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Sikh History


Another website of Sanatan Sikhs, run by Nihangs I think.

Contains many translations from old Sikh historical texts and the Granths.
Friday, July 2, 2010

Guru Nanak was a Hindu


[Image: picture.JPG]

In contemporary devotional pictures and posters of Guru Nanak (1469-1539), as seen in taxis and shops, the Guru is invariably shown as wearing a pagari or turban, like his pupils (Sikh-s) today. But this is a recently-imposed convention, not followed in his own day and in subsequent centuries.

In traditional paintings, the Gurus never wore turbans, a custom that even according to Sikh teaching itself was only instituted by the tenth and last Guru, Govind Singh, in 1699. All the Gurus are typically shown as wearing a topi (Hindu-style cap) and patka (sash). We discuss one instance.

K.C. Aryan (born 11 August 1919, died 2002), a Partition refugee from West Panjab, was an accomplished painter. He founded the Museum for Tribal and Folk Art in Gurgaon, still functioning today. He saved plenty of old paintings, sculptures and other arts & crafts objects for posterity by collecting them in his museum or donating them to more established institutions.

In 1970, he presented to the publishing unit of Punjabi University Patiala a manuscript with illustrations for a book, 100 Years Survey of Panjab Painting (1841-1941). It was eventually published by the PUP in 1975, but only in mutilated form. The Senate Board of the University objected to the inclusion of one particular painting, and threatened that if it were published, the grant for the whole publishing unit would be stopped.

The contentious painting, executed by a Pahari painter in the mid-19th century (whose name, as often in folk art, remains unknown), shows a topi-wearing Guru Nanak praying to Lord Vishnu. The Board took the Sikh-separatist line that that Sikhism has nothing to do with Hinduism, and that the Gurus are above the “Brahminical” gods. It is the same line that keeps the Sikh establishment from calling their central shrine, the Hari Mandir (“Vishnu temple”), by its proper name, hiding it behind the superficial designation “Golden Temple” or the Moghul term “Darbar Sahib”. It is also why in 1922 they threw out from the Hari Mandir the murti-s that had been worshipped there ever since Arjan Dev inaugurated it in 1604. Sikh identity as a separate religion, rather than as one of the many panth-s in the Hindu commonwealth, is based on a denial of history, and this requires a constant censoring of unwilling historical data: names changed, scriptures doctored, murti-s thrown away, the publication of a painting suppressed.

K.C. Aryan donated the painting in ca. 1982 to the Himachal State Museum in Shimla. There, it is significantly not on display but kept in storage. That is, if it has not been lost or illegally sold by some babu unconcerned with art and heritage; or somehow eliminated by one with Khalistani.leanings eager to destroy the evidence for an inconvenient fact: that Guru Nanak was every inch a Hindu.

A very few Indians know about General Baghel Singh (1730-1802). He paid the Islamic fundamentalists in their own coins and made them construct Gurdwaras in Delhi in 1783. He paved the way for self assertion of Indians after the slavery of nine centuries under Islam.

At the formation of the Dal Khalsa in March 1748, Karora Singh, a Virk Jat of village Barki in the district of Lahore, was the head of the misl (Sikh fighting group). About 20 years earlier, Karora Singh had been forcibly converted to Islam by Zakariya Khan’s officials. But after six months he again took pahul (amrit) from Darbara Singh and returned to Sikhism. Since then he became a foe for Mughals. Karora Singh generally confined his activities to south of the Kangra hills. In emergency he could seek shelter in the hills. In 1759, after the death of Adina Beg Khan and by killing his Diwan Bishambar Mal, he seized large territories in Punjab and parts of Delhi. Karora Singh was killed in the battle of Taraori in 1761 against the Nawab of Kunjpura.

Since Karora Singh had no son, he adopted his servant Baghel Singh who succeeded the headship of the misl. Baghel Singh Dhaliwal belonged to village Chabhal, 21 km from Amritsar. He grew into the most powerful Sikh leader in the Cis-Satluj region. He dominated the Sikh politics in this area in last quarter of the 18th century. Baghel Singh had seen the rotten condition of the Mughal empire. His aim was to establish Sikh rule over the Mughal Empire under the nominal suzerainty of Emperor Shah Alam II. The Emperor was inclined to appoint him regent of the Empire. Had he accepted this position, the Sikh rule would have extended up to the Ganga as far south as Mughal Sarai, Bundelkhand, Rajasthan and Sind. He was endowed with the ability and capacity to play a major role in building up the political power of Sikhs over the whole of northern India. As he had risen from extreme poverty and penury and from the position of a domestic servant, the Sikh would not have supported him against Jassa Singh Ahluwalia in such an ambitious scheme. It was with this idea that he persuaded the Sikhs to enter the Red Fort and seated Jassa Singh Ahluwalia on the throne. Baghel Singh remained in charge of capital for the sole purpose of building seven Gurdwaras.

In February 1783, Budha Dal numbering about 60,000 under the leadership of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and Baghel Singh marched towards Delhi. They commenced their depredation in Ghaziabad, 20 km south of Delhi. The Sikh army won whole of northern India including Bulandshahar, Khujra, Aligarh, Hathras, Tundla, Sikohabad, about 241 km from Delhi. They also ransacked Farrukhabad and Sikohabad. From Farrukhabad, they rushed back. They arrived Delhi on March 8, 1783. The enormous booty acquired during this expedition was sent to their homes under the custody of 10,000 men. Just at this time Jassa Singh Ramgarhia arrived Delhi from Hisar. He had been driven out of Punjab by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and others. After devastating the walled city and its suburbs, the Sikhs on March 12, 1783 turned to Red Fort to seize the property of the refugees who had taken shelter there. They stopped before Diwan-e-Aam. Jassa Singh Ahluwalia’s force of 20,000 people desired to place their leader on the throne. By this time, Jassa Singh Ramgarhia arrived on the throne. He demanded immediate withdrawal of Ahluwalia from Diwan-e-Aam. Both sides drew out their swords. Ahluwalia at once got down the throne and ordered his men to vacate the fort. All returned to their respective camps.

The same day, Begham Samru reached Delhi. She had friendly relations with Baghel Singh who had saved her during a Sikh incursion of Mirath. The Emperor gave her full authority to settle terms with the Sikh in order to save the city from further misery and misfortune. She called on Baghel Singh in his camp at Tis Hazari. Jassa Singh Ahluwalia had declined to represent the Budha Dal. This authority was assigned to Baghel Singh. The following terms were settled between her and Baghel Singh and were approved by the Emperor:

‘The Dal Khalsa should retire from Delhi immediately. Baghel Singh would stay in the capital with his 4,000 troops. He would be responsible for maintaining law and order in the city. He would establish his camp in Sabzi Mandi. The Sikhs would not misbehave in any way during their stay in the capital. Baghel Singh would charge six anna (37.5%) of all the octrois in Delhi to meet the expenses for maintaining peace.’

Baghel Singh was allowed to build seven Gurdwaras at the sacred places of the Sikhs. The construction of Gurdwaras was to be finished within a year at the most. In consequence, most of the Sikhs left Delhi. Only Baghel Singh, as the head of 4,000 horsemen, stayed behind. They set up their camp in Sabzi Mandi-Tis Hazari area. Baghel Singh took charge of octroi posts as well as the Kotwali in Chandni Chowk. Five/eighth of the whole collection was daily deposited in the government treasury. Warren Hasting, the governor general, recorded in a minute presented to his council: "While I was in Lucknow, they (Sikhs) carried their depredations to the very suburbs of Delhi, where two of their officers actually reside in a quarter called Subzi Mandi, which is chiefly occupied by shopkeepers, for the double purpose of levying their rauky (which is the name given to that contribution) and of protecting the inhabitants from the marauders of their own nations."

The first Gurdwara was built at Teliwara in the memory of Mata Sundari and Mata Sahib Devi, wives of Guru Gobind Singh. They had lived there for some time. The second Gurdwara was built in Jaisinghpura where Guru Harkishan had stayed. Four tombs were constructed on the bank of the Yamuna at the places of cremation of Guru Harkishan, Mata Sundari, Sata Sahib Devi and Ajit Singh, the adopted son of Mata Sundari. A Gurdwara was constructed there.

There were two places connected with Guru Teg Bahadur. One was at the Kotwali where the Guru was beheaded. The other was at Rakabganj where his headless body was cremated by Lakhi Banjara. At both these places mosques had been built. In order to build Gurdwara, mosques had to be demolished. The Muslims had been most sensitive with regard to their mosques. But their fanaticism had grown weaker before the supremacy of the Sikhs.

Earlier, a small body of Sikhs under Sahib Singh Khondah, a small Sikh chief, visited Delhi. He was there on October 1, 1778. This was the Dussehra day and the Sikhs riding out went to the Guru’s bungalow near Rakabganj, and they demolished the mosque and ravaged the cultivated fields." (Delhi Diarist, anonymous, in Delhi Chronicle, 31).

The diarist further observed that with the departure of the Sikhs, the Muslims again erected the mosque. When Baghel Singh planned to pull down the mosque, the Muslims of the capital grew furious and thousands of them gathered there to save the mosque.

Baghel Singh asked the mob to send their representatives to discuss the matter with him. About one hundred Muslim leaders met him. He gave them a fortnight to declare their final decision. Till then the construction was stopped. He sent his agents to the Cis-Satluj chiefs to be ready for an expedition. The details of which he would supply in a couple of days. He prepared a list of all the Jagirs held by Delhi Muslims in the Ganga-Doab and in the region north of Delhi in the district of Rohtak and Karnal. He marked certain Sardars for certain areas. They entered those villages and created havoc. The leaders finding themselves in ruin waited for Baghel Singh individually and gave in writing that they have no objection to the demolition of the mosque at Rakabganj. He laid the foundation of the Gurdwara before sunrise. The building was soon built.

At the Kotwali, a huge Muslim mob gathered to protect the mosque from demolition. The situation was grave. Baghel Singh did not touch the mosque, and pulled down only a portion of the compound wall which obstructed the construction of the Gurdwara. On its completion a Brahman Sikh was appointed Granthi, and a Jagir was assigned to it.

In the war of Independence in 1857, the Sikhs in general and Raja Sarup Singh of Jind in particular, had rendered help to British Government. The government allowed Sarup Singh to demolish this mosque and extended the Gurdwara in its place.

The sixth Gurdwara was constructed at Majnu Ka Tila where Guru Nanak Dev with Mardana, Guru Hargobind and Ram Rae, son of Guru Har Rae, had stayed. The seventh Gurdwara was raised in Moti Bagh where Guru Gobind Singh had lived. All these seven Gurdwaras were constructed in eight months. The Emperor was pleased with his work. He granted Baghel Singh one/eight of the octroi of Delhi for life. Baghel Singh left Delhi in the beginning of December 1783. The contemporary Khair-ud-Din, secretary to royal princes, called him Raja.

Courtesy: www.voiceofpunjab.wordpress.com
According to Purewal, 80 per cent of the gurdwaras abroad are following the original calendar. He said the problems, which were sorted out in the original calendar, were back now and today’s version was a mixture of both the Nanakshahi and Bikrami Calendars. He blamed “vote-bank politics” for the changes made in the calendar. “It is all politics and no science in the move,” he added. He said all, except for some fringe groups, accepted the 2003 version of the calendar and the Panth should revert to it. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2011/20110218/main7.htm

Former SGPC secretary Manjeet Singh Calcutta and Dal Khalsa secretary-general Kanwarpal Singh Bittu, who were also present, alleged that the RSS was behind these amendments.
The documentary "explores common beliefs, traditions and rituals, comparing similarities and differences that the Asian religions have with the Abrahamic religions. Among those interviewed were Dr. Narinder Singh Kapany, a collector of important religious Sikh art and Dr. Jasbir Singh Kang, prominent Yuba City physician and author of "Punjabi Migration to the United States". http://www.siliconindia.com/shownews/US_...Subscriber

Also interviewed is Dr. Bruce La Brack, Professor of Anthropology and International Studies at University of Pacific and author of "The Sikhs of Northern California" and "Sikhs in the United States".

Kapany's collection, which has been exhibited worldwide and is in the permanent collection at the Asian art museum in San Francisco, is also featured in the documentary.
Khalistanis appear to be supported by Christian missionaries.

[url="http://www.freerepublic.com/tag/*/index"]Free Republic[/url] is an American conservative website. They have numerous articles from the Council of Khalistan.

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