bole.
Shivaji ne neend naa ave, mataa Jijabai Jhulave<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

The moon has come out and Jijabai has delivered a baby. She swings her child while the hills roar (and beckon Shivaji).. The baby (Shivaji) wont go to sleep while his mother Jijabai swings trying to make her child go to sleep.

While sleeping in his mom's womb he had heard stories and great deeds of Raam and Laxman. Now that he has seen his mother (and hear the stories again) he has completely lost his sleep.

Says Jijabai -> O my child please go to sleep and sleep to your heart's content as tomorrow will bring grom battles and you wont have any time to sleep.

Says Jijabai -> Drink my milk, my child. And drink it till you are full as tomorrow will brings times where you wont even get a handful of dhaan (grains?).

Says Jijabai further -> Wear all fine clothes that are of different colors. For tomorrow will bring war where your body will be covered in blood and your body will become the shield ..

The baby (Shivaji) wont go to sleep while his mother Jijabai swings trying to make her child go to sleep.

<!--emo&:felx--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/flex.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='flex.gif' /><!--endemo-->
These are a couple of Bengali songs praising the Mother that was liked by Sri Ramakrishna and sung by Vivekananda:

Bengali original:

Nibir aandhare Ma tor chomoke o rupo rashi
Tai jogi dhyan dhore hoye giri guhabashi
Ananta aandhar kole mahanirvan hillole
chiro shanti parimal abirol jai bhashi
mahakal rup dhore aandhar boshon pore
samadhi mandire o Ma ke tumi go eka boshi
Abhay pado komole premer bijoli jole
chinmoy mukho mandale shobhe atta atta hashi

English Translation:

In dense darkness, O Mother, They formless beauty sparkles,
Therefore the yogis meditate in a dark mountain cave.
In the lap of boundless dark, on Mahanirvan's waves upborne,
Peace flows serene and inexhaustable.
Taking the form of the Void, in the robe of darkness wrapped,
Who are Thou, Mother, seated alone in the shrine of Samadhi?
From the lotus of Thy fear-scattering feet flash Thy love's lightnings;
Thy spirit-face shine forth with laughter terrible and loud!

Bengali Original:

Mojlo amar mon bhromora
Syama pado nil komole
Syama pado nil komole
Kali pado nil komole
Joto bishoy madhu tuccho holo
kamadi kushum sakale
charan kalo bhromor kalo
kaloe kalo mishe galo
pancha tattva, pradhan mattva
rango dekhe bhango dilo
Kamalakanter mone ashapurna etodine
Sukh dukkha saman holo
Ananda sagar uthhle.

English translation:

The black bee of my mind is drawn into sheer delight
To the blue lotus flower of Mother Syama's feet,
The blue flower of the feet of Kali, Siva's Consort;
Tasteless, to the bee, are the blossoms of desire.
My Mother's feet are black, and black, too is the bee;
Black is made one with black! This much of the mystery
My mortal eyes behold, then hastily retreat.
But Kamalakanta's hopes are fulfilled in the end;
He swims in the sea of Bliss, unmoved by joy or pain.
On MS Subbalakshmi in Outlook

Song On The Breeze
Trained in the devadasi's shringara bhava, MS became the epitome of the bhakti


"Kaatriniley varum geetam..." And, having come on the crest of a breeze redolent
with an erotic charge and having touched us all with the colour and romance of
spring, the moisture of electric monsoons and the shiver of a naughty winter
chill, the song has now coasted back, as tenderly, to the unknown forests of
magic and surges of the ocean from where it originally stirred awake.

And as the dulcet voice of Madurai Shanmukhavadivu Subbulaksmi returned to
'samam', short of midnight on Saturday, December 11, rare would be those
familiar with her oeuvre who did not feel a personal sense of loss.

Rare would be those in hundreds of thousands of homes, across South India at
least, who did not, on Sunday morning, get a lump in their throats playing her
eponymous Venkateshwara Suprabhatam or the equally rich Meenakshi, Kamakshi and
Vishwanatha suprabhatams. Or the Annamacharya kritis in Bhowli or Ragamalika. Or
the deeply devotional Vishnu Sahasranamam.

Those familiar with the hedonistic chemistry of her throaty alaps, embellished
by an easy abundance of bhrigas (range and resonance created in the voice box)
and gamakas (oscillations, glides and other decorative embellishments) flanking
the sonorousness of her nasal twang and the crystal clarity of her swara
prastharas (permutation/combination of musical notes) would have reconciled
themselves to the inevitability of a long winter for melody with the passing
away of this most visible and accessible face of classical Carnatic music after
having succumbed, the past few years, to the ravages of age.

MS was the product of a heady ex-pression of freedom for the female voice while
remaining steeped in convention. MS, as she was fondly addressed, departed at 88
leaving behind a good seven decades of sustained service to the cause of
Carnatic music in general and to devotional music in particular. And this, in
itself, constitutes one of the abiding ironies of our times.

Born in an indigent devadasi family with a marked musical lineage, MS belonged
to that club of 'singing women' of the South whose parallel in the North are the

If, by the early decades of the 20th century, the musical platforms of North
India were being invaded by the Kesarbais, Mogubais, Rasoolanbais, Hirabais and
Askaribais, the South witnessed a parallel phenomenon in the rise of Mysore
Nagaratnamma, Madras Lalithangi, Kanchi Jayammal, Coimbatore Tayi and Salem
Godavari. This, in turn, spawned a second generation that witnessed the growth
to fame of K.B. Sundarambal, S.D. Subbulakshmi, M.S. Subbulakshmi and M.L.
Vasanthakumari. One could also safely include the Bharatanatyam diva T.
Balasaraswati to this list, as she too happened to be a consummate singer.

Like the 'Bais of Benares', these astonishingly talented and supremely
self-confident women stormed the public and platform spaces, which were largely
a male preserve and virtually redefined the concert paradigm of free India.
Interestingly, every one of them belonged to the traditionally disadvantaged
community of devadasis for whom, as in classical anthropology, "motherhood is a
fact but fatherhood mere speculation". In the Tamil provinces then, the only two
female geniuses who bucked this and rose from the Brahmin community were the
impossibly sweet N.C. Vasanthakokilam (who died, tragically premature, in her
20s) and the venerable D.K. Pattammal, who is a few years younger to MS.

The artistic lineage of the devadasis is one of shringara or the unabashed and
hedonistic celebration of body, sensual pleasures, the erotic. As such, the
theme of love, worldly or divine, suffuses their renditions and, arguably,
constitutes its true aesthetic energy. This is accompanied by a genetic genius
for catching the shruti and an effortless ability to round off all rough edges
with a mastery of laya. All these are more or less common traits amongst each
one of them.

Yet, coming from these ranks, the way MS ended up being the iconic metaphor of
the nation's devotional voice and the untrammelled face of bhakti is, by itself,
an extraordinary story of fairytale proportions. Her marriage in 1940 to freedom
fighter and Congressman T. Sadasivam realigned the early coordinates of MS and
set them on a new path of unrestrained 'Sanskritisation'.

Through a series of fund-raisers and charity concerts across North India for the
Kasturba Memorial Trust—concerts patronised by Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru,
Sarojini Naidu, Rajendra Prasad, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, et al—MS became
familiar to North Indian audiences as well as to the lobbies of power at the
Centre. She also underwent special tutelage under Siddheswari Devi learning
thumris and khayals, even as her guru Vidwan Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer chipped
and honed her talent. She learnt from other singer-teachers too like Papanasam
Sivan, Musiri Subramania Iyer and G.N. Balasubramaniam.

After a series of forays in Tamil films like Sevasadanam, Savitri and
Shakuntalai, the troika of friends comprising C. Rajagopalachari, 'Kalki'
Krishnamurthy and Sadasivam hit upon the brilliant idea of launching MS on a
national scale. The launch vehicle was to be the film Meera, on the 16th-century
bhakti poet of the same name, even as it facilitated their strategy of
compacting music with devotion on to the persona of MS. This highly popular 1945
musical was remade in Hindi in 1947 and overnight converted MS into a household
name across the country. In fact, the Meera bhajan Hari tum haro har ki peed, a
favourite of Mahatma Gandhi's, was chosen for being broadcast by All India Radio
on January 30, 1948, after Bapu was assassinated.

Sadasivam had achieved the impossible. He had systematically transformed a
devadasi into a role-model 'Iyer' wife; a musician trained in shringara bhava
into a musician who became the epitome of bhakti bhava; and a provincial
Tamil-speaking girl into a national icon. There is some sublimating hypocrisy
though, in the hype around her being the "twentieth century apostle of bhakti".
Her rendition of bhajans and keertans flowed, no doubt, from the very core of
her being. But she needs to be interpreted as an artist who epitomised the
freedom and dignity of women.

While some of the best known names of Carnatic music like Mudicondan Venkatarama
Iyer, Maharajapuram Vishwanatha Iyer, M.D. Ramanathan, Madurai Mani Iyer, Musiri
and Semmangudi himself were destined to remain artistes with limited regional
impact, MS went on to assume a towering presence on the national psyche.

A few select appearances, in the 1960s, at international venues like the
Edinburgh Festival, the United Nations General Assembly and, later, in some of
the Festivals of India and other events abroad, helped consolidate her image as
the true ambassador of Carnatic music and its reigning queen. Without a doubt,
other female vocalists like T. Brinda and T. Mukta, of the Veena Dhanam line,
had conspicuously more musical depth and density. However, they had not been
favoured with the 'Sanskritisation' route and remained largely invisible except
to the cognoscenti.

The flood of 'letters-to-the-editor' in the Chennai dailies in the days
following MS's demise are a window to the manner in which this god's own good
woman was able to connect with king and commoner alike—both through her music as
well as through her transparent personality. It is clear that MS will be
remembered as much for the ringing quality of her Saroja-dala-netri in Raga
Shankarabharanam or Srirangapura Vihara in Brindavana Saranga or Bhavayami
Raghuramam in Ragamalika, as much for having lived the role of

MS was the product of a heady ex-pression of freedom for the female voice while
remaining steeped in convention and orthodoxy.The quality of 'accessibility' in
her voice is precisely reflective of this tension, so much a part of a new
nation struggling to tide over its own growth pangs and adolescence. For
centuries to come, people will wonder that such a voice with its amalgam of
uninhibited sexuality, palpable innocence, abundant spirituality, distilled
sweetness and unrestrained compassion blessed this land. For an answer as to how
this phenomenon happened, one can only revert to the composition by 'Kalki'
Krishnamurthy for the film Meera, sung so memorably by MS in a raga something
akin to a Hindustani Jaunpuri: "Kaatriniley varum geetham..." The song just
wafts in on the breeze.

Outlook, December 27,2004.
Posted by Sunder in another thread

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Please read the Bahdimochana stotram, and more importantly Sri Durga APADH UDDHARASTAKAM. (From personal experience, this shloka is quite powerful, and when chanted in life-or-death situation, or in cases of severe fear and confusion.)

There is no ritual that goes with the shloka as it is often recited at times of great defficulties. It is like crying out for help from the depth of your heart. And thus, a cry for help does not require any vidhi. The only requirement for this shloka to have immense faith and devotion.

The devotee is in a Dhainya stithi (state of destitution) when he/she invokes Durga Devi to come to rescue. So, when this is recited, INEVITABLY, I feel melancholy well up within, and from the deep melancholy comes tears that wash her feet. But after the recitation, comes great sense of relief.

The only requirement for this is to remember the predicament (of Shri Acharya) and begging the Divine Mother to come to rescue. I am confident that She will intervene.

Can you translate (or point to a translation) this shloka?
Thx in advance.
<!--QuoteBegin-Viren+Jan 11 2005, 08:39 PM-->QUOTE(Viren @ Jan 11 2005, 08:39 PM)<!--QuoteEBegin--> Sunder,
Can you translate (or point to a translation) this shloka?
Thx in advance. <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Work's a bit hectic. Viren ji, I shall translate this tonight.
<i>namaste sharaNye shive saanukampe
namaste jagadvyaapike vishvaruupe.
namaste jagadvandyapaadaaravinde
namaste jagattaariNi traahi durge (1)</i>

Bowings to you Mother, you are The Refuge, you are Auspicious One, You are The Sympathiser.
Bowings to you Mother, You pervade this Universe, You ARE the Universe (Vishva ruupe).
Bowings to you Mother, the whole world bows to Your lotus like feet.
Bowings to you Mother, you are the protector of the whole world. Protect us O Mother Durga.

<i>namaste jagachchintyamaanasvaruupe
namaste mahaayogiviGYaanaruupe .
namaste namaste sadaananda ruupe
namaste jagattaariNi traahi durge (2)</i>

Bowings to you Mother, your form is the form meditated upon Universally. (?)
Bowings to you Mother, you are in the embodiment of experience attained by Great Yoga.
Bowings to you Mother, Bowings to you, the Ever Happy one.
Bowings to you Mother, you are the protector of the whole world. Protect us O Mother Durga.

<i>anaathasya diinasya tR^iShNaaturasya
bhayaartasya bhiitasya baddhasya jantoH .
tvamekaa gatirdevi nistaarakartrii
namaste jagattaariNi traahi durge (3)</i>
Protect me O Mother, for I am orphaned, am destitute, and prone to delusion,
I am very afraid, I am frightened, I am an entangled animal,
You are the only way, O Mother who can save me from this danger.
Bowings to you Mother, you are the protector of the whole world. Protect us O Mother Durga.

<i>araNye raNe daaruNe shutrumadhye
jale saN^kaTe raajagrehe pravaate .
tvamekaa gatirdevi nistaara hetur
namaste jagattaariNi traahi durge (4)</i>
When in a forest, or when I am amidst treacherous enemies,
When troubled by water, or by the Royalty (Government),
You are the only way, O Mother who can save me from this danger.
Bowings to you Mother, you are the protector of the whole world. Protect us O Mother Durga.

<i>apaare mahadustare.atyantaghore
vipat.h saagare majjataaM dehabhaajaam.h .
tvamekaa gatirdevi nistaaranaukaa
namaste jagattaariNi traahi durge (5)</i>
When I am unable to cross, the deadliest of terrains, and amidst the most dangerous places,
When this body perishes in accidents in the sea,
You are the only way, O Mother who can save me from this danger like a ship.
Bowings to you Mother, you are the protector of the whole world. Protect us O Mother Durga.

<i>namashchaNDike chaNDordaNDaliilaa
samutkhaNDitaa khaNDalaasheShashatroH .
tvamekaa gatirvighnasandohahartrii
namaste jagattaariNi traahi durge (6)</i>
Bowings to you Mother, O Mother Chandika (Slayer of Chanda), Your play is forceful. (I am not sure what Chandordhanda is. Chanda is Overwhelming or forceful.)
O Mother, you cut asunder and annihilate ALL the enemies and spare none.
You are the only way, O Mother are doubtlessly the one who removes all the obstacles.
Bowings to you Mother, you are the protector of the whole world. Protect us O Mother Durga.

<i>tvamekaa sadaaraadhitaa satyavaadinyanekaakhilaa krodhanaa krodhaniShThaa .
iDaa piN^galaa tvaM suShumnaa cha naaDii namaste jagattaariNi traahi durge (7)</i>
You are always worshipped, ever the Embodiment of Truth, you are the Embodiment of Anger. (I do not know why She is called Krodha nishta, though I know the meaning of both words separately..)
You are IDA, Pingala, and the Sushumna channels.
Bowings to you Mother, you are the protector of the whole world. Protect us O Mother Durga.

<i>namo devi durge shive bhiimanaade
sadaasarvasiddhipradaatR^isvaruupe .
vibhuutiH sataaM kaalaraatrisvaruupe
namaste jagattaariNi traahi durge (8)</i>
Bowings to you Mother Durga, O Auspicious One, O Mother with a Fearsome Voice,
O Mother, you always grant success (to those who worship you.)
Glory unto you, O Mother who is Kala Ratri (The great Kali at the end of Pralaya.)
Bowings to you Mother, you are the protector of the whole world. Protect us O Mother Durga.

This is Mother KaalaRatri (The Most benevolent One, and my most favourite one.)

<i>sharaNamasi suraaNaaM siddhavidyaadharaaNaaM
munidanujavaraaNaaM vyaadhibhiH piiDitaanaam.h .
nR^ipatigR^ihagataanaaM dasyubhistraasitaanaaM
tvamasi sharaNamekaa devi durge prasiida ) 9)</i>
(This is Phala Shruthi)

The great Devas bow to you O Mother, as do Siddhas and Vidhyadharas.
The Silent and wise Munis, Demons (sons of Dhanu), and those afflicted by Illness Bow to you.
Those who go to the King's house, And those who fear Dhasyu Bow to you.
You ALONE are the refuge, O Mother Durga please preside. Please protect us.

<i>iti siddheshvaratantre haragauriisa.nvaade aapaduddhaaraaShTakastotraM sampuurNam.h </i>
This conversation between Hara and Gowri is taken from Siddheshvara Tantra, is called Apadh Uddhara Ashtaka Stotra.
I am sure the translation above is crude. Ashok, would you be kind enough to comment on it.
When Mentioning Kalaratri, my mind raced thru the Nava Durga. You already may know the nine names, but here are the pictures from the Geethapress (Gorakhpur) book called "Navadurga". The nine names of Durga are:

1) Shaila Putri: http://www.mantraonnet.com/nav-durga/sailaputri.jpg
2) Brahmacharini : http://www.mantraonnet.com/nav-durga/brahmacarini.jpg
3) Chandraganta: http://www.mantraonnet.com/nav-durga/candraghanta.jpg
4) Kooshmanda: http://www.mantraonnet.com/nav-durga/kusmanda.jpg
5) Skandhamatha: http://www.mantraonnet.com/nav-durga/skanda-mata.jpg
6) Kathyayini: http://www.mantraonnet.com/nav-durga/katyayani.jpg
7) Kalarathri: http://www.mantraonnet.com/nav-durga/kalaratri.jpg
8) Mahagauri: http://www.mantraonnet.com/nav-durga/mahagauri.jpg
9) Siddhidaatri: http://www.mantraonnet.com/nav-durga/siddhidatri.jpg

Ithi Navadurga Prakeerthithaa.
(Thus the nine Durga are known.)
Spinster garu! any update on Thyagayya movei? <!--emo&Wink--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/wink.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='wink.gif' /><!--endemo--> <!--emo&:drool--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/drool.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='drool.gif' /><!--endemo-->

Thanks for the translations!

Sanskrit always provides more than one way to interpret some words, I will just list some below:

vishva-rUpe = of universal form or of 'all' the forms (vishva can stand for the universe as well as the word 'all' as in vishvedevA mening all the gods taken together)

trAhi = save us

jagachchintyamaanasvaruupe = jagat (world)+ chintyamAna(thinking)+ svarUpe(in the form of) = in the form of one who thinks up the whole world, perhaps means one who creates the world by thought.

tR^iShNaaturasya = of one who is suffering from thirst or eager with want/desire

anaathasya diinasya tR^iShNaaturasya
(Of/for a person who is orphan, destitute, thirsty ....)

araNye(In the forest), raNe daaruNe(in a painful war) shutrumadhye(amongst enemies)
jale(in water) saN^kaTe(in trouble) raajagrehe(at kings house) pravaate(in a tempest).
>> For those people who are in trouble in forest, in a painful war, amongst enemies, in water, at kings house or in a tempest

apaare(In boundless), mahadustare(very difficult to cross).atyantaghore(extremely violent)
vipat.h saagare(in ocean of troubles), majjataaM(sinking) dehabhaajaam.h(of/for those holders of body))
>>For those people who are sinking in the boundless, very difficult to cross and extremely violent ocean of troubles

chaNDordaNDaliilaa -> I think there is a typo here. It probably is chanDa-dordaNDa-liilaa
chanda(fierce)+dordaNDa(long arms) +lIlA(play)
samutkhaNDitaa(uprooted), khaNDala(pieces)+asheSha(many)+shatroH(of enemies)
>>I bow to ChandikA, play of whose long fierce arms, uprooted pieces of many enemies ( I agree, this line is hardest to translate. There still seems a grammatical unsoundness to the line)

krodhaniShThaa = who is naturally angry (situated in anger)
niShThA=ni+sthA = to be situated close/below = faith
e.g. satya-niShTha = one who is situated in truth
An article on the concept of Bhakti as found in Gita and divya prabandham by Prof. Sriman M.S.Rangacharya swami and Sriman S.Kannan swami, a learned scholar from Chennai with emphasis on nAlAyira divya prabandham.




The Sanskrit word ‘Bhakti’ usually understood by the English synonym ‘devotion’ or ‘adoration’ is derived from the root (dhathu) ‘bhaja’ indicated by the word ‘sevayam’ (in servitude). Bhakta: has the derivation bhajanam karothi ithi bhakta: (one who does adoration). On the face of it, bhakti indicates from its derivation and usage in ithihasas and puranas, an act on the part of the chetana or individual. A departure from this notion is found in the Bhagavad-Gita sloka 9-29:

Samo‘ham sarva-bhutesu na me dvesyo‘sti na priya:
Ye bhajanti tu mam bhaktya mayi te tesu capy aham.
Meaning: I am the same to all creation. There is none to be hated by or dear to Me. But those who worship Me with devotion (viz. a sense of being at My feet) abide in Me and I do abide in them.

In the second half of the sloka, ‘bhaktya bhajanti’ becomes meaningless if bhakti is just the process of bhajana - devotion or worship. In the Sanskrit tradition this will be a flaw –paunarukthya dosha, error of repetition. Ramanuja in his Gita Bhashya explains the term ‘bhaktya’ by the phrase: ‘athyartha-mathpriyathvena madhbhajanena vina athmadharana-alabhath madhbhajanaika prayojana ye mam bhajante'. We may put this in English as, “because of extremity of love, being unable to sustain the soul without adoring Me, those who adore Me for the sake of adoration alone.” This explanation is upheld by Vedanthadesika in his Tatparyachandrika as paunarukthya-pariharya- justification for the repetition. Thus Ramanuja distinguishes ‘bhajanti’, from the usual notion of ‘doing bhakti’ – a ritualistic performance or worship – to a concept of devotion or adoration of the Supreme Being, for its own sake without any expectation on either side. Here the question arises as to why the extremely great love, non-survival without adoring and adoration for its own sake occur in the individual? The only answer is that the Supreme Being is the swami or possessor and the individual (chetana) is possessed by Him. On being made to realize this truth, the individual (chetana) finds it so blissful of being captivated in such a possession and cannot survive further without adoring the possessor, which alone perpetuates the bliss of being possessed or rather the state of ‘being’ or meaningful existence (sattha, in Sanskrit). Here again it is the possessor who is concerned about His possession and cares for its welfare and as such there is nothing to expect out of the adoration. In consonance with this thinking, Bhattar while commenting on the line “tvameva cha archayan nithyam bhaktyâ purusham avyayam” defines bhakti as “swamini dasasya anuragamayi sthiti:” thus bringing in the nature of our adoration for the Supreme. (Ref: Bhagavadhguna dharpanam..)

The proper understanding and awareness of this phenomenon is precisely known as seshatva or adimai (in Tamil.) From Ramanuja’s explanation it is thus clear that bhajana by the individual is an outwardly expression of his bhakti (concept of adoration) which is nothing but purna seshatva. Thus bhakti is an attitude, which is non-egoistic with no expectation of outcome and in conformity of the nature (swarupa) of the individual soul. This is very precisely and more faithfully termed by the Azhwars as ‘patthimai’ and explicitly expounded in their works underscoring that this attitude is also created in the individual only by Him as for instance in: -

……perarkkariya ninna padha patthiyana pasanam
perarkkariya mayane! enakku nalha vendume. Thiruccandaviruttham 100.

……porul allatha ennaip porulakki adimai kondai….. Thiruvaimozhi (T.V.M) 5-7-3.

……nalhi al ennaik kondarule. Periyathirumozhi 1-9-1.

Ramanuja’s explanation for Gita sloka 9-29, particularly on ‘bhakti’ is based on Tamil literature and Azhwars’ aruliccheyal. Bhakti as we have seen is a concept of adoration born out of great love. In Tamil literature the true deep love at one stage is termed as ‘vetkai’. A grammarian in Tamil has defined ‘vetkai’ as ‘oruvar oruvarai inriamaiyamai’ – that is (in love) ‘either cannot sustain without the other’. (Ref. Iraiyanar Ahap-porul Nakkeeranar urai- Bhavanandar Kazhaham Edn.1939. pp.39.). Ramanuja was not only aware but was apparently scholarly in Tamil ahapporul literature and grammar. More than that he felt the need to accept their usage for proper understanding of Aruliccheyal.(Azhwars have made use of this word ‘vetkai’ in many places). We learn from Nampillai’s idu TVM 6-1-10, that while Ramanuja was still receiving his lessons from Thirumalaiandan on Thiruvaimozhi, at one point he intervened and offered a different but proper interpretation for the phrase ‘ennaiyum ulal enminkale’ in Thiruvaimozhi 6-1-10. Herein he quotes the definition given for ‘vetkai’ in Iraiyanar ahap-porul verbatim as ‘inriamaiyamai’ and explains its intricacy in consonance with the Azhwar’s theme of adoration out of love. Ramanuja had the insight to read the mind of Azhwars and visualize their entrancement through their literature, which speak in abundance essentially of love and pleasure – adoration and sustenance - which is otherwise termed as ‘bhakti’. He grasps the meaning of aruliccheyal and realizes the state of relationship between the Supreme Being and the soul exposed by the azhwars. He then expounds the truth to the Sanskrit knowing readers of his works by saying that one cannot survive without the other. It is clear from what has been said that Tamil grammar became a handy tool, which he cites also. That the Supreme Being cannot sustain Himself without the chetana is derived from the significance of the narayana sabdha viz. naranam cha ayanam ya: (the controller and conductor of sentient and insentient objects of the cosmos) For His isvarathva (lordship) isithavya (subjects) are essential. Again, going to azhwars, rightly it is, His krpa, which makes Him accessible and useful to the chetana-achetanas, besides His Narayanathva. If He does not have subjects to show His grace His existence cannot be sustained. For instance, Thirumazhisai azhwar says in Nanmuhanthiruvandhathi (verse 7):

Inraha nalaiyeyaha inic-cirithum
Ninraha ninnarul enpalathe – nanraha
Nan unnai anri ilen kandai naranane
Nee ennaiyanriyilai.

(Whether it is now or later or be it in a split second, Your grace is assured on me. I am not well without You, which You know and You cannot exist without me.) This is echoed in Alavandhar’s Stotrarathna sloka 51. ‘thadhaham tvadhruthe…………… ma sma jeehapa:.

It is precisely this idea emanating from the interpretation of Azhwars work, which gets reflected in his Gitabhashya 9-29., wherein he expounds the true meaning of ‘bhaktya bhajanthi’. His explanation, ‘athyarthamath priyathvena..’ – due to extremity of love referring to ‘vetkai’. ‘athmadharana alabhath’ – impossible to sustain the soul referring to ‘inriyamayamai’-; is verily from Tamil tradition, expounding the message of Azhwars.

In contemporary works also scholars have presented the concept of bhakti lucidly. While making reference to Thiruvaimozhi 10-8-5. Prof. A. K. Ramanujan (Hymns for the drowning – Afterword – pp117- OUP) says that; ‘Nammazhwar speaks frequently of being entered, filled, taken over, enslaved as well as enabled by a divine being’. Further as an inference from this we find his statement (ibid. pp116) that 'a bhakta is not content to worship a god in word and ritual, nor is he content to grasp Him in theology, he needs to possess Him and be possessed by Him'. This explains the principle of seshatva more so inriyamaiyamai.

Bhakti in its mature form is not an end in itself. The culmination of bhakti is service to fellow beings. This is reflected by the meaning of ‘patthi’ in Tamil as ‘anpudaimai’, ‘thondu’; love, service. Azhwars also have expressed this idea in their works. Pillaiperumal Iyengar states ‘ninnai vazhtthi thondarkku ithalai patthiyai cheyvorhal…’ (azhaharandhadhi-29) (Who adore You and give in plenty to those at your feet with a sense of essentiality for existence), Here the word ‘ithal’ is significant and key to ‘patthi’. ‘ithal’ in Tamil means giving aplenty. This giving can be through words or deeds and is to all since ‘thondu’ or seshatva applies to all except Him and even to Him at times as Thirumangaiazhwar has put it ‘parvanna madamangai patthar..’ (thirunedunthantakam -18).

Thus we conclude that bhakti as preached by azhwars is a non-egoistic idea of adoring the Paramatma when He graces the chetana to realize his seshatva. Bhakti is a concept of adoration rather than a ritualistic worship or philosophy. In the words of azhwar, “citravenda, cinthippe amaiyum…’ (Be not weary, be active intellectually). Nampillai states (Thiruvaimozhi 9-1-7. idu) that adoration is without any expectation and for its own sake.

When time permits, please provide translation..

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Dear all,
It is the wish of Sri Jayendra saraswati swamigal that all those who want an early and amicable solution to the present crisis should start reciting vAyu stuti which is in praise of Sri hanumAnji. Satish Garimella has been kind enough to send me the Sanskrit version and here is my transliteration to English for the same. Please take a print out and recite it daily at least once, if not more! And chant/write the following as frequently as possible:

Om vighnaharAya nama:

And, here is the vAyu stuti.

II Laghu vAyu stuti : II

vAsudEvam sadAnanda teerthA nanda sandOha sandAna seelam I
swAminam sachchidAnandaroopam nandayAmOvayam nandasoonum II

sree hanoomanta mEkAnta bhAjam rAghavasreepadAmbhOja bhrungam I
mArutim prANinAm prANabhootam nandayAmOvayam nanditeertham II

bheemaroopam parO pEyivAmsam bhAratam bhAratasreelalAmam I
bhoobharadhwamsinAm bhArateesam nandayAmOvayam nanditeertham II

dEvachoodAmaNim poorNabOdham krushNapAdAravindaika dAsam I
chitta chintAmaNim puNyabhAjAm nandayAmOvayam nanditeertham II

mAyigO mAyu mAyAndhakAra dhwamsa mArtANda moorteeyamAnam I
sajjanAnanda sandOhadhEnum nandayAmOvayam nanditeertham II

indirAnandam Anandamoortim sundaree mandirAm indukAntim I
dAsamEkam tathA tatvaroopam nandayAmOvayam nanditeertham II

iti sreekalyANidEvee virachitam, laghu vAyustuti: sampoorNam

bhArateeramaNa mukhya prANAntagarta sreekrushNArpaNamastu II<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->And, a simpler one!!

kArAgruha vimOktAcha
shrungaLA bhandha mOchaka
sAgarOttAra prAgnyO
rAmadhoota pratApavAn !

Salutations to the ONE, who can break the shackles and release one from the prison, the ONE, who crossed the great ocean, the ONE, who is the messengr of Sri rAmA and the ONE, who is very powerful and famous!!<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
Annamayya's lyrics

<!--emo&:rocker--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/rocker.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='rocker.gif' /><!--endemo-->
Kannada Audio.Com

Just came back home after listening to a wonderful couple of hours on raasa lila. The description on and around gopi geet was simply mesmerising. I looked around on google but the english translations just dont do justice to the song.



<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Atatee yadh bhavan hanhi kaananam
trutir-yugaayate tvaam-pashyataam |

Kutil-kuntalam shri-mukham cha te
Jada udikshtaam pakshm krid drishaam || 15 ||

O our beloved, during the day when you have gone to the forest, every moment without seeing you passes like a yug (age). When you return in the evening and we see your most beautiful face framed with curly locks, at that moment we don't want to drop our eyelids. At that time it seems that creator of eyelids is cruel. <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

xlation might be accurate but much i am afraid is lost in xlation. Worth listening to from somebody really good at this.. <!--emo&:guitar--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/guitar.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='guitar.gif' /><!--endemo-->
This is a xlation from a gujju article . Pl pardon my xlation skills..

The story is about Sant Tukaram.

Goswami Tulsidasji has rightly said that <i>Hari Ananta Hari Kathaa Anantaa</i>. Sant Tukaram was a singer of one such anant kathaa. Sant Tukaram was born in 1608 in a village 18 miles from Pune. He was a bhakta in true sense of the word. His life was a beautiful mix of Bhakti and Karma.

He was married for the first time at the age of 13. After finding out that his first wife was sick with dum (asthama?) he was married a second time. His first wifes name was Rakhubai while his second wife's name was Jijai. His family was big - an elder brother, a younger brother, sisters and others. His parent passed away when he was 17. His bhabhi (elder brothers wife) also passed away soon. His elder brother became disillusioned and became a vairagi (ascetic) and went away on a pilgrimage. The entire load of supporting the family came upon Tukaram. His business suffered losses and agriculture ran into losses. The first wife was really nice while the second one was real fiesty and gave lots of trouble to Tukaram. Tukaram then started a business of spices but he again incurred losses. This was followed by a drought and he lost his first wife and his daughter soon after.

Tukaram became disillusioned after this. He handed over the remaining business to his younger brother and got involved in hari araadhana. Tukaram used to his puja @ Samiparath Viththal Temple every morning. He sometimes used to go sit near the Indriyani river or on Bhagnath mountain. In solitude he used to pray to gyaneshwari or eknathi bhavat parayan. Every evening he used to return back to village to participate in harikirtan.

During this time due to Gods grace "Abhang" vani (dont know what this is) came out of Sant Tukaram. Knowledgeable people were surprised to hear this.

9 miles away from Pune, some vedic pandits didnt like a shudra to speak in Abhang vani. Sant Tukaram got disheartened and submerged his books written in Abhang vani in the river.

He was so disheartened he gave up all food and water and went to Viththal temple and started ghor sadhana. 13 days and nights later he had Bhagwan sakshatkaar. Other devotees recovered the books that he had submerged in the river due to Gods grace. Sant Tukaram then sang the Hari Kathaa and spread the word of love for all. Word got around and reached Shivaji maharaj. They both met and Shivaji Maharaj expressed his shraddha. Lakhs of people in Maharashtra still sing Sant Tukaram's songs . Sant Tukaram passed away at the age of 41.
<!--QuoteBegin-rajesh_g+Mar 22 2005, 06:46 PM-->QUOTE(rajesh_g @ Mar 22 2005, 06:46 PM)<!--QuoteEBegin--> 9 miles away from Pune, some vedic pandits didnt like a shudra to speak in Abhang vani. Sant Tukaram got disheartened and submerged his books written in Abhang vani in the river.
I hope those NS groupies and Pathma take credit for this too.

Per consensus discussions will be split in three bins. In the first bin on Practice (Philosophical, Spiritual, Cultural), the second bin on Experience (Cultural/Social), the third on Community (Social/Political).

Each bin thus captures and represents one of the main ways that dharma is expressed which makes an impact on all hindus and others, living in the eco-system.

The first bin is for how religious practices can exert a powerful hold on people, and become focal points of their lives as they facilitate experiences of divine or ultimate reality [Whatever it is called in their own minds]. In other words, religious practices are powerful because they are vehicles for religious experience, let’s just look at it for what it is - {Let us avoid hair splitting here - orthodos or heterodox schools etc etc - we have philosophy thread just for that}

<b>The second bin</b> for discussing/analyzing different forms of religious experiences that shows how they not only involve people in relationships with divine or ultimate reality but its impact on immediate surroundings. Technically such experiences generate loyalty to religious communities and guide people in managing their immediate social world and concern for society (or lack there of) – discussion mainly on the latter part {We really cannot discuss personal experiences nor do we want to discuss opinions - Just the "local(micro)" impact}

The third bin for exploring the impact of such religious communities on society on a much broader scale – India/World - in light of increasing assault on Hinduism by the usual suspects, complicated by our own misunderstanding and laziness to put an effort into busting myths propagated by vested interests. For lack of better word, let’s call this “Theorizing Bin - Past, Present and Future” The past-present-future angle sets the context behind each argument, otherwise it is futile, in so far as developing a theory. If anything constructive comes out of this bin, then discussions to be based on accomplishing it at both micro and macro levels.

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Role of Tulsidas in Hindu Renaissance
by: Dr. Rajnikant Lahri
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Tulsidas appeared at a time when the Hindu society was groping in dark and was losing luster of life. The foreign invaders, with a few exceptions, had found the land suitable for making it their homeland and settle in India permanently. With the mentality of a ruling class, they got engaged in converting people into their religion of Islam. to widen their support base. Hinduism was being challenged in its own land. Moreover there were inner challenges as well. The differences in sects and within sects were weakening the grip of religion over the people. The Shaivites and the Vaishnavites were at loggerheads and quarreled with and criticized each other. Even the Shaiva sect was sub-divided into a number of sects, united in disagreeing with and opposing one another. Rituals had become commercialized. Differences, distortion of values, divisions, and sub-division in religion and society was sapping its very vitality and the whole society was crumbling. India needed a co-ordinator, integrator, and reformer and in Tulsidas, she found a safe haven. He rose equal to the occasion and infused the Hindu life and religion with vigor and freshness. He coordinated various sects and gods. He exposed real religion in his epic RamCarit Manas for the understanding of common people. It is important to glance at the political map of the time in order to valuate his contribution. During the barbaric tide of Mogul invasion, there were Hindu forces else where to face them but not in the Indo- Gangetic planes. The Sikhs in the Northwest, the Rajputs in Rajasthan, the Marathas in the South and Bundelas in Bundelkhand saved Hindus by stopping their tide. No ruler ever was born on the Indo- Gangetic planes to stop their unleashed forces of horror and violence, hurts and insults. Zia- Ud- Din Burani writes, ‘The obligation to be refuge of faith can not be fulfilled until they (Islam) have utterly destroyed infidelity, unbelief, polytheism, and idolatry. —They will not be less meritorious if for the sake of Islam, -- they use their efforts to insult, humiliate and cause grief and bring ridicule and shame upon the polytheists’ (Hindus). The Sufi saint Abd- al- Quddus says, ‘non-Muslims should not wield the pen in offices – In the Shariyat, the subordination of Kafir (Hindu) is enjoined if in accordance with it, they are humbled and subordinated,’ Another Sufi saint Sirhind pleads that the ‘Kafir’s should be kept at arms length like the dog. and that one who respects the Kafirs (Infidels or Hindus ) dishonors the muslims.’The famous historian RCMajumdar says, ‘The worship of images which forms the most cherished element in the religious beliefs of the Hindus was anathema in the eyes of the Muslims and the long tradition of the ruthless destruction of temples by them for nearly a thousand years formed a wide gulf between the two.’ Against this background Tulsidas proved that pen is mightier than sword. Tulsidas described his hero Rama in Manas as the incarnation of justice, the embodiment of Beauty, Righteousness and Truth, and another poet Surdas depicted the hero Krsna in Sursagar as the embodiment of innocence and sweetness, incarnation of Pure Love and Detachment, equality and fair play. The lives of these heroes brought ripples of love for worldly life and a sense of pride and assertiveness befitting Hindus. The people found the life worth living. Ram Lila and Rasa Lila kept alive the fire and assertiveness and restored luster in life.

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Tulsidas, the world’s greatest mobilizer of people after Buddha, was born in Raipur, a small village in Banda district of Uttar Pradesh. His father was Atmaram Dwevedi and mother was Hulsi. He was born on the seventh day of the bright half of the lunar month of S’ravan (Corresponding to July and August) in 1554 vikram era or 1497 AD.The year of his birth is disputed. Some people think that he was born in 1523 and some speak of 1527. He was born in Mula constellation, which is not good for either parent. It is said that they should not see the child’s face for next six months. He was born twelve months after conception and his weight was as of a five-year child. At time of his birth he had all the thirty-three teeth in his mouth. Moreso he did not cry at time of birth but uttered Ramaka. All this was strange and ominous. Owing to bad conjunction of stars, he was abandoned by his parents. In Vinaya Patrika, he has described his agony in clear terms. A saint Narhari Swami picked him up and gave him the name Rambola. after his very first utterance of Ramaka.at birth. He was the sixth saint in the perceptorial succession of Ramanand He took him to Ayodhya in 1505 AD On the fifth day of bright half of the lunar month of Magha, Tulsidas was given initiation. At that time with no previous education, he, to the surprise of all, uttered Gayatri Mantra. Tulsidas was very intelligent and sharp to grasp instantly whatever was taught to him. From Ayodhya, he went to Sukar Ksetra (Soron in UP) and it was here that he heard the story of Rama from his Guru Narhari Swami. Then he reached Kashi (Varanasi) Here he studied Vedas and other scriptures for 15 years. After completion, he returned to his ancestral home to find his family ruined. He performed Shradha ceremony of his parents there. Tulsidas was married to Ratnavali, the daughter of Deenbandhu Pathak, on the 13th day of bright half of lunar month of Jyeshth (corresponding to May and June) She was possessed of enticing beauty and charm. Tulsidas was infatuated with love and this resulted in changing his life. On one occasion when, out of sheer madness, Tulsi reached her in her father’s house unexpectedly, she chided and said, ‘Had you loved Rama half of much as you love this material perishable body, your sorrows would have vanished away.’ Stung by this, Tulsi left the house never to return to family life. He went to Prayag (Allahabad) and made pilgrimage to holy places. There are a number of legends about Tulsi meeting saints like Bharadwaj, Yajnavalkya, Hanuman, Kakbhusund and having seen Rama with his own eyes. From Ayodhya he came to Varanasi and began to write the story of Rama in Sanskrit. For seven anxious days he noticed that whatever he composed got out of print during the night. Then he had a dream in which he was asked to write for the common people in Hindi. Now he reached Ayodhya and started writing in Hindi, the great epic of Manas It was in 1631 Vikram samvat, on Ramnavami day, the birthday of Rama, when he started the writing of Ramcarit Manas. He describes this in Balkand that ‘ On the ninth day of bright half of lunar month Caitra, Ramnavami, the birth day of Rama, he starts with Manas in Avadhpuri on Tuesday.’It was about 1575 AD. He completed the work in 2 years 5 months and 26 days.in the year 1633 vikrasamvat on the day, which coincides with the anniversary of Rama’s wedding. After this he went to Varanasi and recited Manas before Kashi Vishwanath. He kept the book in the temple for the night and found next morning the phrase Satyam, Shivam, Sundaram (Truth, Righteousness, Beauty) written on the cover. Tulsi wrote in conformity with different scriptures. He was a true integrationist. He incorporated different groups as equals in society. He starts with reverence to Vani (God of speech) and Vinayaka (God of welfare) as they are the originators of sounds represented by alphabets, the meanings the sounds contain, the objects they describe and the poetic sentiments they carry. Thereafter he greets the goddess Parvati and her consort Sankar. He makes obeisance to Sankar as an Eternal Preceptor. He pays homage to his Guru and all other pious souls in various spheres of life. He acknowledges the gift of Valmiki, Narada and Agastya for speaking out Rama’s story on various occasions. Recognizing that there exists no duality and every one is a part of the Eternal Being, he pays homage to the good and the bad; the gentle and the wicked alike and to every thing that constitute the 84 lakhs yonis of Jarayuj (viviparous), Andaja (oviparous), Swedaja (born of sweat), and Udbhijya (Sprouting from soil) He developed a large following behind Rama’s worship In Valmiki Ramayana, Rama is described as a man but in Tulsi’ Manas, Rama is possessed of super powers. Siva speaks to Parvati about the greatness of Rama. He says,’ Rama is the sun, the True Being, Consciousness, Bliss; the pair of opposites are the lot of the common man, but Rama is omnipotent, omnipresent and Supreme Bliss. (1/115) Tulsi believes in the formless God but with attributes. Siva says,’ There is no difference between the Personal and the Impersonal; He who is the Impersonal without form and unborn, becomes Personal for love of his devotees. – Just as water transforms itself into ice.’(Ibid.) All that is illuminable is illuminated by Rama. He is the Lord of Maya (cosmic illusion) and is possessed of all virtue and wisdom. As an adept integrator, Tulsi brought the different sects together. In Manas Rama says, “Those who love me but dislike Siva or love Siva and dislike me go to hell. My devotee if he dislikes Siva can not reach me even in dream.’( 6/1/4&6/2)Through such depictions Tulsi set aside the differences and united the sects. He adopted both the prevalent dialects of the time, Braj and Avadhi, though in his Manas, he predominantly uses Avadhi. He also adopts in his epic Manas all the prevalent styles of expression like couplets, quadruplets, sestets and quartets etc. He imbibes all the nine Rasas (Sentiments of poetry)—Srngar (Love), Hasya (Humor) Karuna (Pathos) Veer (Valor) Bibhatsya (Disgust) Bhayanaka (Terror) Adbhuta (Marvelous) and Santa (quietude) and Raudra (wrath, fury) He was absolutely all inclusive and versatile. He wrote for the common people and his Manas is read and sung by all people, regardless of age, caste and sex. Thus he successfully embraces in his fold the different sections of society and gives them hope. Ramcarit Manas is a world-class voluminous work. It is divided into seven Kandas (chapters)-1- Balkand,2- Ayodhya kand,3- Aranya Kand,4- Kishkindhya kand,5- Sunder Kand 6-Lanka kand, and 6-Uttar Kand respectively. In this sacred work, he revives the religious and spiritual message of Upanishads and Geeta. He describes the golden age of Rama and his kingdom. He picks up almost every sphere of life and human behavior and inspires us to act and behave in that ancestral way and according to the ethical code as laid down by scriptures. We find ideal examples of relationship between father and son, brother and brother, master and servant, Guru and disciple, man and man, ruler and the ruled, etc. Tulsi well understood that the object of life is salvation. and this can not be achieved without living an ethical and moral life. He says that in days of Rama,people lived according to Varna Ashram 7/20 and the family life was well knit. Rama obeyed his parents and even felt that the Vanvasa (14-year exile) was like living in Ayodhya. 2/74/3 He always served the elderly and the Gurus, father, mother, brothers and the deserving. (2/74/5 )Without any argument, he accepts father’s words. Tulsi says that the son who obeys parents is a fortunate soul (2/41/8; 2/46/2)He deals with relationship between brother and brother in 2/240-305; with husband and wife 2/17&65; with Guru in (1/2/1&45—1/80/8) and says that one can not acquire real knowledge without the guidance of a Guru 7/89 –99 and Guru helps in salvation (7/93&99 & 7/89/9) He says that the real friend is a friend in need and feels for the other sincerely (4/7/1,4,5,6)

Tulsi knows that in this world, the good and the bad have to co-exist.5/40/5 Where there is wisdom, prosperity is guaranteed; where perversity dominates, misfortunes hover never to leave.5/40/6 He describes that a real saint is pure, chaste and possessed of spotless character. He is a man of compassion and equanimity. (1/2/5-6; 1/3/13-14; 2/129-7; 4/16/4) He observes the wicked and cautions us to keep away. (¼; 7/106&116) and do not heed their advise 2/24/8as they are like serpents 7/121/18 Tulsi is didactic and clearly sets up a behavior-pattern. Rama says to Laksman that it is not proper to request a fool, love a crooked, cast pearls before a swine and advise spirituality to a staunch materialist etc. (5/58/2-3-4) Tulsi pleads for freedom of speech but says that example is better than precept and there should be no gulf between practice and preaching.6/78/2. The speech has to be sweet and not piercing. He discusses cause and effect relationship (2/178&188) He wishes for the welfare of all 1/14/9 As the word Manas in Ramcarit manas indicates, Tulsi pays special consideration to the reader and the listener. He stands for a free mind, away from the illusion, which binds it. 7/117/4-5 He stands for a healthy mind in a healthy body 7/122/9-10 He discusses Kama (3/17/5-6; 2/65/3to7; 7/70-99)He declares that Kama, (passion) Krodha (anger) Lobha (avarice) Moha (infatuation) Mada (ego) lead us to decay and hell. (5/38/9; 3/43 )Krodh is product of duality 7/111 and Moha is blind ,the root cause of all agonies and pains (7/70/7; 7/21/9) Lobha is limitless desires (7/70/9-10 )and Mada leads us to jealousy, anxiety and ambition (3/71/1-2; 7/71/3; 7/121/32; 7/71/5) Tulsi explains these agonies thus-The five great elements, water, air, fire, ether and earth combine into three basic energies in varying degrees in every body and in every thing, they are Vata (constitute space and air) Pitta (fire and Water) and Kapha (Water and earth) Kama is like Vata ; Lobha is Kapha and Krodh is Pitta. When the three combine, they create havoc. (7/121/29to31) He asks us to get rid of these (2/93/2; 1/267/3; 7/21/29) and remain detached from the root of all evils (7/70/7; 5/23) The medieval age of Tulsi was influenced by Islam and remained man- dominated. For consideration of security and escape from imitation of Muslims, the attitude towards woman remained reserved. The woman has a charm of her own. She is a spring of desire.3/44/1 She can easily seduce a man (7/99/1; 3/5/7) She is possessed of daredevil nature but is wavering and undecided. She suffers from egoism and attachment.6/16/2-3 Tulsi says that woman is wonderful creation of God1/102/5 He describes four types of woman3/5/11 and stresses upon devotion to husband. (1/102/3-5; 3/5/10.) He says that woman is as tender as a flower but in need becomes as hard as rock. The true test is held at time of need (2/46 -47; 3/5/7) He establishes checks. He says that the wife of younger brother, sister, son’s wife should not be seen with unwanted eyes.4/9/7-8 The man who flirts or loves another’s wife commits grave offence and is an evil 3/46 The speech of Ocean god before Rama in his defense refers to woman ,in unhealthy way ,as an object of physical torture but it simply depicts other influences and the failings of society. Tulsi simply presents the factual image of the age and desirable checks. Tulsi asked us to go above pair of opposites, as they will always exist. He discusses the role of King 1/28/8, minister and subjects 2/171/4, official policy 7/112/6, enemy (3/21/12 & 2/228/2) and officials 3/37/8 He prohibits mistreatment of ambassadors 5/24/7 He says that the ruler should be free from corruption, evil thoughts and actions and be righteous for the subjects. The ruler, who brings misery to its people .is denounced.2/71/6 Tulsi does not forget to picture the glorious age of Hindus. It is Ram Rajya. He describes that the people then knew no fear, no sorrow, and no disease. Every one was devoted to his duty in conformity to Vedic precepts. No one suffered from any ailment or affliction.of Adhibhautic (Positive), Adhidaivik (Theological) or Adhyatmik (Metaphysical) (7/21/1) there was no premature death. Every one was comely and of sound body and lead pious life (7/1to4) The kingdom town of Ayodhya was well-built and prosperous .He presents Hanuman as a bhakta –incarnate, Bharat as an ideal of brotherhood, Lakshman as a man of action , an ideal Karmayogi. Rama is Maryada Purushottam, the embodiment of virtue and valor, who establishes a reign of righteousness and justice after attaining victory over evil forces ; a victory of good over evil. Thus Tulsi atonce makes us feel proud of our heritage and culture.

Tulsi did not propound any new philosophy or establish any sect. He simply reproduced the scriptures for the common lot of people in a language they easily followed and understood. He emphasized on the supreme object of human life, the four goals of life—Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. He showed the way to a religious life. He considered the universe as the manifestation of Sita Rama He said that. Rama and Sita are one and identical like word and its meaning, water and its waves on the surface. 1/18 He makes no distinction between Personal and Impersonal God as it is love that makes the Impersonal Personal.with attributes. (1/116/1-2) The very belief that God incarnates in name and form, as expressed in Geeta 4/7-8, is quoted by Tulsi in Manas1 /121/6-8 Tulsi’ Brahma is formless but with attributes. He can work without organs, walk without feet, and listen without ears. (1 /118/5to8) It is nirgun, Nirakar sagun, as described by Sancaracarya. Tulsi speaks of the same God which is described in Upanishads as ‘ not this, not this’ and from whom has sprung forth the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh (1/144/5-6) God is omnipresent like fire in the wood and is unattached but can be attained through love. 1/185/5 Tulsi describes the world as a dream.3/39/5 It is Illusion that alludes the world. 3/15/2 every one is born under Maya according to his Karmas. Maya is all-powerful supervisor, under it Prakriti (nature) produces the moving and the unmoving and thus the world resolves. (1/128/8; 7/78/6) Tulsi says that the human body is the greatest creation of God. (7/41-44-121) It is possessed of virtue and wisdom 2/263/4 It is attained only by performing good karmas in the previous life.7/33/8 Even the gods desire to have human form 7/43/7 as it is the gateway to salvation and ladder to Bliss. (7/121/9-10) It is the physical body that is born. and not the soul. Body is prone to changes that cause joys and sorrows. Body is composed of five elements of water, air, fire, ether and earth. The soul is different, It is a fragment of God (.7/117/2) In Geeta the Lord says,’ An eternal portion of myself becomes a living soul in the world and abides in nature and draws into self the five senses and the mind.’Unlike the body Self is not born (4/11/4-5) and does not die. Tulsi was essentially a devotee. He derived immense joy in unswering devotion to Rama and Sita.He follows Bhakti Marga (Path of Devotion) (7/119/8; 7/86/10; 3/16/4,3/35/6) He considers Rama’s servant as more important than Rama He worshipped with a feeling of Dasya Bhava (master – servant relationship)(7/119&120) He believes that the path of knowledge is difficult like a razor’s edge. 7/119/1 Knowledge is love and love of God gives heavenly pleasure 5/4 There is no difference between the two paths.7/115/13 where there is no love for Rama, there cannot be any knowledge or Yoga. 2/290/2 Hence he stresses on Nam Jap, chanting of Rama’ name. Even the dacoit king Valmiki got salvation by chanting the name of Rama, albeit in a reciprocal way (2/193/8; 7/103/4&35&90,7/90/8) Rama’devotees remains free from sorrows (5/52/3, 5/7.4, 7/120/9) By the grace of God even the poison becomes nectar for them. 5/52/3 Tulsi says that every one is free to choose the form of worship that suits him. Thus he stresses that God is one and the way to God are many. In his case, he finds among the many names of God, the name of Rama attractive3/42/7-8 and like a lamp put on the doorway, the chanting of Rama’s name illuminates both the inner and outer sides.1/21

Tulsi stresses on religion and says that Religion is Truth and helps in attaining salvation. (2/72&95&142; 3/16/1,3/5/14) The greatest religion is engaging in the welfare of others 7/141/1 He stands for Karma Yoga He says that the world is mainly a field of action.2/218/4. As you sow so shall you reap. 2/77/8 Only the lazy and the idlers depend on destiny. 5/51/4 we have to do our duty with out desire for reward. Whatever is destined is bound to happen. We have simply to reap our Prarabhdha (Action in present life) and the consequences of our actions (2/271/7-8) So we have to act. The whole world is guided mainly by actions. No one gives joys and sorrows. It is our deeds that constitute it (.2/92/4; 2/218/4) Tulsi presents Lakshman as an embodiment of Karma (action) About twenty works are attributed to Tulsidas, out of which twelve are said to be authentic, which include Ramcarit Manas, kavitavali, Dohavali and Geetavali. In the year 1680, 7th day of bright half of Sravan on Asi bank of river Ganges, Tulsi left for his heavenly abode. His last desire was,’ Having described Rama’s glory, nothing but silence is my need. So give a leaf of tulsi (basil) in the mouth of Tulsi.’ (Leaf of sacred Tulsi plant is put in the mouth of the dying person in India.) The teachings of Tulsidas are relevant even to this day. Gandhji says, ‘Hindu Dharma is like a boundless ocean, teeming with priceless gems. —It is the way trodden by some of the greatest sages of India who were men of God: to take Rama’s name from the heart means driving help from an incomparable power. This power is capable of removing all pain.’ Tulsi accomplished it in action .He inspired us to the life divine devoted to Rama. He lifted us from meaningless sectarian differences and chaos and confusion of life to a life of action, creativity and Karma. The life of man found its divinity in the individual.

The vitality, energy and the very integrity of one’s being were restored. Tulsi was the Savior of his age. He successfully integrated the society into one entity and drifted its currents to a more swift and progressive flow with a pride of Hindu self-assertion. Tulsi was essentially a saint, a devotee of Rama and Sita. He was pure, chaste and passions free in love and hate, in honor and dishonor, in attachments and repulsion He easily identified himself with his surroundings. The devotee sang Rama’ saga in a poetic vein.for self-aggrandizement. It is said of the poet Tulsi that the goddess Poetry found herself graced with the gift of Tulsi’ poetic diction.’ <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

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