• 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
vasiShTha is also called "maitrAvaruNiH". This suggests that the word is derived from mitrAvaruNa instead of mitrAvaruNA.
True, in vedic the rule is that dual -au form as against the -A form is used only with sandhi-s and in some accusatives. Thus we have:
R^iténa mitrAvaruNAv-R^itAvR^idhAv-R^itaspR^ishA
The pada pATha for it is
R^iténa | mitrAvaruNAu | R^itAvR^idhAu | R^itaspR^ishA ||
So the first two dual nouns become -au while the last one retains the typical vedic -A inflexion because the first two are in appropriate sandhi while the last is naked.

Or compare:
yAsiShTáM vartír ashvinAv írAvat |
=(ashivnau+ írAvat)
daMsánAbhir ashvinA pAráyantA |

In the first case the transforming sandhi is encountered.

So the situation is as if the -au inflexion is cryptic in vedic as against the usually expressed -A form (except for some accusatives).

In we encounter mitrAvaruNayoH (= mitrayor varuNayor) indeed suggesting that in genitive the terminal of the second half is hrasva. I think such a form is related to the maitrAvaruNiH with short a.
HH, Thanks again!

So, mitrAvaruNa, mitravaruNA and mitrAvaruNau all three forms can be assumed to be in use.
Acquiring the atharvaveda either requires you to be born as a scion of the atharvan clan or acquire it through a separate upanayanaM. The key to this new upanayanam is the need for the student to chant the sUktaM known as triShaptIyaM (AV-S 1.1 or AV-P 1.6). Only by chanting the triShaptIyaM does the power of the atharvanic mantras enter him so that he can use them. Thus the triShaptIyaM is also used before commencing practice of atharvanic recitation or svAdhyAyaH. For deploying an atharvanic spell for protection one needs the first mantra of the triShaptiyaM to be recited. In the atharvanic upanayanaM there is a special ritual apparently not seen in other vedic traditions. The father or teacher ties feathers of a shUka (parrot), a sAri (myna) and a kR^isha (Wren warbler) with a yellow string around the students neck. Then these are offered in the sacrificial fire with the triShaptIyaM. In a more gory shaunaka rite of the past the tongues of these birds were similarly tied and offered. This qualifies him to start acquiring atharvanic vidya.
AV-S 1.1
ye triShaptAH pariyanti vishvA rUpANi bibhrataH /
vAchaspatir balA teShAM tanvo adya dadhAtu me //1//
Three times seven that go around, bearing all forms;
let vAchaspati put their powers into my body's [parts]

punar ehi vachaspate devena manasA saha /
vasoShpate ni ramaya mayy evAstu mayi shrutam //2//
Come here again vAchaspati with the mind of the devas;
lord of riches, make it stay in me, in myself the shruti.

ihaivAbhi vi tanUbhe ArtnI iva jyayA /
vAchaspatir ni yachhatu mayy evAstu mayi shrutam //3//
Just here stretch on, like the two ears of the bow with the bowstring;
Let vAchaspati hold in me, in myself the shruti.

upahUto vAchaspatir upAsmAn vAchaspatir hvayatAm /
saM shrutena gamemahi mA shrutena vi rAdhiShi //4//
vAchaspati is called upon, on us let vAchaspati call;
may we united with the shruti and not parted from the shruti.

The key rahasyas here are: the jaws are the Artni-s of the bow (1.1.2) and the vocal cords are the jya or the bow-string.
The first mantra gives the most reduced form of the sounds of saMskR^ita. It is from this most condensed set described as 3*7=21 that all sounds of the shruti are derived by knowning this (as the mantravit-s know it, not the plebeian) one gains the profound insight of the shruti. Hence the kaushika calls it the medhAprajanana mantra.

Thus we have:
1) a -> A
2) i->I
3) u->U
4) R^i->R^I, L^i, L^I
5) e
6) ai
7) o
8) au = all above svara
9) aH=visarga
10) ya, 11) ra, 12) la, 13) va =anthaHstha (half vowels)
14) ka->kha, ga, gha
15) c-> cha, ja, jha
16) T->Tha, Da, Dha->La
17) ta-> tha, da, dha
18) p->pha, ba, bha= all above sparsha
19) sa->sha, Sha = sibilants
20) ha = UShman
21) M->anunAsika+ma, na, Na, ~na, ~Na = nasals

Thus the atharvan tradition condenses all the sounds of Chandas to a set of 21 that are invoked to enter you in the triShaptIya rite. This marks the beginning of Hindu linguistics where the principle of homologous condensation was recognized. This is summed up by pata~njali in his mahAbhAShya thus:
avarNAkR^itir upadiShTA sarvaM avarNa-kulaM grahIShyati, tathevarNAkR^itiH tathovarNAkR^itiH
The theoretical form of the a sound, when being taught, with contain the whole family of a-like sounds, so also with the theoretical forms of i and u sounds. Thus, the principle of homologous reduction stems from the root of the vedic tradition itself and made explicit in atharvanic education.
Sanskrit in English
By Sudhakar Raje
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin-->In South-East Asia the influence of Sanskrit was so strong that it can be seen not only in old inscriptions but also in Sanskrit names for people and places that are still in use, such as in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Burma. In the Middle-East, the present homeland of fundamentalist Islam Sanskrit had an undeniable presence.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin--><b>Sanskrit film to premiere in Jaipur today </b>

Jaipur, Feb. 8 (UNI): In the midst of Bollywood glitz, a Sanskrit film titled '<b>Mudraraksham</b>', is all set to be premiered in Jaipur today.

The film was shot in Jaipur last year. Although its release is still undecided, the film would be premiered here at one of city's oldest and biggest theatre, Rajmandir.

According to the film's director Shyam Soni, it is a tribute to the one of the world's oldest languages Sanskrit and is <b>targeted at movie buffs who believe in a different kind of cinema than the routine Bollywood flicks.</b>

Although the film's dialogues are in Sanskrit, they have been made simple enough for viewers to understand easily, says Soni.

<b>Bharatiya Janata Party legislator, Nathu Singh, plays the lead role<!--QuoteEnd--><!--QuoteEEnd-->.</b>
<!--QuoteBegin-k.ram+Feb 14 2006, 09:59 PM-->QUOTE(k.ram @ Feb 14 2006, 09:59 PM)<!--QuoteEBegin-->Jaipur, Feb. 8 (UNI): In the midst of Bollywood glitz, a Sanskrit film titled '<b>Mudraraksham</b>', is all set to be premiered in Jaipur today.

The movie is Mudra Rakshasam. Here is the video clip about the same.
Mudrarakshasa was play by Bhasa about the signet ring of the Mahapadma Nanda's minister Rakshasa and how Chanakya obtains a sealed letter and compells the former to continue as the Chief Minister for Chandra gupta for the continuity of the state of Magadha after regime change.

If releaxed in US I plan to see it.
Wasn't he Dhananand's (Mahapadma Nand's son) minister Amatya Rakshas a.k.a. Katyayan? Per Chanakya serial...
<!--QuoteBegin-Dev+Feb 14 2006, 05:07 PM-->QUOTE(Dev @ Feb 14 2006, 05:07 PM)<!--QuoteEBegin-->Wasn't he Dhananand's (Mahapadma Nand's son) minister Amatya Rakshas a.k.a. Katyayan? Per Chanakya serial...
He is the charcter played by the BR Chopra's Mahabharata's Dronacharya. You are right about the king.
In that clip which Sunder had posted it was disgusting to see a modern Indian news reader pronounce mudrA-rAkShasaM so horribly. <!--emo&<_<--><img src='style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/dry.gif' border='0' style='vertical-align:middle' alt='dry.gif' /><!--endemo-->
<b>Gaudiya Grantha Mandira:Sanskrit Text Repository </b>

Dev, You are right, His original name was Katayayan but he got the sobriquet Rakshas as e never slept in the course of his duties. He seems to be a modern Home Minister or the Hoe Secretary at the center.

I got this flash that Chanakya's prescription of the Cabinet in modern parlance is really about the Cabinet Secretariet and not the Council of Ministers. So ti does not matter howm any minieters are there but it is essential that the Cabinet Scretariat fulfills the duties that he lays down.
The vijesu in modern paralance is the 'nation state' and not the head of the state.
<b>University of New Mexico's Sanskrit program.</b>

<b>Reading Vedic Sanskrit would have profound effects on the physiology </b>
Research showing that the physiological effects of reading Sanskrit are similar to those experienced during the Transcendental Meditation technique has recently been published in the International Journal of Neuroscience.

Fred Travis, chair of the Department of Psychology and first author of the study, predicted that reading Vedic Sanskrit aloud but without awareness of the meaning would have profound effects on the physiology.

Dr. Travis had his 18 subjects read a passage from the Bhagavad-Gita in Sanskrit and in modern foreign languages (Spanish, French, or German). In each case they could pronounce the sounds but didn't know the meaning. He measured EEG, heart and breath rate, and skin conductance during a session reading the Bhagavad-Gita in Sanskrit, during a session reading the same verse in a modern language, and during a 15-minute session of the Transcendental Meditation technique.

He found that the pattern of skin conductance levels and EEG power and coherence during reading Sanskrit was similar to that during practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique but significantly different from reading a modern language.

Skin conductance levels decreased during reading Sanskrit and the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique, but increased slightly during reading a modern language. EEG power and coherence were both significantly higher during reading Sanskrit and the Transcendental Meditation technique compared to reading a modern language.

Dr. Travis said that the similarity of physiology during reading Sanskrit and the Transcendental Meditation technique is especially noteworthy because one reads with his or her eyes open and engages in active perceptual and cognitive processes, while the Transcendental Meditation technique is done with one's eyes closed and entails a reduction of mental activity. This suggests that the state gained during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique may be integrated with active mental processes by reading Sanskrit.

Dr. Travis also recently contributed a 1,000-word entry on the Transcendental Meditation technique to the Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science. The entry begins with the Vedic tradition and ends with the Maharishi Effect.
<!--QuoteBegin-->QUOTE<!--QuoteEBegin--><b>Revive Sanskrit</b>
Sanskrit has the oldest and richest literature in the world.

First Mantra of Rig Veda (1.1.1) is the first known poem in the world. English language prides having just one Shakespeare. Sanskrit has got thousands of Shakespeares. It is pitiable that the educated Indian knows nothing about them or about Sanskrit.

Sanskrit contains both sacred and temporal writings. After Vedas, Upanishads, Ramayana and Mahabharata, Sanskrit magnificence continued through Bhasa, Kalidas, Bharavi, Magh, Bana, Kalhana, Adi Shankracharya, Chanakya and many others like Bhartirihari and his famous Shatkas. Bharat's Natyashastra and timeless Sanskrit dramas also adorn Sanskrit firmament. Vishnu Prabhakar's didactic fable Panch Tantra guides humans to this day. Panini's Ashtadhyayi is a timeless treatise of Sanskrit Grammar.

Sanskrit contains vast knowledge also about astronomy, astrology and mathematics. And Aryabhatt's Aryabhattiyam can be cited in this regard. Sanskrit also has Ayurveda (medical science) and Dhanur Veda.

And philosophy begins with the hymns of Rig Veda. Sanskrit explains all the six traditional systems of philosophy viz. Nyayah, Vaisheshikam, Sankhyam, Yogah, Mimansa and Vedant. Patanjali's Yoga Sutras are still acting as the lodestar for many travellers of life. These Yoga Sutras describe eight steps to achieve victory of mind over matter. And they are: Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayam, Pratyahar, Dharana, Dhyan and Samadhi.

Sanskrit also describes modern scientific tools discovered by Indian scholars thousands of years ago. Concept of shoonya (zero), concept of earth revolving around the sun, concepts of gravity, gyaamiti (geometry), triknomiti (trignometry), infinity, concept of time ranging from Krati (one 34,000th of a second) to kalpa (1000 maha yugas i.e. billions of years), decimal system: All this knowledge, and much more, is written in Sanskrit.

<b>An impeccable language </b>

Sanskrit is a scientific and systematic language with a perfect grammar. It is computer compatible.

As per Sir William Jones (1746-1794), Sanskrit is "more perfect than Greek, more copious than Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either". Sanskrit is independent, and is not derived from any other language. Sanskrit easily explains complex thoughts in a simple manner. The single theme of 'sublime' permeates Sanskrit literature.

Besides being rich in words (for instance, Sanskrit has got over a hundred synonyms for the word 'water'), Sanskrit is the language of the heart. It has got exact words to describe various human emotions. As per NASA, Sanskrit is "the only unambiguous language on earth". Even translated Sanskrit works have won admiration of scholars all over the world.

<b>Sanskrit will revive Bharat's glory </b>

Macaulayan education has banished Sanskrit from schools and colleges dubbing it as a dead language. But death of Sanskrit means death of Hindu religion, Hindu Sanskriti (culture), Hindu heritage and Hindu identity.

The language which has all along sustained us cannot be allowed to fade away. Sanskrit must be revived and taught in schools and colleges since its survival is a must for survival of Hinduism and for rediscovery of hidden treasures of Bharat Varsha.

As per eminent historian Will Durant (1885-1981), "Civilization is not something inborn or imperishable; it must be acquired anew by every generation, and any serious interruption in its financing or its transmission may bring it to an end."

Mere ritual celebration of 'Sanskrit Day' on Shravani Poornima every year cannot revive lost Sanskrit glory. Only concrete action can restore Sanskrit and enable the present and future generations to know their rich legacy. Mere pious platitudes will not help since even Gods do not help inactive people. As per Rig Veda: 4.33.11, "Na ruteh shrantasya sakhayay devaha" (Gods do not help inactive people).

JG Arora 


<b>Chitrapur math website teaches sanskrit step by step</b>

<b>Prakrits (vernaculars, des'i), Sanskrit and Samskriti of Bhratam Janam</b>
By Dr. Srinivasan Kalyanaraman

Tinyurl: http://tinyurl.com/hmpfl

The emphasis is on recuperating cultural authenticity of the subaltern from Sanskritic hegemony. These attacks against Sanskrit are grounded in the following beliefs:

There has been no connection between Sanskrit and Prakrit (and/or other vernacular languages of South Asia. This is because Sanskrit was entirely elitist and was never a spoken language and there were never any native speakers of it.

Sanskrit has been an effective instrument of creating a civilization (Sanskriti) built on Brahmanical hegemony and domination of the subaltern classes.

Sanskrit is a language of rites and rituals that are devoid of philosophical merit.

Sanskrit does not have the expressive spirit and temper of science and technology. Hence, to make Indians modern they must abandon it.

Sanskrit has no value to non-Hindu traditions. It would compromise secularism.

As a dead language, Sanskrit has no future in the world culture."

These attacks of Sheldon Pollock and Robert Goldman are variants of the attacks on Sanskrit and vernaculars launched by Macaulay when he introduced English education in the early years of the British colonial regime in Bharat. The terminology used is borrowed from two sources: 1. marxists' attack on the 'hegemony' of ruling classes in a universal explanation of history as a class struggle; and 2. christist proselytizers' attack on social discriminations targeting the so-called 'dalit' communities for conversions.

The dishonest nature of the attacks may be seen from the fact that both Sheldon Pollock and Robert Goldman indulge in suggestio falsi and suppressio veri. They suppress the fact that both Vyasa who is the author of the Mahabharata and Valmiki who is the author of the Ramayana are not Brahmins and hence cannot be accused of brahminical hegemony. Vyasa was the son of a fisherwoman. Valmiki was a hunter.
<b>Eternal Relevance of Sanskrit</b>
<i>By V Sadagopan</i>

Tinyurl: http://tinyurl.com/z3xzd
Sanskrit - Step by Step

Forum Jump:

Users browsing this thread: 2 Guest(s)