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Temples: history, architecture and distribution
Added 11/2/2003 - I just changed the title of the thread, since i wanted to avoid thread proliferation

I thought it would be useful to collate information on the various temples of India, information that may be useful for travellers. I am almost certain that no one Indian is aware of the rich bounty and totality of all temples , that still survives from medieval times. Many of course were rebuilt or restored during the British era or after Independence

I found this site to be fairly comprehensive, one which gives a synopsys of each temple that it covers. Obviously these are only medium to large scale temple complexes and do not include small structures which exist in each neighborhood. These temples are a veritable photographers paradise, especially in this age of digital photography


The site has broken down the temples according to deity, as well as by state.

some excerpts

Quote:Abodes of Shiva , is a mega-presentation describing Shiva temples all over India, with emphasis on the 275 temples glorified by the hymns of the Tamil saints of the 1st millennium CE.

Abodes of Vishnu is a special presentation highlighting the 108 temples of Vishnu all over India glorified by the Tamil saints of the 1st millennium CE.

Templenet presents Abodes of Shakti, a presentation featuring  temples dedicated to the worship of Shakti, or the feminine aspect of Divinity.

Abodes of Skanda describes temples and shrines dedicated to Skanda located in Tamilnadu, Kerala and Karnataka.

Templenet presents Abodes of Ganesha, a comprehensive presentation featuring shrines dedicated to the worship of Ganapati the elephant faced God..

Templenet is a premier site conceived and published with the objective of showcasing India - The Land of Temples in cyberspace. Indeed, India is rightfully The Land of Temples, as Egypt is The Land of Pyramids. Thousands of temples dot the landscape of the entire sub continent - bringing to focus, a vibrant - live art gallery, showcasing achievements in art and architecture over a two thousand year period, in a manner never seen in any other part of the world. Regional variations lend dramatic contrasts to lifestyles across the subcontinent, and the stunning variations reflective of this diversity - as  seen in temple styles across the region can be an enthralling experience even to a mildy interested tourist.

In the arena of cyberspace, Templenet presents to the world a  world of temples, reflecting the grandeur and the stunning diversity of temple styles across the nation. At the geographical level, it provides an index to temples by region, where temples are described in detail with approprite illustrations. Sifting legend from history, these descriptions throw complete light on the origin, religious significance, history, architectural and sculptural grandeur, beliefs and legends, worship protocols, festivals and tourism related information. In addition, the various sections on architecture, festivals, beliefs provide a whole range of descriptive articles on related subjects. A glossary of terms acquaints readers with terminology related to temples.

Templenet is an ongoing selective presentation on an extensive research project on Indian temples - sourced, authored and directed by Kanniks Kannikeswaran.
[quote name='Kaushal' date='Sep 28 2003, 01:46 AM'] I thought it would be useful to collate information on the various temples of India, information that may be useful for travellers. [/quote]

I used to use this site: [url="http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/temples/index.htm"]http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/temples/index.htm[/url] for links to temples in Karnataka and/or Goa and found it useful during my travels to India. I look forward to more links/articles on this subject.
some other sites

[url="http://www.indiantemplesportal.com/"]Indian Temples portal[/url]

[url="http://www.spiritualguides.net/spiritual_guides.html"]Spiritual Guides India Travel Guides & Alternative Books[/url]

[url="http://www.india-heritage-travel-tours.com/temples-in-india/"]Temples in India[/url]

A site run by Tirupati Tirumala Devasthanams for the [url="http://www.tirumala.org/"]Tirupati temple[/url]
<img src='http://www.india-forum.com/forums/public/style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/sad.gif' class='bbc_emoticon' alt='Sad' /> <img src='http://www.india-forum.com/forums/public/style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/sad.gif' class='bbc_emoticon' alt='Sad' />

I am not sure if this is relevant to the topic, but it might be as I think, since this is the coninutation of such ignorance of temples, history and the present. If moderators feel it is off the topic, please feel free to take relevant action. Thank you. BTW, I am not the author of this.



The Congress Government of Karnataka headed by Pseudo Secular S.M.Krishna has made another breakthrough in appeasing the Minority Communities in Karnataka. The Government passed a bill in the assembly that All the Private owned Temples and the Temple Comprising of Trustees in Karnataka must pay minimum tax to the Government every year. Failing to which the Authorised people of the temple would be liable and or would be prosecuted. This law is being passed in order to generate income for the development of Madarasas and Provide subsidies to Haj Pilgrims in Karnataka.

Earlier to this the Government was collecting the entire income from all the Government Controlled temples in the state.

We have received few data from the Revenue section of Tourism and Temples Government of Karnataka. I am enclosing the data of Revenue status of last Six years for your references.


Revenue : The Government Received Over 52.35 Crores of Revenue(annually) from 2,64,000 temples in Karnataka

Expenses : 17.33 Crores were given back to 2,64,000 temples for maintainece

9.25 Crores were given for Madarasas Development all over the State

3.00 Crores were given for Church Develoment purpose.

Total : 29.58 Crores was spent and the balance amount of 22.77 was diverted towards Rural and Women Development.


Revenue : The Government Received Over 58.35 Crores of Revenue(annually) from 2,67,073 temples in Karnataka

Expenses : 16.50 Crores were given back to 2,67,073 temples for maintainece

14.25 Crores were given for Madarasas Development all over the State

5.00 Crores were given for Church Develoment purpose.

Total : 35.75 Crores was spent and the balance amount of 22.60 was diverted towards Medical and Health Facilities in Villages and Rural areas.


Revenue : The Government Received Over 65.35 Crores of Revenue(annually) from 2,67,000 temples in Karnataka

Expenses : 15.00 Crores were given back to 2,67,000 temples for maintainece

27.00 Crores were given for Madarasas Development and towards Haj subsidy all over the State

8.00 Crores were given for Church Develoment purpose.

Total : 48.00 Crores was spent and the balance amount of 17.35 (Details N / A).


Revenue : The Government Received Over 69.96 Crores of Revenue(annually) from 2,62,038 temples in Karnataka

Expenses : 13.75 Crores were given back to 2,62,038 temples for maintainece

35.00 Crores were given for Development of Madarasas and Haj Subsidy all over the State

8.00 Crores were given for Church Develoment purpose.

Total : 56.75 Crores was spent and the balance amount of 13.21 reserved towards compensation of Haj Victims.


Revenue : The Government Received Over 71.6 Crores of Revenue(annually) from 2,54,038 temples in Karnataka

Expenses : 11.50 Crores were given back to 2,54,038 temples for maintainece

45.00 Crores were given for Madarasas Development all over the State

10.00 Crores were given for Church Develoment purpose.

Total : 66.50 Crores was spent and the balance amount of 5.1 Crores (N/A)


Revenue : The Government Received Over 72.00 Crores of Revenue(annually) from 2,51,012 temples in Karnataka

Expenses : 10.00 Crores were given back to 2,51,012 temples for maintainece

50.00 Crores were given for Madarasas Development all over the State

10.00 Crores were given for Church Develoment purpose.

Total : 70.00 Crores was spent and the balance amount of 2 Crores (N/A)

It looks like the Congress Government of Karnataka is over concerned about the Madarassas and and Haj Committee, but it has turned a blind eye at the fate of 2.5 lakh Hindu Temples in Karnakata, which is actually under their direct control. If Pseudo Secular Government continues to neglects towards the maintenance and development of these temples for other few years, We will not be surprised to see that over 50,000 Temples will be forced to closed town in next Five years. Karnatka is the 4th State in India of having highest number of Temples, out of which 60% Require immediate financial aid for maintaience.

In regard to this, we made a visit to few ancient temples in Karnakata, We felt very sad seeing the pathetic conditions of the poorly maintained temples by the Government. We had spoken to Few Temples Uttaradhikaris and Priests in Government owned Temple. Each and everyone expressed their displeasure and at the attitude of the Government. They say that they are not receiving any financial aid for day to day maintanence of the temple. They even said that they were employed on salary basis which they are not recieving regularly. Some Priests told us that they have not received salaries for over 6 months period and they are surviving only on collections donated by the devotees by the in the Aarti Plate.

In view of the Coming Lok Sabha elections, the Government would like to appease their precious vote bank by even taxing the individual owned temples in Karnataka to generate more money for Madarassa Development and Haj Subsidy. It is unfortuante that even the Opposition party like the BJP, which has come to Power at the centre on the HINDUTVA Platform has remained quite in this matter. Today If a Hindu or Sikh wishes to visit our Sacred Holy Place in KAILASH MANASASORVAR or the Holy Gurudwara in Pakistan, leave alone subsidy, they are forced to shell out large amount of money to visit their holy shrines.

Few days back, During the Maha Kumbh Mela in Nasik, each Hindu was forced to pay Rs.25/- to Rs.50/- to have a dip in the Holy Sangam. In Maharashtra too the there is a Congress Government and it is the same silent Opposition BJP and Shivsena.

Is anybody seriously concerned about this. The Hindus and their temples have no source of income from any where. They are forced to generate all the finance in India itself. But it is not the same in the case of Muslims and Christians. The Muslims receive aid from Multiple Muslim countries in various forms and The Christians receive bountiful grants in the corrupt form of charities from their Christian Brothers in Vatican city, Europe, America, Australia etc.

To Further appease their Precious Vote bank, What has the Governments in store for Hindus in the Future ?

Tommorow They may collect Taxes from Hindus, If Hindus want to survive in Hindustan.
As a matter of fact this should be posted in the Political debates thread . It is by now wellknown that the money taken from temples is used to fund Madrassahs and churches. But most people are not aware that 80% is being siphoned off for such a purpose. Once it gets into the hands of the madrassahs God knows where it goes from there. One destination is SIMI which seems to be very liberally funded.

But this is what is known as Secularism in India. The Hindu temples are run by the Government, but the Churches and Masjids and madrassahs have total independence. They merely take the money that the Hindu thinks he is donating to the Hindu temple and tell the Government to buzz off. This is not about equal treatment of all religions, it is about the unequal preferential treatment that the Muslims want and then turn around and say that the Hindu is not secular because he opposes this subsidy and gift to the Muslim minority. Did i hear a thank you from anybody. You are welcome.
[quote name='Kaushal' date='Sep 28 2003, 02:23 PM'] As a matter of fact this should be posted in the Political debates thread . It is by now wellknown that the money taken from temples is used to fund Madrassahs and churches. But most people are not aware that 80% is being siphoned off for such a purpose. Once it gets into the hands of the madrassahs God knows where it goes from there. One destination is SIMI which seems to be very liberally funded.

But this is what is known as Secularism in India. The Hindu temples are run by the Government, but the Churches and Masjids and madrassahs have total independence. They merely take the money that the Hindu thinks he is donating to the Hindu temple and tell the Government to buzz off. This is not about equal treatment of all religions, it is about the unequal preferential treatment that the Muslims want and then turn around and say that the Hindu is not secular because he opposes this subsidy and gift to the Muslim minority. Did i hear a thank you from anybody. You are welcome. [/quote]

At the time of independence the system was skewed with no citizen understanding the situation. The Indian state was rigged with a situation which favoured perticular community at the expense of other; instead of a similar arrangement atleast. This is a result of indoctrination of the soceity by the 150 year rule of the british.

Only when the islamic revival started over the last 30 years we see that the Indian waking up to the facts.

The damage to the polity may have already been done to be repaired.
Shri. krk4568:

Very interesting post on diversion of funds from temples. Could you kindly provide the source and author of the article?
some examples of temple architecture

A fine collection of photographs of temple statuary. Note that a fair number have been disfigured or vandalized.

To encourage and promote tourism of these temples it would be worthwhile to post some of the feats of temple architecture or perhaps, a few comments of interesting history that members may have read or come across travelling.

I've been trying to find out where the largest Shiva lingam in the world is located, so far on templenet, found the largest one in South India at

Gangaikonda Choleswarar Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram, where the lingam stands at 4m tall :


heres another in Jammu, the quote :

Ranbireshwar Temple

It is the biggest Shiva temple in North India. Got constructed by the Dogra rulers, this temple has the biggest Lingam of 7 ft. in black stone.


another link with a great picture of the Ranbireshwar temple lingam :


Largest Shiva statue in Bangalore standing at 65 ft tall


Largest hanuman statue outside India in trinidad stands tall at 85 ft (pic)


Largest hanuman in India??
Dear Admin (rhytha?)

Please check your mail re: handle name. Thank you
Dear Prof. Godbole,

I received it from a friend. I have neither the source nor the author of the article. I believe it came from Hindu Mahasabha, but I might be wrong. I apologize.
[quote name='krk4568' date='Oct 2 2003, 09:34 PM'] Dear Admin (rhytha?)

Please check your mail re: handle name. Thank you [/quote]

sorry did'nt get it, can u post it here or mail to admin@india-forum.com with a cc to webmaster@india-forum.com <img src='http://www.india-forum.com/forums/public/style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/smile.gif' class='bbc_emoticon' alt='Smile' />
temple reference centre - mandirnet

Have no URL. Apologize. Just receieved by email.

Pioneer 7th October 2003

Nationalization of the Hindu temple

By Sandhya Jain

There is a growing sense of disquiet in the Hindu community in several parts of the country on the issue of state management of temples, particularly the attitude of certain regimes towards temples well endowed with lands and funds. While sharing the Hindu apprehension that this could cause closure of hundreds of temples, I would like to first express concern at the virtual derailment of the social reform agenda that has been the distinguishing feature of the Hindu community for the past two hundred years.

On Gandhi Jayanti this year, I tried to put my finger on a sense of something missing. I soon realized that secularism and modernism had taken us so far ahead that we were finally spared the hypocritical spectacle of political dignitaries queuing up to clean public toilets previously cleaned by zealous municipal workers. We were also spared platitudes against untouchability, uplift of women, and other issues to which Bapu addressed himself so eloquently. No matter what our present day difficulties with parts of his political legacy may be, on the issue of social reform Mahatma Gandhi was second to none.

Hence the surprise that his agenda merited no affirmation or renewal when it is nobody’s case that we have resolved the problems Gandhi struggled to overcome in his lifetime. This is confirmed by the unease in a section of society in Uttar Pradesh after Mayawati foolishly squandered her government away. I am most disturbed by caste-based rape, disrobing, and other forms of abuse of women, which is intended to humiliate families and communities. I also find it unacceptable that upper caste Hindus distance themselves from these atrocities by pinning the blame for such incidents on a certain social stratum. This is too clever by half. So long as caste-based discrimination persists in Hindu society, all Hindus will have to be concerned about it.

Temple entry is another issue we have to face. Despite laws, decades of sensitization and awareness, we still find Dalits being beaten for entering a village temple. We must end forthwith this negation of the very humanity and dignity of fellow beings. Until we do so, we lack a cast-iron case against State encroachment in the religious realm. Temples that prevent free access to citizens espousing the same religion cannot in justice claim the freedom to manage their affairs without let or hindrance.

Having said that we may in fairness examine some of the issues agitating Hindus in different parts of the country. There is some unrest over a Karnataka bill whereby private or trust-run temples must pay a minimum tax. But what is truly upsetting the community is the use of income collected from Government-controlled temples. One does not know that veracity of the allegations, but they are serious enough to merit a public debate.

It has, for instance, been claimed that in 1997, the Karnataka Government received a revenue of Rs. 52.35 crores from 2,64,000 temples. Of this, Rs. 17.33 crores was returned to the temples for maintenance; Rs 9.25 crores allocated for madrasa development and Rs. 3 crores for church development. The balance Rs. 22.77 crores was diverted towards government programmes. The situation was much the same in 1998. However, in 1999, it is alleged, the State collected Rs. 65.35 crores in revenue; gave Rs. 15 crores for temple maintenance; and diverted Rs. 27 crores madrasa development and Haj subsidy and Rs. 8 crores for church development. No details were available about the use of the balance Rs. 17.35 crores.

In 2000, the temples generated a revenue of Rs. 69.96 crores, but received only Rs. 13.75 crores for maintenance. The madrasa-Haj subsidy rose to Rs. 35 crores. In 2001, temple revenue further rose to Rs. 71.60 crores, while maintenance grants shrank to Rs. 11.50 crores, and madrasa development funds rose to Rs. 45 crores. Church development received Rs. 10 crores. In 2002, the State received Rs. 72 crores as revenue, returned Rs. 10 crores for temple maintenance, and granted Rs. 50 crores for madrasas and Rs. 10 crores for churches.

Hindu friends protest that this studied neglect of temples under the direct control of the State Government could cause as many as 50,000 of the 2.6 lakh temples in Karnataka to close down within five years. Many ancient temples are in an extremely poor condition, and managements and priests carp at inadequate funds. Even salaries are not disbursed regularly, and priests are forced to survive on donations made by devotees in the arti plate.

In neighbouring Andhra Pradesh, the State Government withdrew a demand for Rs. 36 crores from the Sri Venkateshwara Temple at Tirupati in July after a public furore and litigation in the High Court. There is, however, a move to take away temple lands and distribute them among poorer sections in the name of social justice. Around three thousand acres of temple lands have been identified for takeover. Yet, government sources themselves admit that nearly 80 percent of the State’s temples have no income other than that received from the vested lands. Thus, once the lands are seized, many temples may fail to conduct daily puja. What is more, the Andhra Government has failed to pay Rs. 28 crores compensation towards temple lands previously acquired for building bus terminals, police stations, and other public utilities.

There can be little doubt that this is a grossly unfair situation. Many issues are involved here. To begin with, state presence in the management of Hindu temples makes a mockery of the separation of religion and state. But even worse, it militates against the fundamental right to freedom of religion because State intervention is creating obstacles in the functioning of temples by depriving them of their legitimate funds and putting their very existence in jeopardy. This is an act of cultural vandalism, consistent with the agenda of a Communist State; the respective State Governments should therefore clarify their political ideology and agenda.

It is suspected that there is a purpose to this de facto nationalization of Hindu temples. The strong economic foundations of temples are being bled to support activities inconsistent with the legitimate goals of Hindu dharma, which is what the Haj subsidy, madrasa and church development, must be acknowledged to be. These monotheistic creeds are not only at variance with Hindu dharma, but their very raison d’etre is expansion by the eradication of Hindu dharma and culture. Hence, when the State acts in a blatantly partisan manner to promote these faiths, the adherents of Hindu dharma certainly have a genuine grievance.

Above all, at a time when Governments are rushing to abandon the commanding heights of the economy, State presence in the management of places of worship is incongruous to say the least. Hindu temples were once great centers of learning, and even today illustrious spiritual leaders like Sri Sathya Sai Baba and Amritanandmayi Ma have inspired magnificent medical and educational institutions through community service. The argument that the managements of cash-rich temples are necessarily corrupt and need regulation is simply irresponsible and arrogant, especially when it is the established corruption of state-controlled managements that is prompting Central and State Governments alike to shed equity in the public sector! It is high time the State similarly retreated from the temple precincts.

End of matter
The diversion of funds and the lack of adequate repair of temples coupled with the lack of funds for pujaris is disturbing to say the least!

On various counts there just seems to be a lackadaisical approach when it comes to such matters...,we fund for free Haj pilgrimage trips, the growth of their madrassahs where increasingly seeds of islamism are taking root while we impose fees on Hindus to bathe, and not a word in the media. Some measure off the top of my head, can't we

1) register all pujaris nationwide on an ID card system, to claim their salary from the local post office. Are they education centres for pujaris?

2) Have states should be responsible for maintainence of their temples and budgets should be allocated as such? Its a disgrace to have ancient temples run into disrepair in India and here i am wondering if perhaps we might be able to fund for reconstruction out of India.
Taking Away Hindus' Rights To Their Own Temples


Dhananjay Mathur

Taking Away Hindus' Rights To Their Own Temples

On October 15, 1999, a historical court decision which portends ominous implications for the days ahead was handed own as a true miscarriage of justice in Kerala. As an allegory imagine if Satan worshippers were given full control and power to appoint administrators of the Catholic Church. That in essence is the ridiculous import of the Kerala High court's latest decision.

It all started when the Vishwa Hindu Parishad and the Kerala Shethra Samrakshana Samiti [Kerala Temple Protection Council], filed a petition seeking that irreligious Hindu politicians and ministers be banned from temple administration. This is quite a logical plea considering that earlier this year the Communist government which is composed of vehement anti Hindu members amended the Travancore-Cochin Hindu Religious Institution Act. The Act used to require every minister or MLA who could elect members to the temple's administration boards, to sign a declaration which clearly showed that they believe in god and temple worship . This requirement makes a lot of sense when we consider the fact that the State Government doesn't have even an iota of say in the administration of Churches and Mosques. It is quite logical and justifiable therefore that Hindus were angered at being forced to turn over their temples' administration to politicians who are downright hostile to Hinduism and demean it at every opportunity.

There is no doubt that this malicious decision to remove that particular requirement from the Act was done purposely by the Communist Government in a blatant attempt to take away the Hindus' rights to even administer their own temples! It also ensured that the ruling government filled up vacancies in rich temple bodies with its own men so that the funds contributed by Hindu devotees would be subverted and be poured into the Communist Government's coffers. Those diverted funds then would obviously be used to create even more hostile propaganda against Hindus!

VHP and KSSS leaders were therefore forced to approach the court for religious justice as some of the biggest places of worship like the Guruvayur and Sabarimala temples have been systematically mismanaged and misused by atheist politicians from Communist parties. VHP general secretary R Ravindran had made the press statement to Rediff magazine that "It is an insult to Hinduism that temples are managed by ministers and politicians who hate god and temple worship. No politician has any right to indulge in religious and temple matters of the Hindu believers"

The plea asked the court to ensure that only those Hindu ministers and MLAs who believed in god and temple worship are given the power to nominate members to temple managing boards. This sounds like an eminently reasonable and rational request. For example drawing a parallel with Islamic institutions in India today would be unthinkable. If the Kerala State Government has the right to appoint administrators for Temples, why can it not do the same with Mosques, Churches or Synagogues? Why are Hindus being made the ultimate scapegoats here?

The Communist government's argument was that since freedom of thought was the hallmark of Hindu religion, Hindus also have the right not to believe in god and temple worship. That could not be a reason for denying the Hindu ministers the right to choose or nominate members to the administrative bodies religious institutions. This ridiculous claim is tantamount to saying that even Communists are Hindus! By definition Communism does not believe in religion therefore how could politicians from a Communist government be treated as Hindus!! The idea is obviously to obfuscate the definition of Hinduism and make it look so vague as to justify that it incorporates anything. The government counsel Ashok Desai also contended that the duties of managing committee members were purely administrative in character and did not touch upon the traditional religious duties of temples.

This is another ridiculous argument, as it is the administrative management of the temple which has control of resources and finances. If the control of the money is in the hands of the Communist politicians then what can stop them from dictating the parameters of religious rituals or confining them altogether?

The five-member high court bench led by Justice A R Lakshmanan was obviously not interested in meting out justice for after having perused the Travancore-Cochin Hindu Religious Act, it dismissed the VHP-KSSS petition stating that the Hindu ministers and MLAs need not be practitioners of Hindu faith!

The shocking verdict of the bench stated that "The freedom of religion guaranteed by Article 25 of the Constitution was not an uncontrolled freedom," This statement by itself reveals the politically motivated and biased attitude of the Bench! For going by the Court's own definition of "uncontrolled religious freedom", it would seem that the Muslims and Christians of India are entitled to it, but NOT the Hindus. The same rules should then apply to Mosque and Church administration as well. Why should Hindus be the only ones made to relinquish their rights to control their religious institutions.

In a truly ironic statement the Court stated that "The religious freedom which has been safe-guarded by the Act is religious freedom in the background of a secular state. Courts have held that the administration of a religion institution is not a matter of religion. The state can control and regulate the administration of the secular affairs of a temple by suitable measures." Note that the reference is clearly made in the context of TEMPLES and not just religious institutions of any type.

A disappointed KSSS president M P Gopalakirshnan Nair, in his press statement to Rediff magazine, lamented the fact that the verdict would enable many Marxist ministers and politicians to freely interfere and influence the running of temple management boards. "The court order also neglects the rules of temples boards. For instance, the Guruvayur Devaswom Act states that only persons who have faith in god and professes Hindu religion are qualified to manage its affairs. Therefore the judgment is fraught with danger for the believers of Hinduism as a bunch of hardcore atheist communists have begun occupying temples boards." The VHP too is "saddened" by the judgment that gives a free hand to the government to interfere in temples and their properties across the state. "We are planning to move the Supreme Court," VHP spokesperson Ravindran added.

The implications of this decision are truly immense, for it clearly infers that Hindus can their rights to administer their temples snatched away from under their very noses! In the name of secularism, the majority community of India is being subjected to extreme injustice and inequity. It is imperative that Hindus all over India recognize the importance of this decision and wholeheartedly express their outrage. If by chance the Supreme Court upholds this incredibly unjust decision then the first blow to their identity will have been made.

The Kerala High Court's decision is by no means a small matter it is the symbol of the growing trend of deliberate emasculation and diminishing of the rights of Hindus to practice their religion without interference. It is imperative that steps are taken to block this type of utter discrimination because it is obvious that the same standard is NOT being applied to all religions equally in the interests of India's so called "secularism"

If Hindus do not rise to the occasion and defend themselves selves against such incidents of blatant injustice aimed at weakening them, the fate of India, a nation which has since time immemorial been synonymous as the upholder of Vedic Dharma, will be in grave danger.

If you enjoyed this article, please visit: [url="http://www.hinduunity.org/"]http://www.hinduunity.org/[/url]
Guruvayurappan temple to come up in Chicago [url="http://www.newindpress.com/Newsitems.asp?ID=IER20031106142140&Title=Kerala&Topic=0"]http://www.newindpress.com/Newsitems.asp?I...=Kerala&Topic=0[/url]

KOLLAM: A Guruvayurappan temple will be constructed soon in Chicago, US-based R K Foundation chairman Radhakrishnan Nair told a news conference here on Thursday.

Forty acres of land has been acquired in the heart of Chicago city for the proposed temple. Besides the temple, the complex will contain a pond, a banquet hall, an auditorium and accommodation facilities for the devotees.

The government has given its sanction for the construction of the temple. The project will be completed at a cost of Rs 40 crore. The R K Foundation will bear the cost of construction.

All poojas, including Vaakachaarth and Seeveli Ezhunnallathu will be performed in the tradition being followed at the Sreekrishna Temple at Guruvayur. The temple pooja system will be fixed according to the instructions given by Guruvayur Tantri Kesavan Namboodiri. All the Tantris of the temple will be Malayalees.

Radhakrishnan Nair said that the construction of the temple would be the realisation of a dream of the devotees of Lord Guruvayurappan and the westerners who had visited the Sreekrishna temple at Guruvayur.

There were several temples dedicated to Lord Venkateswara, Lord Ram and Lord Satya Narayana in the US. But the proposed temple at Chicago will be the first Guruvayoorappan temple there, he said.

There are only around 1000 Hindus in the 30,000-odd Malayalee population in the Illinois State. But all people were cooperating with the venture, he said.

Radhakrishnan Nair, native of Ettumannur and nephew of the late Karoor Neelakanda Pillai, is living in the US for the last 32 years. He is one of the leading businessman there. His wife is a medical practitioner. He founded the R K Foundation for charitable work.

The Foundation will sponsor the silver jubilee conference of AKMG, the organisation of the Malayalee doctors working in the US. The conference is scheduled to be held in July next year. Several Malayalam movie artists and experts would participate in it. The Foundation will donate the income from the conference for computerising the laboratories at the Medical Colleges in the State, Nair said.

Foundation Trustee and former KMML managing director P S Nair was also present at the news conference.

Nearly 40 years after the Cambridge University archaeological

expedition led by Stewart Wavell, when had then just retired from

Radio Malaya, found evidence of an underground city in Lake Chini,

the Pahang government is to mount a search for that city. That the

statement was made by the state culture, arts and tourism

chairman, Dato' Shahiruddin Abdul Moin, necessarily points to why

this is now mooted. It would bring tourists in droves, not

because we want to found out about our past. "Who knows, one day

we may have an underwater museum similar to the one being planned

in Egypt and this will greatly boost our efforts to promote Pahang

as a leading tourist destination." Indeed.

And, of course, Mr Wavell and others only made claims after

they went to the site. Depend on Bolehland experts to come up with

the answers without going there. The point about Lake Chini --

where, according to Mr Wavell, in his "Naga King's Daughter", a

record of the expedition, which eventually found the general area

of the Langkasuka capital in southern Thailand, a fact confirmed

by a subsequent archaelogocial expedition mounted by another

archeologist much involved in Malaysian excavations since the

mid-1920s, Mr H.G. Quaritch Wales, he who, with Mr K. Nilakanta

Sastri of India, excavated the Chandi Bukit in the Bujang Valley in

the 1920a -- is that there is evidence of a kingdom, but the

suggestion had not been taken up until tourism beckoned. But Dato'

Shahiruddin does not realise that the excavation would not be a

Sunday school picnic, but would require massive resources in which

the federal government must be actively involved, and the federal

government representative should not be the culture arts and

tourist minister but the national museum and archeological


Despite Dato' Shahiruddin's claim, that the Khmer Empire had

established themselves in the general area of Lake Chini is

accepted. There are many words spoken by the aborigines in the

area which are also spoken in Khmer but not in Malay. And it is

not only the Khmer Empire that once existed in the area.

Tembiling is said to be a corruption of Tambralinga, the name of

another Hindu-Buddhist empire in the area. Bujang, as in Bujang

River, is a corruption of Bhujjangga, in Malay Sanskrit parlance a

snake but more likely, as one Sang Kancillian pointed out after an

earlier post of mine, a dragon.

The Naga King is a snake but could also mean a dragon, if one

extrapolates the earlier corruption of meaning. That it is the

Naga King's daughter who is worshipped in Lake Chini in times past

could mean the worship of the female principle in Hinduism, Sakhti,

or, as is possible, the female principle of Saivism, which held

much sway in those times, and could well be Parvati, the daughter

of Parvatham, the Himalaya Mountain. But since Hindu-Bhuddhist --

actually Saivite Hindu-Buddhist, since Vishnuvaist Hindu made little

headway outside India -- syncretism after their export, there was a

mixing of myths and legends and practices -- something one finds

aplenty in Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos though not in

Myanmar -- the Naga King's daughter could well be a Khmer


The rich tradition in Malaysia's past is deliberately ignored.

But a newer generation of Malaysians, insisting that one must know

the past to look to the future, quietly changes the national

perception that anything pre-Islamic should be ignored. This

necessarily has meant that we shudder at having to come to terms

with archaelogical evidence that suggests it. Not too long ago, a

Hindu temple which some claim existed, in several reincarnations,

since at least the 7th century was desecrated and destroyed in Gunong

Jerai in Kedah. It is to the credit of its mentri besar that he

ordered the temple rebuilt with government help. That temple also

provided a beacon for travellers from the Coromandel coast for more

than two millennia, which Claudius Ptolemy noted in the AD 3rd

century when he talked of the greating trading centre at the mouth of

what is today the Merbok River, somewhat like the Takkola Emporium

further up the Myanmar coast.

And there is another rich source to be excavated in the area

near Bruas, where remnants of a pre-Christian Hindu empire called

Ganganegara -- the Kingdom of Ganga -- have been found, but the

national inhibition at the existence of a pre-Islamic past hinders

further exploration. Apart from filling about 12 inches of

newspaper space, little would come out of Dato' Shahiruddin's claim

that the Pahang government "is to undertake the enormous task of

unravelling the mystery of the legendary lost city."

M.G.G. Pillai

[url="http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3260637.stm"]Pakistani Hindu temple faces demolition[/url]: :furious

A 150-year-old Hindu temple in the Pakistani city of Peshawar has become the focus of a property dispute involving the army.

[Image: _39555883_peshawartemple203.jpg]

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