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Miscellaneous Topics on Indian History
The so called Achaemenid dynasty of persia is a corruption of Aryamanush nd Persia must have been Purushastan.
I searched for the word Dravidian in www.dictionary.com

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Dra·vid·i·an   Audio pronunciation of "dravidian" ( P )  Pronunciation Key  (dr-vd-n)

   1. A large family of languages spoken especially in southern India and northern Sri Lanka that includes Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada.
   2. A member of any of the peoples that speak one of the Dravidian languages, especially a member of one of the pre-Indo-European peoples of southern India.

[From Sanskrit drvia, a Dravidian.]Dra·vidi·an or Dra·vidic (-vdk) adj.

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Source: The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.


n 1: a member of one of the aboriginal races of India (pushed south by Caucasians and now mixed with them) [syn: Dravidian] 2: a large family of languages spoken in south and central India and Sri Lanka [syn: Dravidian, Dravidic, Dravidian language]

Source: WordNet ® 2.0, © 2003 Princeton University

I feel this is ultimate manifestation of white(european) supremacy. Should some one request to change the entry and give a proper meaning. (removing racial tinge and giving a regional tinge)

i.e., People living in the "land of hot sun". No matter whether they speak indo european language or dravidian language.

Please advice if i am wrong.


Two brown sahibs
Ayodhya and after

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin--><b>Even Hindu kings indulged in temple desecration. In 642 AD the Pallava king Narasimhavarman-I looted and destroyed the idol of Ganesha in Vatapi, the capital of the Chalukyas. In tenth century AD, the Rashtrakuta king Indra III, destroyed the temple of Kalapriya and recorded the fact. History also records plunder and destruction of Buddhist temples by Brahmins who were led by Adi Shankaracharya.</b><!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

Is there any truth to these claims? Someone knowledgeable should send a letter to Pioneer.
I was talking to a Bengali friend about Brahmins of Bengal.

He had a thoughful explanation about "why barendra brahmin girls are beutiful"?

He was telling me that there are particular sect of Brahmins called Barendra Brahmins who were initially "Dacoits" who looted and kidnapped all beutiful looking girls. So, the barendra brahmin girls look beutiful.

I never knew Brahmins had a profession of looting, kidnapping!! and frankly i just cannot believe it.

Can some knowledgeable preson enlighten about Barendra brahmins and their profession during historical times.

bgravi, Yes there are evidences of such temple destruction in early times. In those times temples were sources of regal power and legitimacy. Recall the Chakravarthi is the image of Vishnu on earth. Hence to destroy a rival there temples also were sometimes razed.
However there is a difference in the Islamic razing of temples and places of worship and the above quoted deeds. Islamic razing is based on ritual destruction enjoined in the Quran. Its an outgrowth of the Semitic origin of Islam. Example the Mosque in Istanbul Haggia Sophia and the Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem in addition to many Indian mosques. Try to get hold of the ritualistic Ten commandments.
The temple razing by the old Indian kings was a political act while that by the Islamic horde was a religious act. I hope I make myself clear.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Even Hindu kings indulged in temple desecration. In 642 AD the Pallava king Narasimhavarman-I looted and destroyed the idol of Ganesha in Vatapi, the capital of the Chalukyas. In tenth century AD, the Rashtrakuta king Indra III, destroyed the temple of Kalapriya and recorded the fact. History also records plunder and destruction of Buddhist temples by Brahmins who were led by Adi Shankaracharya<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->

Dont know about Brahmins destroying Buddhist temples.

But the Idol was brought to its present location by "Siru Thondar" , who served in the Pallava Army , from the town of Vatapi(Badami)....

I dont know how somebody can "loot" an idol , thought what i can confirm is Siru Thondar , brought the statue to its present location with great respect and devotion.
The whole Vatapi city was burnt on a full moon day , no gaurantees a temple cant burn when the whole city burns...This General saw the temple burning , secured the statue and brought it home.

When a Chalukya took over Kanchi he had it inscribed in a temple in Kanchi,
and when a Pallava took over Badami he had it inscribed in a temple in Badami.

None of the royals destroyed those temples because they had the inscriptions of their foes detailing how they won over them.
I think you can find the Chalukyan inscriptions in the Kailashanathar Temple in Kanchipuram...can anyone confirm this ?
Wonder how the humanities side of our education system can be made more marketable. Sad state. India really needs to take care of the humanities side if it wishes to survive as a civilization.

<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Qualification MA-LLB-PhD, designation peon

Nilanjana Deb/ Bhopal

Dr Rajkumar Dwivedi, MA (political science) LLB, PhD in the "Political thought of Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay", has earned the respect of professors and students alike of Hamidia Govt Arts & Commerce College. He is a peon at the college.

"Actually, I don't want to leave my present job and try my luck in a private job. Given my financial condition, I can't afford to do so lest things go wrong," he told The Pioneer. Since 1991, he has been requesting the state Higher Education Department every year to promote him at least to the clerical grade, which he says he is entitled to.

The Higher Education Department may not be paying heed to his request but the college authorities fully recognise his talent. Successive principals have found his impeccable drafting skills quite useful.

Says acting principal of the college Shobana Bajpayee Maroo, "He is dear to everyone in the college and very efficient. I have been observing his work since he joined the college... he strives hard to complete his work and his attitude is very positive." However, his perseverance and hard work have not been able to win him the promotion he so dearly wants. Dwivedi Ji, as he is known in the college, is quite popular among students.

A native of Majhiya village, Satna district, Dr Dwivedi says that he always wanted to study hard. He is the son of a marginal farmer and completed school braving immense odds. At the time of his marriage he was just a higher secondary pass while his wife was already a graduate, now a double postgraduate. Still unemployed, she is planning to do a BEd so that she can get a teaching job.

Dr Dwivedi recalls, "Just after completing my higher secondary, I applied for a job and got the job of Peon at the Hamidia College. Thereafter inspired by my wife, who had already done her Graduation by that time and the environment at the college, I decided to take up my studies again and then there was no looking back. Earlier I was working on daily wages but got regularised in the year 1991."

"When SC Verma was a Principal at the college, one day he asked me to complete some pending work that had been there since the past 4-5 years and I could complete it within an hour," he recalled. The principal was so pleased that he promised him to forward his application for promotion. He tried his level best to get my promotion done but there was no response from the Government at all.

Rajini Gorowala, Assistant Professor at the college said, "Nobody treats him like a peon and he is respected very much by all the teachers and students of the college alike. As far as his promotion is concerned that is something which cannot be done by us so we can just hope for the best for him."

Dr Dwivedi having completed his doctoral studies is still awaiting the Government to take a note of his qualification and promote him from the post of Peon at the Hamidia College of Arts and Commerce that he has been holding since the past 16 years.

Though Dr Dwivedi has failed to get the favour from the Government, but all the people in the college including the teachers and the students praise him and appreciate his contribution to the college. Perhaps that is the reason why Dr Dwivedi does most of the clerical work of the college instead of working as a peon in the college. It is not at all difficult to find him in the college as there is none in the college who does not know him.

Dr Dwivedi hails from 'Majhiya' village in Satna district and said that he always wanted to study hard and that was the reason why he received formal education at a nearby school right from his childhood but it was only after his marriage to Rekha that his ambitions soared high and he decided to take up studies again.

Initially, Dr Dwivedi had taken up the studies just as a hobby but later on the life in the city made him feel that education could also elevate his status in the society. Dr Dwivedi has made several requests for promotion and every year he submits his application to the Secretary Higher Education citing his case but alas no results have been obtained. Dr Dwivedi's wife also has a similar story, she has completed her Post-graduation in two subjects but could not find a job for herself.

Dr Dwivedi said, "I submit an application every year but do not have guts to leave the job because you see it is very difficult to procure such a safe job."<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Qualification MA-LLB-PhD, designation peon - <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
His caste "Dwivedi" is culprit here. Think what will happen if we change it to Yadav.
Media will be filled with discrimination stories.
'I saw Subhash Chandra Bose's burnt body': says TSP Brigadier Habib-ur Rehman, who also claims he was a close aide of Netaji.
<b>Indian archaeologists divers discover ancient port city in south India</b>
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->MAHABALIPURAM, India (AFP) - Indian archaeologists have found what they believe are undersea "stone structures" <b>that could be the remains of an ancient port city off India's southern coast,</b> officials say.

The archaeologists learnt of the structures after locals reported spotting a temple and several sculptures when the sea pulled back briefly just before deadly tsunamis smashed into the coastline December 26.

<b>Divers discovered the stone remains close to India's famous beachfront Mahabalipuram temple in Tamil Nadu state</b>, Alok Tripathi, an official from the state-run Archeological Survey of India (ASI), said Saturday.

"We've found some stone structures which are clearly man-made. They're perfect rectangular blocks, arranged in a clear pattern," he said aboard the Indian naval vessel "Ghorpad".

<b>Tripathi headed a diving expedition after the tsunamis uncovered the remains of a stone house, a half-completed rock elephant and two exquisite giant granite lions, one seated and another poised to charge in Mahabalipuram, 70 kilometers (45 miles) south of Madras.</b>

<b>The objects were found when the towering waves withdrew from the beach, carrying huge amounts of sand with them. </b>

Experts say the tsunami "gifts" discovered in <b>Mahabalipuram belong to the Hindu Pallava dynasty that dominated much of South India from as early as the first century BC to the eighth century AD</b>.

Mahabalipuram is recognized as the site of some of India's greatest architectural and sculptural achievements.

Since February 11, Tripathi's team of a dozen divers have been scouring the seabed, diving three to eight meters (yards), to examine rocks with "geometrical patterns."

<b>"European mariners and travelers, who visited Mahabalipuram in the 18th century, wrote about the existence of seven pagodas (temples) here," he said.</b>

"Some believed it was a myth, others thought six of the pagodas sank under the sea while one remained as a rock temple on the shore.

<b>"In fact, some scholars believe the entire city, barring a few rock structures and carvings, were submerged under the sea."</b>

The divers have brought up pottery pieces and small stone blocks from the seabed.

"We'll study everything to gain an insight into early settlement in this area," said Tripathi.

Indian Navy commodore Brian Thomas said "extensive diving" had taken place east of Mahabalipuram's shore temple with underwater cameras used to record findings.

"The sea was often rough due to the wind and underwater visibility was very poor," Thomas told AFP. "But we found that the area was strewn with a number of blocks of various shapes and sizes."

The findings were expected to be presented at an international seminar on maritime archeology in New Delhi between March 17-19, archaeology officials said.

Tripathi said experts would study how old the rocks were to fix the date of the ancient civilisation at Mahabalipuram.

Cartographers say the waves which left nearly 16,400 dead or missing in southern India and the country's far-flung Andaman and Nicobar islands have redrawn the entire Mahabalipuram coastline.

One of a clutch of temples is partially submerged. But the magnificent eighth century Shore Temple, a UN World Heritage Site famed for its carvings representing characters from Hindu scriptures, survived the sea's fury.

This was thanks to a move by India's then prime minister, Indira Gandhi, who ordered that huge rocks be piled around the building to protect it from sea erosion after visiting the site in the late 1970s, officials say
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Truth on Netaji

The Pioneer Edit Desk

The myth and mystique around Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose overshadows that of every other contemporary Indian leader even 60 years after he allegedly died in an air crash in Taiwan. He is still revered, almost worshipped, across the country despite the politically incorrect alliance he struck with the Axis powers during the War. The only Congress leader of consequence to challenge Mahatma Gandhi's supremacy, Subhas Bose attracted support and sympathy from most nationalists in the 1940s for the manner in which he was hounded out of the Congress by the Gandhi-led "establishment".

Paradoxically, even as Gandhiji's halo remains undiminished, Netaji's charm too has lost none of its sheen. Even those who disagree with his politics, particularly association with the sadistic Tojo regime of Japan during the War, fervently believe Netaji supped with the devil only for a larger cause-freedom of our shackled motherland. His patriotism and militancy are the subject of modern fables:

The daring escape from house-arrest in Kolkata, the hair-raising journey to Kabul and Moscow en route to Berlin, an incredible submarine voyage from Europe to Japan, the arrival in Singapore to launch the Indian National Army, and the rallying of colonised India with the cry "Give me blood and I will give you freedom"-have contributed to the making of the Netaji legend. For decades after Independence, millions believed Jawaharlal Nehru would not have remained Prime Minister if Subhas Bose were to miraculously reappear and stake claim to the inheritance. It is because of the perceived differences between them, dating back to the Tripuri Session of the AICC in 1941 and confirmed by Nehru's decision in 1947 not to absorb INA soldiers into the Indian Army, that suspicions have lingered about a disinformation campaign regarding Netaji's "death".

Although successive Prime Ministers have appointed commissions of inquiry ostensibly to unearth the facts, none reached a definitive conclusion. As a result, the uneasy feeling persists that the Nehru-Gandhi dynasty had reason to cover up the truth-which many, including Netaji's elder brother Sarat Bose, allege Jawaharlal knew. It is, therefore, creditable that the Justice MK Mukherjee Commission appointed by Mr LK Advani when he was Home Minister, has successfully unearthed many new facets of this abiding mystery despite the passage of time. Most importantly, the Commission has received a categorical denial from Taiwan about a plane crash having taken place at Taihoku airport on August 18, 1945, in which we were told all these years, Netaji had died. As revealed in a series of reports in this newspaper, he appears to have been very much alive at the end of World War II and could even have winded his way back to India through Stalin's Russia and Mao's China.

The opinion of acclaimed handwriting expert B Lal that there are striking similarities between writings penned by Bose and a person who went by the tantalising name Gumnami Baba in UP during the 1960s, has deepened the mystery. In this background, the Government of India must allow the Mukherjee Commission to probe a major aspect of Netaji's post-War whereabouts, namely, his reported presence in Siberia. For this, the Commission needs to visit Moscow and examine the relevant files in the KGB archives that have been declassified in the aftermath of the Soviet Union's collapse. If the Government fails to facilitate this, suspicions that the Congress does not want the truth about Netaji to be excavated, shall only become firmer than ever.<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
I have noticed that languages like Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, etc. are classified as Indo-european whilr languages like Telugu, Kannada, Tamil and Malayalam are classified as dravidian. I personally think these classifications are false and that all Indian languages should be put under the same classification because they all originated from Sanskrit. What do you guys think?
The division of indian languages into dravidian and aryan is artificial and has no basis in indigenous studies of linguistics and etymology. This is all the more astonishing since the subject of etymology was first developed in India in antiquity under the heading of Nirukta by Yaska (just as Vyakarana was developed by Panini). That there is diversity in Indian languages is a fact taht cannot be denied. But all the South Indian languages have more than a fair share of Sanskritic words, despite rhetoric to the contrary. Claims to prior antiquity can become contentious, but suffice it to say that all the native languages of India arose in the subcntinent and environs if we include greater India. Over time they have shared vocabularies. Nobody has explained to me in a satisfactory manner , why , merely because there is affinity among indo-european languages such affinity should preclude linguistic affinity between the languages of India.

Such a dichotomy was then extended to race and now we have talk of an Aryan and a dravidian race and since carried to absurd lengths by Hitler. It is clear that the invention of the term Dravidian (divorced from its original sanskritic etymology of meaning southern) was contrived we suspect with the intent to create discord among Indians. It is too much of a coincidence that the first census o findia was instituted for the express purpose of highlighting and emphasizing the diversity of Indian ethnic groups ( by calling them castes and races) at about the same time (1870's, coincides also with the formation of the Indian national congress by an englishman named Allan Octavian Hume) that the idea of a dravidian language took root in India. Overnight the words such as Dravidian and caste took new meaning and became ubiquitous in common Indian parlance to where we are today

It is sad that we have succcumbed to this ploy.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->that all Indian languages should be put under the same classification because they all originated from Sanskrit. What do you guys think?

Actually it is more likely that Sanskrit arose from Dravidian:

Islam and Hinduism in the Indian Ocean World: Global Truths and Local Practices

Conference to examine Islam and Hinduism in the Indian Ocean World.

The conference will explore changing notions and actual practices of Islam and Hinduism in the Indian Ocean World (IOW) a culturally complex crucible that links southern and eastern Africa with the islands and lands along the rim of the Indian Ocean, to South Asia and beyond. Trade, migration, diaspora-formation, and globalization are among the social forces that have affected all Muslim and Hindu communities for well over a millennium, and that are accelerating in today's world; but exactly how have and do such forces influence the IOW? We anticipate that by bringing together international scholars whose research in a variety of academic fields examines such issues in different times and places within the IOW, we shall identify commonalities and differences between Islam and Hinduism as they have been and are lived "on the ground" and across the waters.


Islam and Hinduism in the Indian Ocean World: Global Truths and Local Practices, Day One
Date: Friday, April 15, 2005
Time: 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
10383 Bunche Hall
UCLA campus
Los Angeles, CA 90095 US

· Using the Global to Create the Local—Muslim
Discourses of Reform in Colonial Aden Scott Reese, Northern Arizona University
· Competing Claims to Orthodoxy: the Wahhâbiyya and
Mainstream Islam in Ethiopia Hussein Ahmed, Addis Ababa University
· The Transformation in the Transmission of Islamic
Knowledge: the Benadir Coast in the late 19th Century
Mohamed M. Kassim, Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology
· The Interface between ‘Abangan’, traditional Islam
and ‘santri’, strict/orthodox Islam in Indonesia and East Africa: A Preliminary Comparative Analysis Abdin Chande, Adelphi University

· Refractions of Sufi Practices in the Indian Ocean World
Helene Basu, Institut für Ethnologie, Berlin
· The Southern Tier of the Da’wa? The Cape Muslim
Community and Missionary-based Sufi Expansion, c.1880-1948
Anne K. Bang, University of Bergen
· Between Mecca and Malabar: Pilgrimage in the Fashioning of Muslim and Hindu Identities in the Indian Ocean Region Juan Campo, UC Santa Barbara
· Crossing an Ocean of Belief: Hajj Oral History
Narratives from Southeast Asia Eric Tagliacozzo, Cornell University

4:30 Evening Keynote
· Introduction by Geoffrey Garrett, UCLA International Institute Vice Provost; Chair
· Ocean of Wonders or Ocean of Secrets: Religious Difference as Understood in Indo-Persian Travel Texts, 1400-1700
Sanjay Subrahmanyam, UCLA


Islam and Hinduism in the Indian Ocean World: Global Truths and Local Practices, Day Two

Date: Saturday, April 16, 2005
Time: 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
10383 Bunche Hall
UCLA campus
Los Angeles, CA 90095 US

Conference to examine Islam and Hinduism in the Indian Ocean World.

· Geopolitics of ‘Indian Diaspora’: Clash or Dialogue in the Indian Ocean World?
Sanjay Chaturvedi, Panjab University
· A Greater Hinduism for a Greater India? Some Reflections on the Hindu Faith in the Indian Ocean World
Vinay Lal, UCLA
· Identity and Difference in Ismaili Polemical Literature from Western India, c.1890-1930 Samira Sheikh, Institute of Ismaili Studies
· Devotional Diasporas, or, How East and West Meet in Mauritius
Allen F. Roberts and Mary Nooter Roberts, UCLA
· Governing the faithful across the Western Indian
Ocean: the Formation of the Shi’a Isma’ili Muslim Community in East Africa, c. 1800-1925
Zulfikar Hirji, Institute of Ismaili Studies
· Negotiating Hinduism in East Africa, 1880-1960 Gijsbert Oonk, Erasmus University
· Cultures of Space and Cultures of Devotion: the Sathya Sai Baba Movement in East Africa Smriti Srinivas, UC Davis
· Christian Intolerance and/as Liberal Tolerance:
Defining ‘Custom,’ ‘Legality,’ and ‘Marriage’ in South Africa Radhika Mongia, UC Santa Cruz


This conference is funded by the UCLA International Institute and the Burkle Center for International Relations through a Global Impact Research Initiative grant.

Cost: Free and open to the public; parking is available in lot 4 for $7.
For more information please contact
James S. Coleman African Studies Center
Tel: 310-825-3686
Sponsor(s): African Studies Center, Burkle Center for
International Relations, Center for Near Eastern
Studies, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, UCLA
International Institute


In Chankya serial there is a reference of state Kaykeyi and Gandhar.
In today world where is Kaykeyi?
Do you know these....?

1. Who is the co-founder of Sun Microsystems? Vinod Khosla. The Sun founder also had an Indian Professor in Computer Technologies at Louisiana State University.

2. Who is the creator of the Pentium chip (needs no introduction as 90% of the today's computers run on it)? Vinod Dham.

3. Who is the third richest man in the world? According to the latest report on Fortune Magazine, it is LN MIttal and also richest in UK and largest steel manufacturer in the world.

4. Who is the founder and creator of Hotmail (Hotmail is world's No.1 web based email program)? Sabeer Bhatia.

5. Who is the president of AT & T-Bell Labs (AT &T-Bell Labs is the creator of program languages such as C, C++, and Unix to name a few)? Arun Netravalli.

6. Who is the GM of Hewlett Packard? Rajiv Gupta.

7. Who is the new MTD (Microsoft Testing Director) of Windows 2000, responsible to iron out all initial problems? Sanjay Tejwrika.

8. Who are the Chief Executives of CitiBank, Mckensey & Stanchart? Victor Menezes, Rajat Gupta, and Rana Talwar. Indians are the wealthiest among all ethnic groups in America, even faring better than the Caucasians and natives. There are 3.22 million Indians in USA (1.5% of population). 12% of the scientists in the USA are Indians. 38% of doctors in America are Indian. 36% of NASA scientists are Indians. 34% of Microsoft employees are Indians. 28% of IBM employees are Indians. 17% of INTEL scientists are Indians. 13% of XEROX employees are Indians.

9. Furthermore, the Consul General in New York, Mr. Pramathesh Rath has said that India (as of 2002) is the largest source of international students accounting for more than 11 percent or 67,000 of the over half-million studying in various universities in the U.S. In this case, Indian students for the first time outnumbered the hitherto largest source of international students, which was China.

For the period of 2002-03, Indian student remain number 1 in U.S. university enrollments, totaling 74,603, up from the previous year. This accounts for a good 13% of the 586,323 international students. This means the Indian student population in the U.S. has doubled in the last 7 years. The U.S. authorities also appreciate this since it brings in large sums of money for the U.S. economy. It also allows the Indian talent to contribute to the U.S., as well as brings home to India a work force with cutting edge skills.

10. Indian doctors, numbering more than 35,000, constitute over five percent of all physicians in America.

11. Indians constitute ten percent of all medical students in America.

12. Indians also own nearly 40% of all the small and mid-size hotels in the country.

13. Another point is that three-fourths of all graduates from the prestigious IIT university in India are in the U.S.

14. Let's not forget that it was such spiritual visionaries as Srila A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Vivekananda, Yogananda and others who first brought notice of the true glories of Indian Vedic philosophy to the American public, and helped change the public's view of spirituality, popularize the vegetarian diet and yoga, and make "Hare Krishna" a household word.

Additional facts were recently published in a German magazine, which deals with


1. India never invaded any country in her last 10,000 years of history.

2. India invented the numerical system. Aryabhatta invented 'zero.'

3. The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century BC was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.

4. According to the Forbes magazine, Sanskrit is the most suitable language for computer software.

5. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans.

6. Although western media portrays modern images of India as poverty stricken and underdeveloped through political corruption, India was once the richest empire on earth. Christopher Columbus wanted to come to India when he founded America.

7. The art of navigation was born in the river Sindh 5000 years ago. The very word "Navigation" is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH.

8. The value of pi was first calculated by Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is now known as the Pythagorean Theorem. British scholars have last year (1999) officially published that Budhayan's works date back to the 6th Century, which is long before the European mathematicians.

9. Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from India. Quadratic equations were by Sridharacharya in the 11th Century; the largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Indians used numbers as big as 1053.

10. According to the Gemological Institute of America, up until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds to the world.

11. USA based IEEE has proved what has been a century-old suspicion amongst academics that the pioneer of wireless communication was Professor Jagdeesh Bose and not Marconi.

12. The earliest reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra.

13. Chess was invented in India.

14. Sushruta is the father of surgery. 2600 years ago he and health scientists of his time conducted surgeries like cesareans, cataract, fractures and urinary stones. Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient India.

15. When many cultures in the world were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization).

16. The place value system, the decimal system was developed in India dating back to at least 100 BC.

17. Hindusim, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism born in India (largest in the world), Zorasthrianism (Parsis)survives only in India, Tibetan Buddhism survives because of India, Jews were sheltered in India, also Armenians were sheltered in India

18.Karate was founded by Bodhidharma, an Indian Buddhist monk.

19. Martin Luther King father of US civil rights movement was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi.

To elaborate on these points:

A similar article to the one above was originally sent into the Indian Express newspaper, June 22, 1999, by Maxwell Pareira, and reproduced in the Annual Research Journal - 2000, by the Institute for Rewriting Indian (and World) History, which follows.

Some may dispute the facts, like, "India never invaded any country in the last 10,000 years of her history." But when many cultures were nomadic forest dwellers over 5,000 years ago, India established the Harappan culture in the Indus Valley. The world's first university, established in Takshila in 700 BC, had 10,500 students from all over the world studying more than 60 subjects. The large university at Nalanda, dating from the 4th century BC, is acknowledged as one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education. And Sanskrit, through Latin, is accepted as the mother of all European languages. A 1987 report in Forbes magazine said Sanskrit was the most suitable language for computer software.

India contributed to the number system by the numeral 0, innovated by Aryabhatta. Algebra, trigonometry, and calculus originated in India. The quadratic equation was solved by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The Greeks and Romans contented themselves with rather small numbers, while Hindus (the then inhabitants of the land of Sapta-Sindhu) used units as big as 10 raised to the power of 53 with specific names as early as 5,000 BC, during the Vedic period. Today, the largest unit in use is tera, or 10 to the power of 12.

The solar year was calculated as 365.25875684 days by Bhaskaracharya in the 5th century, hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. The value of pi was first calculated by Bodhayana, who also discovered the Pythagorean Theorem in the 6th century, long before the European mathematicians. The place value system and the decimal system were developed in India in 100 BC. [Further research has placed the dates mentioned in this paragraph as actually being much earlier for some of these inventions, as explained in Proof of Vedic Culture's Global Existence.]

Ayurveda is the oldest school of medicine codified by Charaka 2,500 years ago. Sushruta, the father of surgery, conducted complicated procedures dealing with cataracts, artificial limbs, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery, caesarean section and brain surgery 2,600 years ago. Over 125 surgical instruments were in use. The use of anesthesia was also known in ancient India.

A century-old suspicion that the pioneer of wireless communication was Prof. Jagadish Bose and not Marconi now stands proven. And Nature has reported that a Danish physicist and his team in the US have slowed down light from the speed of 300,000 km per second to 71 km per hour, using the Bose Einstein Condensate to stall it in its path. And the forensic use of fingerprints was discovered and developed in Calcutta.

The art of navigation was born in the river Sindh 6,000 years ago. The very word "navigation" is derived from the Sanskrit naugatih. Although modern images of India show poverty and underdevelopment, it was the richest country on earth until the arrival of the British. Christopher Columbus was attracted by India's wealth. According to the Gemological Institute of America, until 1896 India was the world's only source of diamonds. Furthermore, the earliest dam for irrigation was built in Saurashta. According to the Saka King Rudradaman I, a beautiful lake called Sudarshana was constructed on the hills of Raivataka in Chandragupta Maurya's time.

In regard to games, there is no doubt that the game of chess is an Indian invention in the form of Shatranj or Astha .. Polo originated in Manipur. The first man on Everest was Tenzing Norgay, not Sir Edmond Hillary.

Some additional facts about India are the following:

1. The number of companies listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange, at more than 6,000, is second only to NYSE.
2. Four out of 10 Silicon Valley startups are run by Indians.
3. With 800 movies per year, India's film industry overshadows Hollywood.
4. The organized lottery market in India is US$7bn (2% of GDP).
5. India consumes a fifth of the world's gold output highest in the world.
6. Indians account for 45% of H1-B visas issued by the US every year.
7. Growing at 7.5% currently and expected to grow by 8-10% in 5 years from now, it will be the fastest growing economy in the world.
8. Six Indian ladies have won Miss Universe/Miss World titles over the past 10 years. No other country has won more than twice.
11. Bank deposits in India roughly equal 50% of its GDP OE again, among
the highest in the world.
12. Indian Railways is the largest railway network in the world under single management.

13. India has the third-largest army in the world, nearly 1.5 million strong.
14. India is the largest producer and consumer of tea in the world, accounting for more than 30% of global production and 25% of
15. India is the world's premier centre for diamond cutting and polishing. Nine out of every 10 stones sold in the world pass through India.
16. India has the highest number of annual bulk drugs filings (77) with USFDA.

17. India is home to the largest number of pharmaceutical plants (61) approved by USFDA outside the US.
18. India's Hero Honda is the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer,
with 2002 production of 1.7m units.
19. Other than US and Japan, India is the only country to have built a
super computer indigenously.
20. Indian Railways is the largest employer in the world, with a staff
of 1.6 million people.
21. It is the second-largest cement-producing country in the world, producing more than 110m tonnes.
22. Of the Fortune 500 companies, 220 outsource their software-related
work to India.
23. There are 8,500 Indian restaurants in the UK, 15% of the country's
total dining-out establishments.
24. India is the largest democracy in the world, with nearly 400m voting in the last national elections.
25. India has the second-largest pool of scientists and engineers in the world.
26. India has the third-largest investor base in the world.
27. According to the Gemological Institute of America, up until 1896,
India was the only source of diamonds.
28. The Kumbh Mela festival, held every 12 years in the city of Allahabad, attracts 25 million people OE more than the population of 185 of the 227 countries in the world. In fact, in 2001, it attracted 27 million people on the main holy days in January, and 71 million over the course of the 6 weeks of the whole festival.
29. The Indian city of Varanasi, also known as Benares, is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today.
30. There are 3.22 million Indians in the US.
31. Indians are the richest immigrant class in the US, with nearly 200,000 millionaires.
32. India is ranked the sixth country in the world in terms of satellite launches.
33. There are over 70,000 bank branches in India - among the highest in the world.
34. The State bank of India is the world’s largest Bank in terms of branches.

35. China with a large ageing population, will soon fall behind to India in terms of productive workforce, Indian will be the most energetic country in next 5-10 years.

36. Whether some body likes it or not India is becoming a neutral power which will hold the key to the peace in Asia and world at large.

Additional and Interesting Quotes About India.

We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made. Albert Einstein.

India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend and the great grand mother of tradition. Mark Twain.

If there is one place on the face of the earth where all dreams of living men have found a home from the very earliest days when man began the dream of existence, it is India. French scholar Romain Rolland.

India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border. Hu Shih. (Former Chinese ambassador to USA)

India was the motherland of our race, and Sanskrit the mother of Europe's languages: she was the mother of our philosophy; mother, through the Arabs, of much of our mathematics; mother, through the Buddha, of the ideals embodied in Christianity; mother, through the village community, of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all. ~ Will Durant

Source: Stephen Knapp and OThers.

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