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I didnt know Sanskrit was not really a classical language upto now.. <!--emo&:unsure:--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/unsure.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='unsure.gif' /><!--endemo-->


<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Sanskrit to be accorded classical language status

New Delhi, Oct 28. (PTI): The Union Cabinet on Thursday decided to accord the status of classical language to Sanskrit.

A decision to this effect was taken at a meeting of the Cabinet chaired by Prime Miniser Manmohan Singh.

Briefing reporters after the meeting, Information and Broadcasting Minister S Jaipal Reddy said that earlier Cabinet took a decision to declare Tamil as a classical language and at that time the standard approval was antiquity of 1000 years.

Now the Cabinet has decided to go by the recommendations of the Expert Committee which said the antiquity could be anywhere between 1500 to 2000 years, he said.

Reddy said the Expert Committee suo motu recommended the case of Sanskrit as a classical language, and added that the Cabinet took a decision to revise the standard 1000 antiquity years upto 1500 to 2000 years now.

He said claims have also been made by Kannada and Telugu linguistic groups for inclusion in this category and those claims were being referred to the Expert Committee.

To a question, he said declaration of classical language would facilitate institution of chairs in various universities. <!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
This is a nice source for Samskrita words.
Sanskrit Prosody (From Google Print)
Why Study Sanskrit?
<b>Make Sanskrit India's national language: VHP</b><!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->"Sanskrit should be made the national language of India," Singhal, who was inaugurating a weeklong training camp of VHP workers at Karsewakpuram in Ayodhya, said.

Holding the "policy of secularism" responsible for, what he termed, the "social and political degradation" of Hindus, he said "there seemed to be a deep-rooted plan for another partition of India but VHP will oppose any such attempts."

Singhal blamed the British rulers for creating division in the country on the basis of castes and creeds. Religious leaders have the responsibility to inculcate the sense of unity and integrity among the people, he said.
We have prepared a simple guide to <i><b>vedic svaras</b> </i> in practical vedic recitation (a PDF file):
Vedic svaras
We present a note on the dharma shAstra of the bhArgavas:
<b>bhR^igu smR^iti</b>
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->Venugopalan, K.. A primer in Grantha characters St. Peter, Minn: James H. Nye 1983


Namaskaram and best wishes for 2006.
Venugopalan's book, K.. A Primer in Grantha Characters may be helpful for
those who are trying to learn how to read Grantha.  This book is part of the
Digital South Asia Library, and may be accessed from anywhere in the world.
In order to directly access this book, please copy the following address
into your web address bar:

This should take you directly to the Primer.


Robert D. Evans
Sorry, if this is old (very old) news for this crowd, but google आन्तरजालम् is available in Sanskrit too!

<!--emo&:rocker--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/rocker.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='rocker.gif' /><!--endemo--> <!--emo&:rock--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/rock.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='rock.gif' /><!--endemo-->
k ram,

That link to grantha script primer doesn't work. Could you please correct the link?
Amber, Nice!
The link worked last night.

Also, even just now, when I tried.

Previously it used to take me to some french-study page.

Now it takes me to a page which says it has the grantha script primer. But none of the links to the primer's text work! Something seriously wrong with the website.
<!--QuoteBegin-Ashok Kumar+Jan 5 2006, 12:37 AM-->QUOTE(Ashok Kumar @ Jan 5 2006, 12:37 AM)<!--QuoteEBegin-->Chandramoulee,

Previously it used to take me to some french-study page.

Now it takes me to a page which says it has the grantha script primer.  But none of the links to the primer's text work!  Something seriously wrong with the website.


Sorry for the delay in responding, was out of town.

ANyways, I am having the same problem and sent email to the address listed on the same page...

"This page was last generated on Thursday 9 June 2005 at 12:42 by <b>hall@crl.edu</b>"
Thrissur tops in Sanskrit fete
<!--QuoteBegin-Ashok Kumar+Feb 2 2006, 03:19 AM-->QUOTE(Ashok Kumar @ Feb 2 2006, 03:19 AM)<!--QuoteEBegin--><!--QuoteBegin-AJay+Feb 1 2006, 10:00 PM--><div class='quotetop'>QUOTE(AJay @ Feb 1 2006, 10:00 PM)<!--QuoteEBegin-->The two words ganga and jala make the single words gangAjala. What is the sadnhi rule here<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->
This is an example of samAsa not sandhi. In sandhi words are euphonically joined such that at the junction some sort of deformation takes place. In samAsa many words are combined into a single word by dropping their case-endings (vibhakti). Sandhi occurs for words with their vibhaktis still attached. In samAsa all the intermediate words lose their vibhakti.

In the current example of gangAjala, the original words were "gangAyAH jalam" (ganga's water). In the case of samAsa, gangAyAH loses the ShaShThI vibhakti to become just gangA and is combined with jalam to get "gangAjalam". The name of this type of samAsa is "ShaShThI tatpuruSha samAsa".

If we were to apply sandhi here, the final word would be "gangAYArjalam", the visarga "H" transforms into "r" in sandhi.

This discussion belongs to the sanskrit thread. If we need to continue, lets continue there.

Ashok Kumar

Thanks for the explanation. Is there a beginners' Sanskrit text that you/anybody can suggest? I was thinking of taking the FL univ. course but finally did not register because could not have company.

Re. "ShaShThI tatpuruSha samAsa", I vaguely remember what "ShaShThI vibhatkti" is. Why the "tatpuruSha"?
The "tatpuruSha" is the name of the samAsa. Depending upon which case (vibhakti) you drop you qualify the word tatpuruSha with the name of the vibhakti. ShaShThI vibhakti is the sixth one in the case-tables (shabda-rUpa) and denotes the "sambandha" or relationship. "Ganga's water" means water belongs to gangA and show their relationship and is an example of ShaShThI..

Other samAsa's are : karmadhAraya, bahuvrIhi, dvandva, dvigu

Regarding sanskrit intro in english medium:

U Berkeley has published one in english titled "Deva-vani-pravesika" and is used in many US schools for intro sanskrit:

Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan in Delhi runs some correspondence courses in english too.
Some samAsa's also involve some transformations,especially dvandva.

dvandva samAsa is just a pairing of two words so that words "a and b" become "ab" after samAsa.

"mitrAvaruNa" is a dvandva smAsa form of the words "mitraH cha varuNaH cha" (mitra and varuNa).

But note that the samAsita form has "mitrA" instead of "mitra". Here hrasva "a" gets transformed into dIrgha "A" after samAsa.

A similar transformation is seen in "vishvAmitra".
It actually becomes mitrAvaruNA (that is actual dual with dIrgha vowel in the terminal syllable) as against vishvAmitra which remains singular. These devatA dvandva are particular common in vedic language and standout against the more typical -au dual ending of classical Sanskrit:

The latter two seem to be perfectly reversible whereas the remain ones in the list are never reversible. Thus we have:
We also encounter matarApitarA as against more common classical usages like matApitarau (the classical au ending).
There is a sUktaM of vasiShTha in the maNDala 7 of the RV where there is whole play on such dvandvas in some R^iks .

Vedic dual also has peculiarities like: e.g ashvinA yajavarIr iShaH

note ashvinA as against the classical au ending for dual

Remarkably in Avestan we encounter the dvandva ahurA-mithra which reminds us of mitrAvaruNA.

Thanks! I found the sUkta you were talking about. It is rgveda- mandala 7-sukta 35.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->5356 07_035_01   shaM na <b>indraagnii</b> bhavataamavobhiH shaM na <b>indraavaruNaa</b> raatahavyaa  |  shamindraasomaa suvitaaya shaM yoH shaM na <b>indraapuuShaNaa</b> vaajasaatau  ||
5357 07_035_02   shaM no bhagaH shamu naH shaMso astu shaM naH puraMdhiH shamu santu raayaH  |  shaM naH satyasya suyamasya shaMsaH shaM no aryamaa purujaato astu  ||
5358 07_035_03   shaM no dhaataa shamu dhartaa no astu shaM na uruucii bhavatu svadhaabhiH  |  shaM rodasii bR^ihatii shaM no adriH shaM no devaanaaM suhavaani santu  ||
5359 07_035_04   shaM no agnirjyotiraniiko astu shaM no <b>mitraavaruNaavashvinaa</b> sham |  shaM naH sukR^itaaM sukR^itaani santu shaM na iShiro abhi vaatu vaataH  ||
5360 07_035_05   shaM no <b>dyaavaapR^ithivii</b> puurvahuutau shamantarikShaM dR^ishaye no astu  |  shaM na oShadhiirvanino bhavantu shaM no rajasaspatirastu jiShNuH  ||
5361 07_035_06   shaM na indro vasubhirdevo astu shamaadityebhirvaruNaH sushaMsaH  |  shaM no rudro rudrebhirjalaaShaH shaM nastvaShTaa gnaabhiriha shR^iNotu  ||
5362 07_035_07   shaM naH somo bhavatu brahma shaM naH shaM no graavaaNaH shamu santu yaj~naaH  |  shaM naH svaruuNaammitayo bhavantu shaM naH prasva\kpH shamvastu vediH  ||
5363 07_035_08   shaM naH suurya urucakShaa udetu shaM nashcatasraH pradisho bhavantu  |  shaM naH parvataa dhruvayo bhavantu shaM naH sindhavaH shamu santvaapaH  ||
5364 07_035_09   shaM no aditirbhavatu vratebhiH shaM no bhavantu marutaH svarkaaH  |  shaM no viShNuH shamu puuShaa no astu shaM no bhavitraM shamvastu vaayuH  ||
5365 07_035_10   shaM no devaH savitaa traayamaaNaH shaM no bhavantuuShaso vibhaatiiH  |  shaM naH parjanyo bhavatu prajaabhyaH shaM naH kShetrasya patirastu shambhuH  ||
5366 07_035_11   shaM no devaa <b>vishvadevaa</b> bhavantu shaM sarasvatii saha dhiibhirastu  |  shamabhiShaacaH shamu raatiShaacaH shaM no divyaaH paarthivaaH shaM no apyaaH  ||
5367 07_035_12   shaM naH satyasya patayo bhavantu shaM no arvantaH shamu santu gaavaH  |  shaM na R^ibhavaH sukR^itaH suhastaaH shaM no bhavantu pitaro haveShu  ||
5368 07_035_13   shaM no aja ekapaaddevo astu shaM no .ahirbudhnya\kpH shaM samudraH  |  shaM no apaaM napaatperurastu shaM naH pR^ishnirbhavatu devagopaa  ||
5369 07_035_14   aadityaa rudraa vasavo juShantedambrahma kriyamaaNaM naviiyaH  |  shR^iNvantu no divyaaH paarthivaaso gojaataa uta ye yaj~niyaasaH  ||
5370 07_035_15   ye devaanaaM yaj~niyaa yaj~niyaanaammanoryajatraa amR^itaa R^itaj~naaH  |  te no raasantaamurugaayamadya yuuyampaata svastibhiH sadaa naH  ||
In general mitrAvaruNA type of dvandva appears, but look at 4th R^ichA. It has:

It seems that here mitrAvaruNau + ashvinA is present. Otherwise how do you explain the "v" in the middle viz. mitraavaruNaa"v"ashvinaa?
Another example is "vishvedavA" made from vishva and deva but the "a" at the end of vishva becomes "e".

It is also good to recall that these exceptions occur in vedic Sanskrit which is very archaic from the classical sanskrit point of view.

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